Surrender is the only means to chant the pure Holy Name.

By Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur

The following conversation in which Srila Haridas Thakur completes his explanation to Sriman Mahaprabhu of the ten offences to the Name is recored in chapter thirteen of Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur’s Sri Hari-nama-chintamani.

srute ’pi nama-mahatmye yah priti-rahito ’dhamah
aham-mamadi-paramo namni so ’py aparadha-krt

“One who, even after hearing the glories of the Name, has no love for the Name and remains degraded and engrossed in “I” and “mine” is an offender of the Name.”

gadai gauranga jaya jahnava jivana
sitadvaita jaya jaya gaura-bhakta-jana [1]

All glory to Gadadhar, Gauranga, the life of Jahnava, Sita’s Advaita, and all the devotees of the Lord!

preme gada gada haridasa mahasaya
sesa nama aparadha prabhu-pade kaya [2]

Stammering in divine love at the feet of the Lord, Srila Haridas Thakur described the last offence to the Name.

suna prabhu ei aparadha sarvadhama
ei dose nama-prema na haya udgama [3]

“O Lord, please hear about this offence, which is the worst of all. Because of it, divine love for the Name does not develop.

Commentary: Although initiated, primarily materialistic people conceive of the material body in terms of “I” and “mine”, and fall from the path of devotion. “I am a brahman. I am a Vaisnava. I am a king. This is my body. This is my house. These are my children and grandchildren. This is my wealth. These are my companions.” Because of this sort of egotism, one does not develop the tendency to serve the Name. Such egotism is a very fearsome offence and stops only when one surrenders to the Name.

name saranapattira prayojaniyata: the necessity of surrendering to the Name

anya naya aparadha kariya varjjana
namete saranapanna ha-ibe sajjana [4]

“Having given up the other nine offences, a sincere soul should surrender to the Name.

sad-vidha saranagati sarva-sastre kaya
vistarita balite amara sadhya naya [5]

“All the scriptures describe the six limbs of surrender. I am not able to speak about them elaborately.

saranapattira prakara: the limbs of surrender

samksepe charane tava kari nivedana
anukulye sankalpa pratikulya visarjana [6] krsne raksakari buddhi palaka bhavana
nije dina-buddhi ara atma-nivedana [7]

“At Your feet, I will briefly describe them: (1) accepting the favourable, (2) rejecting the unfavourable, (3) considering Krsna one’s protector, (4) feeling Him to be one’s guardian, (5) considering oneself lowly, and (6) offering oneself.

Commentary: “In life, I will accept only things that are favourable to devotion.” Such a vow is acceptance of the favourable. “I will avoid things that are unfavourable to devotion.” Such a vow is rejection of the unfavourable.

e jivana na rahile na haya bhajana
jivana-raksaya matra visaya grahana [8]

“If this life does not continue, then I won’t be able to serve. So, only to maintain my life, I accept material things.

bhakti-anukula ye visaya yata-ksana
tahe rochamana vrttye jivana yapana [9]

“I pass my life with interest only in things and times that are favourable to devotion.

Commentary: ‘Interest’ (rochamana vrtti) means a mood that is favourable to developing taste for Krsna.

bhakti-pratikula ye visaye yabe haya
tahate aruchi taha varjibe nischaya [10]

“When something becomes unfavourable to devotion, I have no taste for it and reject it.

krsna vina raksa-karta nahi keha ara
krsna se palaka matra janibe amara [11]

“I know that there is no protector other than Krsna, and that Krsna is my only guardian.

ami dina akinchana sakalera chhara
adhama durgata kichhu nahika amara [12]

“I am lowly, poor, worse than everyone else, fallen, and unfortunate. I have nothing.

krsnera samsare ami achhi chira dasa
krsna ichchha-mata kriya amara prayasa [13]

“I am an eternal servant in Krsna’s family, and my only endeavour is to act according to Krsna’s will.

ami karta ami data ami palayita
amara e deha geha santana vanita [14] ami vipra ami sudra ami pita pati
ami raja ami praja santanera gati [15] ei saba buddhi chhadi’ krsne kari mati
krsna karta krsna ichchha matra balavati [16]

“I am a doer. I am a giver. I am a maintainer. This my body. This is my house. This is my wife. There are my children. I am a brahman. I am a labourer. I am a father. I am a husband. I am a king. I am a subject. I am the guardian of my children.” I reject all these conceptions and think only of Krsna. Krsna is the doer, and His will alone is all-powerful.

krsnera ye haya ichchha tahai kariba
nija ichchha anusare kichhu na chintiba [17]

“Whatever Krsna wants, I will do, and I will not think about anything according to my own will.

krsna ichchha-mate haya amara samsara
krsna ichchha-mate ami ha-i bhava-para [18]

“My bondage exists by Krsna’s will, and I will be delivered from this world by Krsna’a will.

duhkhe thaki’ sukhe thaki’ ami krsna-dasa
krsnechchhaya sarva-jive dayara prakasa [19]

“Whether I am sad or happy, I am Krsna’s servant. By His will, I can be kind to all souls.

mama bhoga karma-bhoga krsna ichchha-mata
amara vairagya krsna ichchha anugata [20]

“My experience, my experience of my karma, takes place according to Krsna’s will. My detachment is also dependent on Krsna’s will.’

Commentary: My experience of my karma in this world and my detachment both depend on Krsna’a will.

saranapatti ha-ile atma-nivedana haya: when one surrenders, one offers oneself

sarala bhavete yabe ei bhava haya
atma-nivedana tare bali mahasaya [21]

“O Lord, when sincerely this mood develops, we call it ’offering oneself’ (atma-nivedan).

saranapatti vyatita namasraye yaha haya: what happens when one chants the Name without surrendering

sad-vidha saranagati nahika yahara
se adhama aham-mama-buddhi-dose chhara [22]

“A fallen soul who does not surrender in the sixfold way is degraded by the fault of having the mentality of ‘I’ and ‘mine’.

se bale ami ta karta samsara amara
nija-karma phala-bhoga sukha duhkha ara [23]

“They think, ‘I am a doer, and this is my family. I experience happiness and sadness as a result of my own actions.

amara raksaka ami, ami ta palaka
amara vanita bhrata balika balaka [24]

“‘I am my own protector, and I am the maintainer of my wife, brothers, daughters, and sons.

ami ta arjana kari amara chestaya
sarva karya siddha haya sarva sobha paya [25]

“‘I earn by my own efforts, and thereby everything is successful and beautiful.’

aham-mama-buddhi-krame bahirmukha jana
nija jnana bale bahu karaye manana [26]

“By the influence the mentality of ‘I’ and ‘mine’, souls who are averse to the Lord attribute great importance to their own knowledge.

sei jnana bale silpa vijnana vistare
isvarera isita na mane dustachare [27]

“They develop the arts and sciences with their knowledge, but, as a result of their sinful behaviour, they do not recognise the mastery of the Lord.

Commentary: Averse souls think, “With our intelligence, by developing the arts and sciences, we are increasing our happiness.” They never remember that in actuality everything happens by the will of Krsna.

sri-nama-mahatmya suni visvasa na kare
loka-vyavahare kabhu krsna-namochchare [28]

“They hear the glories of the Name but do not have faith, though they may sometimes chant the Name of Krsna according to social customs.

krsna-nama kare tabu nahi paya priti
dharma-dhvaji satha-jana jivane e riti [29]

“They chant the Name of Krsna, but still do not develop love. Such is the custom in the lives of those who are deceitful and hypocritically religious.

helaya uchchare nama kichhu punya haya
priti-phala nahi phale sarva sastre kaya [30]

“All the scriptures state that by negligently chanting the Name, one acquires some piety, but love, the proper result, does not develop.

ihara mula ki ?: what is the reason for this?

maya-baddha haite ei aparadha haya
ihate niskrti-labha kathina nischaya [31]

“This offence is caused by bondage within illusion. It is certainly very difficult to become free from it.

ei dosa tyagera upaya: the way to give up this offence

suddha-bhakti-phale yara virakti ha-ila
samsara chhadiya sei namasraya nila [32]

niskinchana-bhave bhaje sri-krsna-charana
visaya chhadiya kare nama-sankirtana [33]

sei sadhu-jane anvesiya tara sanga
karibe sevibe chhadi visaya-taranga [34]

“Search for a sadhu who, as a result of pure devotion, has become detached, left material existence behind, and taken shelter of the Name, a sadhu who serves Sri Krsna’s feet as a surrendered soul, avoids material affairs, and chants the Name. Associate with and serve such a sadhu, avoiding the waves of material affairs.

krame krame name mati ha-ibe sanchara
ahamta-mamata yabe maya habe para [35]

“Gradually, your mind will become absorbed in the Name, your mentality of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ will go away, and you will cross over illusion.

namera mahatmya suni aham-mama-bhava
chhadiya saranagati bhaktera svabhava [36]

“Upon hearing the glories of the Name, it is the nature of a devotee to give up the mentality of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ and surrender.

namera saranagata yei mahajana
krsna-nama kare paya prema-mahadhana [37]

“A great soul who is surrendered to Krsna’s Name chants the Name and attains the supreme wealth of divine love.

dasaparadha sunya vyaktira laksana: the characteristics of one who is free from the ten offences

ataeva sadhu-ninda yatane chhadiya
para-tattva visnu suddha-manete janiya [38]

nama-guru nama-sastra sarvottama jani’
visuddha chinmaya nama hrdayete mani’ [39]

papa-sprha papa-bija tyajiya yatane
prachariya suddha-nama sraddhanvita-jane [40]

anya-subha-karma haite la-iya virama
smare ye saranagata apramade nama [41]

“Therefore, carefully avoiding criticism of sadhus, knowing within the pure heart that Visnu is supreme, considering the Guru and the scriptures that teach the Name to be the highest of all, understanding within the heart that the Name is completely pure and spiritual, carefully giving up the desire for sin—the seed of sin, teaching faithful souls about the pure Name, and taking leave of all pious works—a surrendered soul who remembers the Name in this way, free from distraction …

niraparadhe nama la-ile alpa dine bhavodaya haya: if one takes the Name without offence, one’s true nature quickly arises

sei dhanya tri-jagate sei bhagyavan
krsna krpa yogya sei gunera nidana [42]

“… is glorious throughout the three worlds. They are fortunate, worthy of Krsna’s mercy, and a reservoir of virtues.

Commentary: One does not attain everything simply by giving up the ten offences. There are ten actions to counteract the ten offences, and these must also be performed. These are indicated by the instruction to give up the offences.

ati alpa-dine tara sri-nama-granane
bhavodaya haya ara paya prema-dhane [43]

“Within a very short time, their true nature arises through their chanting of the Name, and they attain the wealth of divine love.

unnati-krama: stages of development

evambhuta janera sadhana-dasa-praya
ati svalpa dine yaya krsnera ichchhaya [44]

bhava-dasa haite haite prema-dasa haya
prema-dasa sarva-siddhi sarva-sastra kaya [45]

“By the will of Krsna, such a soul very quickly passes through the stage of practice and reaches the stages of feeling and love. All the scriptures say that the stage of divine love is the highest perfection.

Commentary: If one takes shelter of the Name according to the instructions of Sri Haridas Thakur, one will pass through the the stage of practice (sadhana) very quickly.

tumi baliyachha nama yei mahajana
la-ibe niraparadhe pabe prema-dhana [46]

“You have said that a great soul who chants the Name without offence will attain the wealth of divine love.

vyatireka bhave ihara chinta: think of this in the opposite way

aparadha nahi chhadi’ nama yadi laya
sahasra-sadhane tara bhakti nahi haya [47]

“If one chants the Name but does not give up the offences, then even by thousands of practices, one will not attain devotion.

jnane mukti, karme bhukti, jnani-karmi-jane
sudurlabha krsna-bhakti nirmala-sadhane [48]

“Liberation is attained through knowledge, and enjoyment through action, but it is very difficult for liberationists and materialists to attain devotion to Krsna even through pure practice.

bhukti-mukti sukti-sama bhakti mukta-phala
jivera mahima—bhaki-prapti sunirmala [49]

“Enjoyment and liberation are like oysters; devotion is like a pearl. The glory of the soul is in attaining spotlessly pure devotion.

sadhane naipunya-yoge atyalpa-sadhane
bhakti-lata prema-phala dena bhakta-jane [50]

“When devotees engage in practice expertly, the creeper of a devotion gives them the fruit of divine love after very little practice.

Commentary: If devotees engage in practice expertly, they attain divine love, the fruit of the creeper of devotion.

bhajana-naipunya: expertise in service

dasa-aparadha chhadi’ namera grahana
ihai naipunya haya sadhane bhajane [51]

“Chanting the Name avoiding the ten offences is expertise in practice and service.

namaparadhera guruta: the heaviness of offences to the Name

ataeva bhakti-labhe yadi lobha haya
dasa-aparadha chhadi’ kari’ namasraya [52]

eka eka aparadha satarka ha-iya
yatanete chhadi’ chitte vilapa kariya [53]

namera charane kari’ drdha nivedana
nama-krpa hale aparadha vidhvamsana [54]

“Therefore, if one wants to attain devotion, then one should give up the ten offences, take shelter of the Name, be cautious about each of the offences, lament at heart for being negligent about them, and firmly surrender to the feet of the Name; when the Name is merciful to them, their offences will be destroyed.

anya-subha-karme nama-aparadha-ksaya
kona prayaschitta-yoge kabhu nahi haya [55]

“The offences to the Name are never destroyed by other pious works or any act of atonement.

namaparadha parityagera upaya: the way to give up the offences to the Name

avisranta name nama-aparadha yaya
tahe aparadha kabhu sthana nahi paya [56]

“By incessantly chanting the Name, the offences to the Name go away, and never again find any place within the chanter.

Commentary: Incessant chanting of the Name means if one earnestly chants the Name at all times, excluding only the period of rest needed to perform one’s daily activities, then the offences to the Name will be destroyed. The offences the Name are not destroyed by any pious works or acts of atonement.

diva-ratra nama laya anutapa kare
tabe aparadha yaya nama phala dhare [57]

“Day and night, one should chant the Name and repent. Then the offences will go away, and one will reap the Name’s fruit.

aparadha-gate suddha-namera udaya
suddha-nama bhavamaya ara premamaya [58]

“When the offences are gone, the pure Name arises. The pure Name is filled with ecstasy and divine love.

dasa-aparadha yena hrdaye na pase
krpa kara mahaprabhu maji’ nama-rase [59]

“O Mahaprabhu! So that the ten offences never enter my heart, be merciful and immerse me in the nectar of the Name.”

e bhakti-vinoda haridasa-krpa-bale
hari-nama-chintamani gaya kutuhale [60]

By the mercy of Haridas, Bhakti Vinod joyfully chants Hari-nama-chintamani.

Translator’s note

The commentaries are part of the text of Sri Hari-nama-chintamani and written by Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur himself.

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About the Author:

Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur is the foremost pioneer of progressive modern Gaudiya Vaisnavism. Scholarly and systematic yet compassionate, loving, and joyful, Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur has succeeded in spreading the divine love brought to the world by Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu all over the world through his prolific literature, profound forethought, and devout followers. For more information on Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur, please visit his biography page.

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