KIRTAN ILLUMINATIONS

ŚRĪ MAṄGALA-GĪTAM

A song of supreme auspiciousness

By Śrī Jayadev Goswāmī

The following translation and commentary is formatted in this order:

  1. The original text of each verse in Devanagari script,
  2. Its Roman transliteration,
  3. Its verse-ordered word by word gloss,
  4. Its prose-ordered word by word gloss,
  5. Its prose translation,
  6. Explanatory notes where applicable.

***

श्रित-कमला-कुच-मण्डल धृत-कुण्डल
कलित-ललित-वन-माल !
जय जय देव हरे ॥१॥

śrita-kamalā-kucha-maṇḍala dhṛta-kuṇḍala
kalita-lalita-vana-māla!
jaya jaya deva hare [1]

śrita–sheltered; kamalā–excellent woman; kucha-maṇḍala–bosom; dhṛta–put on; kuṇḍala–earrings; kalita–adorned; lalita–charming; vana–forest; māla–garland; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)! [1]

[O You who are] śrita–sheltered in kamalā–an excellent woman’s kucha-maṇḍala–bosom! [O You who have] dhṛta–put on kuṇḍala–earrings! [O You who are] kalita–adorned [with a] lalita–charming vana–forest māla–garland! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (O playful one!) hare–O taker! (O thief of the heart!) [1]

O You who are sheltered in Kamalā’s bosom! O You who wear earrings! O You who are adorned with a charming forest garland! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

kamalā: “Kamalā.” Kamalā means ‘She who draws (), that is, captivates, her beloved (kama) with Her qualities’. Kamalā refers to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī as well as Lakṣmī Devī.

kuṇḍala: “Earrings.” Kuṇḍala may refer to the makara-shaped earrings Śrī Kṛṣṇa is known to wear (see SB: 10.51.3; SB: 10.66.14; SB: 10.73.3) or to flowers or other decorations.

māla: “Garland.” Māla may refer to a garland of lotuses or other flowers that extends down to Śrī Hari’s feet or to a garland of symptoms of ecstasy exhibited by Śrī Hari’s divine form.

jaya: “May You be victorious!” Jaya is repeated to convey adoration.

deva: “O Deva!” Deva means both ‘One who is shining’ and ‘One absorbed in play’.

hare: “O Hari!” Hari means ‘He who steals the hearts of all with His beauty and other qualities’.

दिनमणि-मण्डल-मण्डन भव-खण्डन
मुनिजनमानस-हंस !
जय जय देव हरे ॥२॥

dinamaṇi-maṇḍala-maṇḍana bhava-khaṇḍana
muni-jana-mānasa-haṁsa!
jaya jaya deva hare [2]

dinamaṇi–sun (lit. ‘jewel of the day’); maṇḍala–orb; maṇḍana–ornaments; bhava–material existence; khaṇḍana–conquerer; muni–sage; jana–person; mānasa–dwelling in the mind; haṁsa–swan; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)! [2]

[O You whose] maṇḍana–ornaments [resemble] maṇḍala–the orb dinamaṇi–of the sun! khaṇḍana–O conquerer bhava–of material existence! haṁsa–O swan mānasa–dwelling in the minds muni-jana–of the sages! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [2]

O You whose ornaments resemble the orb of the sun! O conquerer of material existence! O swan dwelling in the minds of the sages! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

maṇḍana: “Ornaments.” Maṇḍana here refers primarily to the Kaustubha gem.

bhava-khaṇḍana “O conquerer of material existence.” Bhava also means ‘birth’: Śrī Kṛṣṇa conquers, that is, surpasses, the devas and all others with His birth in the land of Vraja to such an extent that even the devas aspire for a birth in Vraja. Bhava is also a name of Lord Śiva: Śrī Kṛṣṇa conquers Lord Śiva with His expertise in flute playing (SB: 10.35.14–15):

vividha-gopa-charaṇeṣu vidagdho
veṇu-vādya urudhā nija-śikṣāḥ
tava sutaḥ sati yadādhara-bimbe
datta-veṇur anayat svarajātīḥ
savanaśas tad upadhārya sureśāḥ
śakra-śarva-parameṣṭhi-purogāḥ
kavaya ānata-kandhara-chittāḥ
kaśmalaṁ yayur aniśchita-tattvāḥ

“O virtuous Yaśodā, when Your son, who is expert in all the various activities of a gopa, places His flute on His bimba lips and brings forth in His flute playing various rhythmic songs of His own learning filled with low, medium, and high notes, then hearing this, the lords amongst the suras, headed by Indra, Śiva, and Brahmā, although learned, become bewildered, being unable to ascertain the nature (of this flute song), and bow their necks and minds.”

Bhava also means ‘appearance’: Śrī Kṛṣṇa conquers, that is, relieves, the appearance of sorrow that His dear devotees feel in separation from Him.

mānasa: “Dwelling in the mind.” Mānasa also means ‘dwelling in Mānasa Sarovara’, a lake (sarovara) manifested from the mind (manasa) of Lord Brahmā:

kailāsa-parvate rāma manasā nirmitaṁ saraḥ
brahmaṇā nara-śārdūla tenedaṁ mānasaṁ saraḥ
(Rāmāyaṇa: Bāla-khaṇḍa, 23.7)

[Viśvāmitra Ṛṣi:] “O Rāma, tiger amongst men, on Mount Kailāsa is a lake manifested from the mind of Brahmā. It is thus known as Mānasa Sarovara.”

haṁsa: “Swan.” As swans are known to migrate and spend their summers happily at Mānasa Sarovara on Mount Kailāsa, so Śrī Hari delightfully sports in the minds of the sages.

muni: “Sage.” Muni can refer to devotees in general, specifically to those observing a vow of silence, and finely to the gopīs led by Śrīmatī Rādhārānī observing silence out of jealous anger (māna) in the course of līlā with Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

कालिय-विषधर-गञ्जन जन-रञ्जन
यदुकुल-नलिन-दिनेश !
जय जय देव हरे ॥३॥

kāliya-viṣadhara-gañjana jana-rañjana
yadu-kula-nalina-dineśa!
jaya jaya deva hare [3]

kāliya–Kāliya; viṣa–poison; dhara–bearing; gañjana–dispeller; jana–people; rañjana–delight; yadu–Yadu; kula–dynasty; nalina–lotus; dineśa–sun (lit. ‘lord of the day’); jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)! [3]

gañjana–O dispeller viṣadhara–of the poisonous kāliya–Kāliya! rañjana–O delight jana–of the people! dineśa–O sun [above] nalina–the lotus yadu–of the Yadu kula–dynasty! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [3]

O dispeller of the poisonous Kāliya! O delight of the people! O sun above the lotus of the Yadu dynasty! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

jana: “People.” Jana here refers specifically to the gopīs and other residents of Śrī Vraja Dhām.

yadu-kula: “Yadu dynasty.” Yadu-kula here refers primarily to the gopa community of Vraja.

dineśa: “Sun.” As the sun causes the lotus to bloom, so Śrī Hari causes the gopa community to bloom.

मधु-मुर-नरक-विनाशन गरुडासन
सुरकुल-केलि-निदान !
जय जय देव हरेरे ॥४॥

madhu-mura-naraka-vināśana garuḍāsana
sura-kula-keli-nidāna!
jaya jaya deva hare [4]

madhu–Madhu; mura–Mura; naraka–Naraka; vināśana–destroyer; garuḍa–Garuḍa; āsana–seat; sura–gods; kula–multitude; keli–play; nidāna–origin; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)!  [4]

vināśana–O destroyer madhu–of Madhu, mura–Mura, [and] naraka–Naraka! [O You whose] āsana–seat [is] garuḍa–Garuḍa! nidāna–O origin [of the] keli–play kula–of the multitude sura–of gods! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [4]

O destroyer of Madhu, Mura, and Naraka! O You whose seat is Garuḍa! O origin of the suras’ play! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

madhu: “Madhu.” Madhu is the name of an asura who was born from the earwax of Śrī Viṣṇu and later stole the Vedas from Lord Brahmā. At Brahmā’s request, he was killed by Śrī Viṣṇu in His Avatār as Hayagrīva.

naraka: “Naraka.” Naraka is the name of an asura also known as Bhauma who was born to the earth goddess Pṛthvī from the semen of Hiraṇyayakṣa and received a boon from Viṣṇu that no one other than Viṣṇu Himself could kill him as long as he held the weapon known as the Nārāyaṇāstra. Naraka eventually kidnapped 16,000 women from various places throughout the universe, kept them as his ‘wives’, and humiliated the devas by stealing many of their prized possessions. Indra appealed to Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā for help, and Śrī Kṛṣṇa mounted Garuḍa along with Satyabhāmā, attacked Naraka’s capital Prāgjyotiṣa, and eventually killed Naraka. Śrī Kṛṣṇa then married these 16,000 women who desired Him and had been blessed in their previous births to become His wives.

mura: “Mura.” Mura is the name of an asura who served as the chief guardian of Naraka’s capital city and was also killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa during His attack on Naraka. Mura is also the name of an earlier asura born from Kaśyapa and Danu who received a boon from Lord Brahmā that anyone he touches with his hand would immediately fall dead. Mura conquered Svargaloka and eventually came to fight with Yamarāj. Yamarāj sent Mura to Viṣṇu, and Viṣṇu tricked Mura into causing his own death by challenging him, “I will not fight with someone whose heart is throbbing in fear.” Mura touched his own chest to prove his heart was not throbbing and thus died on the spot.

madhu-mura-naraka-vināśana: “O destroyer of Madhu, Mura, and Naraka!” Alternately, madhu, in its sense of ‘sweetness’, refers to madhura-rasa, mura based the meaning of its root mur, to envelop, means, “You envelop”, and naraka means ‘the other pleasures (ka) of human beings (nara)’. Thus, Śrī Hari destroys (vināśana), that is, renders insignificant, the other pleasures (ka) of human beings (nara) by enveloping (mura) them with madhura-rasa (madhu), as the gopīs said to Śrī Kṛṣṇa:

itara-rāga-vismāraṇaṁ nṛṇāṁ
(Śrīmad Bhāgavatam: 10.31.14)

“(Please give us the nectar of Your lips, which) cause humans beings to forget all other attachments.”

sura-kula: “The suras.” Sura-kula refers to the devas, who are known for their expertise in play yet are taught about true play by Śrī Hari.

अमल-कमल-दल-लोचन भव-मोचन
त्रिभुवन-भवन-निधान !
जय जय देव हरे ॥५॥

amala-kamala-dala-lochana bhava-mochana
tribhuvana-bhavana-nidhāna!
jaya jaya deva hare [5]

amala–flawless; kamala–lotus; dala–petals; locana–eyes; bhava–material existence; mochana–liberator; tribhuvana–the three worlds; bhavana–palace; nidhāna–treasure; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)!  [5]

[O You whose] locana–eyes [resemble] amala–flawless kamala–lotus dala–petals! mochana–O liberator bhava–of material existence! nidhāna–O treasure bhavana–of the palace tribhuvana–of the three worlds! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [5]

O You whose eyes resemble flawless lotus petals! O liberator of material existence! O treasure of the palace of the three worlds! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

bhava-mochana: “O liberator of material existence.” Bhava also means ‘birth’: Śrī Hari liberates those who take shelter of Him after undergoing birth by bestowing upon them the eternally blissful service of His divine form. Bhava is also a name of Lord Śiva: Lord Viṣṇu saved Śiva from the grave danger imposed on him by Vṛka, an asura who received a boon from Lord Śiva that anyone he touched upon the head would immediately die. To ensure the boon he received was genuine, Vṛkāsura touched Lord Śiva’s just after receiving it. Lord Śiva fled to seek Lord Viṣṇu’s protection. Lord Viṣṇu appeared in the form of an elderly man and then tricked Vṛkāsura into touching his own head, thus inducing Vṛkāsura to cause his own death and thereby sustaining the validity of Lord Śiva’s boon. A further meaning of Bhava-mochana is that Śrī Kṛṣṇa liberates Lord Śiva from his practice of yoga and absorption in samādhi with the attractive power of His beauty and other qualities.

tribhuvana-bhavana: “The palace of the three worlds.” This refers to Śrī Vṛndāvan Dhām.

जनक-सुता-कृत-भूषण जित-दूषण
समर-शमित-दशकण्ठ !
जय जय देव हरे ॥६॥

janaka-sutā-kṛta-bhūṣaṇa jita-dūṣaṇa
samara-śam-ita-daśa-kaṇṭha!
jaya jaya deva hare [6]

janaka–Janaka; sutā–daughter; kṛta–made; bhūṣaṇa–ornament; jita–victor; dūṣaṇa–vice; samara–battle; śam–joy; ita–obtained; daśa–ten; kaṇṭha–throat; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)! [6]

[O You whose] bhūṣaṇa–ornament [is] kṛta–made [by] janaka–Janaka’s sutā–daughter! jita–O victor [over] dūṣaṇa–vice! [O You because of whom] śam–joy [has been] ita–obtained daśa–in ten kaṇṭha–throats samara–amidst a battle! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [6]

O You who are decorated by Janaka’s daughter! O victor over vice! O You because of whom joy has arisen in the throats of ten (heroines) amidst a battle (of love)! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

janaka: “Janaka.” Janaka refers to Vṛṣabhānu Rāja, who is both the joy (ka) and the leader (ka) of the people (jana) of Vraja. Janaka also refers to the mahājan Janaka Rāja.

janaka-sutā: “Daughter.” Janaka-sutā refers to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, the daughter of Vṛṣabhānu Rāja, and to Sītā Devī, the daughter of Janaka Rāja.

jita-dūṣaṇa: “Victor over vice.” Jita-dūṣaṇa refers to Śrī Kṛṣṇa as ‘He who conquers over vice by virtue of His own qualities’ and to Śrī Rāma as ‘He by whom Dūṣaṇa, a brother of Rāvaṇa, was conquered (jita)’.

samara-śam-ita-daśa-kaṇṭha: “O You because of whom joy has arisen in the throats of ten (heroines) amidst a battle (of love)!” Samara-śam-ita-daśa-kaṇṭha, refers to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the inspiration for the Vraja-gopīs’ kīrtan, and, reading śam-ita and a single word śamita meaning ‘killed’, Samara-śamita-daśa-kaṇṭha also refers to Śrī Rāma as ‘He by whom Rāvaṇa (daśa-kaṇṭha, ‘He of ten throats’) was killed (śamita) in battle (samara)’.

अभिनव-जलधर-सुन्दर धृत-मन्दर
श्रीमुखचन्द्र-चकोर !
जय जय देव हरे ॥७॥

অভিনব-জলধর-সুন্দর ধৃত-মন্দর
শ্রীমুখচন্দ্র-চকোর !
জয় জয় দেব হরে ॥৭॥

abhinava-jaladhara-sundara dhṛta-mandara
śrī-mukha-chandra-chakora
jaya jaya deva hare [7]

abhinava–fresh; jaladhara–rain cloud (lit. ‘water-bearer’); sundara–beautiful; dhṛta–lifted; mandara–Mandara; śrī–Śrī; mukha–face; chandra–moon; chakora–chakora bird (Chukar partridge); jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)!  [7]

[O You who are] sundara–beautiful [like a] abhinava–fresh jaladhara–rain cloud! dhṛta–O lifter mandara–of Mandara! chakora–O chakora chandra–of the moon mukha–of the face śrī–of Śrī! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [7]

O You who are beautiful like a fresh rain cloud! O lifter of Mandara! O chakora of the moon of the face of Śrī! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

abhinava-jaladhara-sundara: “Beautiful like a fresh rain cloud.” Abhinava-jaladhara-sundara alludes to Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s incredible beauty and implies that as a cloud showers down rain, so Śrī Kṛṣṇa showers upon His devotees the most extraordinary rasa.

mandara: “Mandara.” Mandara refers to both Govardhan, which Śrī Kṛṣṇa lifted to protect the people of Vraja, and to Mount Mandara, which Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s Kūrma-avatār held up on His back to enable the devas and asuras to churn the ocean and produce amṛta.

śrī: “Śrī.” Śrī, as a name meaning splendour, lustre, and beauty, refers to Śrī Rādhā and to Lakṣmī Devī.

chandra: “Moon.” Chandra alludes to Śrī Rādhā’s face being most soothing and pleasing.

chakora: “Chakora.” The chakora bird is said to have fallen in love with the moon and to subsist entirely upon the nectar within the moon’s rays. The chakora is observed to spend all its nights gazing at the moon and calling out to it melodiously. As the chakora longs for and lives by the light of the moon, so Śrī Hari longs for the nectar of Śrī Rādhā’s moonlike face.

तव चरणे प्रणता वयमिति भावय
कुरु कुशलं प्रणतेषु !
जय जय देव हरे ॥८॥

tava charaṇe praṇatā vayam iti bhāvaya
kuru kuśalaṁ praṇateṣu
jaya jaya deva hare [8]

tava–Your; charaṇae–at feet; praṇatā–offering obeisance; vayam–we; iti–so; bhāvaya–considering; kuru–please bestow; kuśalaṁ–good fortune; praṇateṣu–upon those who are offering obeisance; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)! [8]

vayam–We praṇatā–offer obeisance [at] tava–Your charaṇae–feet. bhāvaya–Considering iti–so, kuru–please bestow kuśalaṁ–good fortune praṇateṣu–upon we who are offering obeisance. jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [8]

We offer obeisance at Your feet. Considering this, please bestow good fortune upon we who are offering obeisance. May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

श्रीजयदेवकवेरिदं कुरुते मुदं
मङ्गलमुज्ज्वलगीति !
जय जय देव हरे॥९॥

śrī-jayadeva-kaver idaṁ kurute mudaṁ
maṅgalam ujjvala-gīti
jaya jaya deva hare [9]

śrī-jayadeva–Śrī Jayadev; kaveḥ–of the poet; idam–this; kurute–may create; mudam–delight; maṅgalam–auspicious; ujjvala–radiant; gīta–song; jaya–may You be victorious; jaya–may You be victorious; deva–O shining one (or O playful one)!; hare–O taker (O thief of the heart)!  [9]

[May] idam–this maṅgalam–auspicious [and] ujjvala–radiant gīti–song kaveḥ–of the poet śrī-jayadeva–Śrī Jayadev kurute–create mudam–delight! jaya–May You be victorious! jaya–May You be victorious! deva–O shining one! (or: O playful one!) hare–O thief of the heart! [9]

May this auspicious and radiant song of the poet Śrī Jayadev create delight! May You be victorious! May You be victorious! O Deva! O Hari!

mudaṁ: “Delight.” This is to say, “May this auspicious and radiant song create delight for You and Your devotees.”

ujjvala: “Radiant.” Ujjvala means free from any defects in composition.

Composition: This song, often referred to as Śrī Maṅgala-gītam, originates from early in Śrī Gīta-Govinda (1.17–25) following the Daśa-avatāra-stotram. Jaya jaya Deva Hare is a chorus. All the above commentary which reads each verse primarily in relation to Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s līlā is derived from Śrīla Prabodhānanda Saraswatī’s commentary on the text.

2019-01-25T15:35:21+00:00Tags: , , |
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