Srimad Bhagavad-gita2017-04-18T10:51:59+00:00
All glory to the Divine Master
and the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna Chaitanya

श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता

SRIMAD BHAGAVAD-GITA

The Hidden Treasure of the Sweet Absolute

Revealed to the world by the dearmost associate-servitor
of the illustrious Gaudiya Vaisnava World Preceptor
His Divine Grace

Prabhupad Sri Sri Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami:

Founder-Acharya of Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Math
His Divine Grace

Srimad Bhakti Raksak Sridhar Dev-Goswami Maharaj

Produced by the merciful wish and direction of
his most intimate servitor and personally selected
Sevaite-President-Acharya:
His Divine Grace

Srimad Bhakti Sundar Govinda Dev-Goswami Maharaj

Contents

Auspicious Invocation

Preface

Introduction

Chapter OneObserving the Armies

Chapter TwoThe Constitution of the Soul

Chapter ThreeThe Path of Action

Chapter FourThe Path of Knowledge

Chapter FiveThe Path of Renunciation of Action

Chapter SixThe Path of Meditation

Chapter SevenKnowledge and Realisation of the Supreme

Chapter EightThe Merciful Absolute

Chapter NineThe Hidden Treasure of Devotion

Chapter TenThe Divine Glories of the Lord

Chapter ElevenThe Vision of the Universal Form

Chapter TwelveThe Path of Devotion

Chapter ThirteenDistinction Between Matter and Spirit

Chapter FourteenThe Three Divisions of Material Nature

Chapter FifteenThe Suprem Person

Chapter SixteenThe Godly and Ungodly Natures

Chapter SeventeenThe Three Types of Faith

Chapter EighteenThe Path of Liberation

The Glories of the Gita

The Glories of Srimad Bhagavad-gita from Sri Vaisnaviya-tantra-sara

Glossary

॥ अथ मङ्गलाचरणम् ॥

Mangalacharanam: Auspicious Invocation

ॐ पार्थाय प्रतिबोधितां भगवता नारायणेन स्वयं
व्यासेन ग्रथितां पुराणमुनिना मध्ये महाभारते ।
अद्वैतामृतवर्षिणीं भगवतीमष्टाशाध्यायिनी-
मम्ब त्वामनुसन्दधामि भगवद्गीते भवद्वेषिणीम् ॥१॥

om parthaya pratibodhitam bhagavata narayanena svayam
vyasena grathitam purana-munina madhye maha-bharate
advaitamrta-varsinim bhagavatim astadasadhyayinim
amba tvam anusandadhami bhagavad-gite bhavad-vesinim [1]

Meditation on Sri Gita

O Bhagavad-gita, song of the Supreme Lord Himself, you are the bestower of Arjuna’s enlightenment. You have been woven into the scripture Mahabharata by the ancient sage Srila Vedavyas. In eighteen chapters, you are the rain of ever-flowing nectar, non-different from the Lord. O Mother, I meditate upon you; may you graciously enter my heart.

नमोऽस्तुते व्यासविशालबुद्धे फुल्लारविन्दायतपत्रनेत्र ।
येन त्वया भारततैलपूर्णः प्रज्वालितो ज्ञानमयः प्रदीपः ॥२॥

namo ’stu te vyasa-visala-buddhe
phullaravindayata-patra-netra
yena tvaya bharata-taila-purnah
prajvalito jnana-mayah pradipah [2]

Obeisances unto Srila Vyasadev—

O Srila Vyasadev of formidable intelligence, whose eyes resemble the long petals of the blooming lotus flower, and who ignited the lamp of knowledge, filled with the oil of the Mahabharata—I offer my obeisances unto you.

प्रपन्नपारिजाताय तोत्रवेत्रैकपाणये ।
ज्ञानमुद्राय कृष्णाय गीतामृतदुहे नमः ॥३॥

prapanna-parijataya totra-vetraika-panaye
jnana-mudraya krsnaya gitamrta-duhe namah [3]

Obeisances unto the Lord as the chariot-driver of Arjuna—

I offer my obeisances unto the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna, who fulfills the wishes of His surrendered devotees. He holds a driving-rod in one hand while the other is poised in the expression of instruction, and He is the milker of the nectar of the Gita.

सर्व्वोपनिषदो गावो दोग्धा गोपालनन्दनः ।
पार्थो वत्सः सुधीरभोक्ता दुग्धं गीतामृतं महत् ॥४॥

sarvopanisado gavo dogdha gopala-nandanah
partho vatsah sudhir bhokta dugdham gitamrtam mahat [4]

The Glories of the Gita

The crest-jewels of the Vedas, all the Upanisads, are as the cow, and the milker of the cow is Lord Sri Krishna, the son of Nanda Maharaj. Arjuna is the calf, the nectar of the Gita is the milk, and the fortunate devotees are the enjoyers of that milk.

वसुदेवसुतं देवं कंसचाणूरमर्द्दनम् ।
देवकीपरमानन्दं कृष्णं वन्दे जगद्गुरुम् ॥५॥

vasudeva-sutam devam kamsa-chanura-mardanam
devaki-paramanandam krsnam vande jagad-gurum [5]

Obeisances unto Lord Sri Krishna—

I bow unto the lotus feet of Sri Krishna, the son of Vasudev, the vanquisher of the demons Kamsa and Chanura, the joy of mother Devaki, and the universal teacher.

भीष्मद्रोणतटा जयद्रथजला गान्धारनीलोत्पला
शल्यग्राहवती कृपेण वहनी कर्णेन वेलाकुला ।
अश्वत्थामविकर्णघोरमकरा दुर्य्योधनावर्त्तिनी
सोत्तीर्ण खलु पाण्डवै रणनदी कैवर्त्तकः केशवः ॥६॥

bhisma-drona-tata jayadratha-jala gandhara-nilotpala
salya-grahavati krpena vahani karnena vela-kula
asvatthama-vikarna-ghora-makara duryodhanavartini
sottirna khalu pandavai rana-nadi kaivartakah kesavah [6]

The river of the battle of Kuruksetra—

One bank is Bhisma, the other Dronacharya; Jayadratha is the water; the sons of Gandhari, the blue lotus flower; Salya, the crocodile; Krpa, the waves; Karna, the shore; Asvatthama, Vikarna and company, the fearful sharks; Duryodhan, the whirlpool; and Kesava is the boatman of this river of the battle that was crossed by the Pandavas.

पाराशर्य्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटं
नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासम्बोधनाबोधितम् ।
लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहःपेपीयमानं मुदा
भूयाद्भारतपङ्कजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ॥७॥

parasarya-vachah sarojam-amalam gitartha-gandhotkatam
nanakhyanaka-kesaram hari-katha-sambodhanabodhitam
loke sajjana-sat-padair ahar-ahah pepiyamanam muda
bhuyad bharata-pankajam kali-mala-pradhvamsi nah sreyase [7]

The Mahabharata as a lotus flower—

These words of Sri Krishna Dvaipayan Vyasadev, the son of Parasar Muni, are a perfect lotus flower. The meaning of the Gita is the beautiful fragrance of this lotus, the various episodes are its stamens, and the enlightening narrations about the Supreme Lord are its nectar. In this world, the pure devotees are the bees who day after day delight in drinking the nectar of the lotus flower. May this Mahabharata lotus, the vanquisher of all evils in this Age of Kali, graciously bestow auspiciousness upon us.

यं ब्रह्मा वरुणेन्द्ररुद्रमरुतस्तुन्वन्ति दिव्यैः स्तवैर्
वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः ।
ध्यानावस्थिततद्गतेन मनसा पश्यन्ति यं योगिनो
यस्यान्तं न विदुः सुरासुरगणा देवाय तस्मै नमः ॥८॥

yam brahma varunendra-rudra-maruta-stunvanti divyaih stavair
vedaih sanga-pada-kramopanisadair gayanti yah samagah
dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yogino
yasyantam na viduh surasura-gana devaya tasmai namah [8]

Obeisances unto the Supreme Lord—

I offer my obeisances unto the Supreme Lord whose glories are sung with celestial prayers by the gods Brahma, Varun, Indra, Rudra, and the Maruts; whose glories are sung by the verses of the Vedas along with their six auxiliary books and the Upanisads; whose glories are sung by the brahmans that sing the Sama-veda; who the yogis see within their hearts absorbed in meditation; and whose infinite glories are inconceivable to all beings, whether gods or demons.

नारायणं नमस्कृत्य नरञ्चैव नरोत्तमम् ।
देवीं सरस्वतीं व्यासं ततो जयमुदीरयेत् ॥९॥

narayanam namskrtya naran chaiva narottamam
devim sarasvatim vyasam tato jayam udirayet [9]

Before reciting the scriptures that can conquer material existence, we offer obeisances unto the Supreme Lord who is known as ‘Narayan’, ‘Nara’, and ‘Narottam’; the goddess of learning Saraswati; and the great sage empowered by the Lord to reveal the scriptures, Srila Vyasadev.

All glory to Sri Guru and Sri Gauranga

Preface

[Publisher’s Note, first bengali edition
appearance day of Lord Krishna, 1961]

Unique in its wide publication and extensive circulation, the Srimad Bhagavad-gita appears in various languages, both in India and other countries, along with the commentaries of former great saints as well as modern scholars. The commentaries of the prominent Vaisnava Acharyas such as Sri Ramanuja, Srimat Madhva Muni, and Sri Sridhar Swamipad are most noteable, whilst among the proponents of jnana-marg, or the monistic path, the commentaries of Srimat Sankar Acharya and Sri Madhusudan Saraswati are well-known. The commentaries of Sriyuta Bala Gangadhar Tilak and Sri Aurobindo favour the school of karma-yoga, or the path of action, and are also familiar to modern scholars. Great thinkers of both East and West have ardently sung the glories of Sri Gita, being inspired by the ideals of its teachings.

However, the achintya-bhedabheda-siddhanta, theology of inconceivable oneness and difference, as revealed by the proponents of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu—Gaudiya Acharyas Srila Visvanath Chakravarti and Srila Baladev Vidyabhusan—is concluded by the learned devotees to be most favorable to exclusive devotion. The devotees also embrace Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur’s Bengali commentary on Sri Gita as a harmonious, spiritual mine of the treasure of divine love for Sri Krishna (Krishna-prema), the fifth and transcendental goal of life, beyond the four general human objectives of religion, wealth, sense enjoyment, and liberation.

In his introduction my worshipful Divine Master, Sri Guru Pada-padma Om Visnupad Paramahamsa Parivrajakacharya Sri Srimad Bhakti Raksak Sridhar Dev-Goswami Maharaj, has revealed to the readers glimpses of his own deep devotional realisations. Although numerous editions of Sri Gita are presently available, few commentaries can be said to nurture pure devotion according to the teachings of bona fide divine succession, which has given us the opportunity of service in producing this edition. We shall consider ourselves blessed if the fortunate readers take the all-auspicious essence of this sincere attempt to heart.

Sri Bhakti Sundar Govinda

Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Math,

Nabadwip

All glory to Sri Guru and Sri Gauranga

Introduction

[of the first bengali edition]

वन्दे श्रीगुरुगौराङ्गौ राधागोविन्दसुन्दरौ ।
सगुणौ गीयते चाथ गीतागूढार्थगौरवम् ॥

vande sri-guru-gaurangau radha-govinda-sundarau
sa-gunau giyate chatha gita-gudhartha-gauravam

Bowing down to the holy feet of Sri Guru, Sri Gauranga, and Sri Sri Radha-Govindasundar, all accompanied by Their associates, I sing the glories of the hidden treasure of Srimad Bhagavad-gita.

Since Srimad Bhagavad-gita is very familiar to the learned society, an acquaintance of the conceptions of this edition may be given here. We are followers of the school of thought descending from Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, so this edition is based on the Sri Gita commentaries of the pre-eminent, exalted Sri Gaudiya Vaisnava Acharyas—Sri Visvanath, Sri Baladev, and Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur.

By the grace of our worshipful Spiritual Master, Om Visnupad Srila Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Prabhupad, and from indications in the commentaries given by the aforementioned great pure devotees, in places some new light has been shed, revealing deeper meanings. The devoted reader will appreciate this particularly with regard to the four verses (10.8–11) which were described by Sri Visvanathpad as the four essential verses (chatuh-sloki) of the book.

Generally, Sri Gita is known as an excellent study of the science of religion. The language of Sri Gita is simple and sweet; its mood is grave, extensive, and radical; its thought is succinct, lucid, and impartial; and its logic is sound and natural. The eloquence of the prologue, epilogue, exposition, review, analysis, synthesis, and delivery of Sri Gita is unprecedented and charming in the extreme. Sri Gita is activation for the lazy, courage for the fearful, hope for the hopeless, and new life for the dying. Sri Gita unifies and sustains all ranks, whether revolutionary, occultist, optimist, renunciationist, liberationist, or full-fledged theist. From the atheist of grossly crude vision to the most elevated saint, the essential conceptions of all classes of philosophers are illustrated with clear and powerful logic. The devotees of the Lord (bhagavad-bhaktas) and persons on the paths of action, knowledge, and yoga (karmis, jnanis, and yogis) will each find the essence of their paths dealt with in a comprehensive and illuminating manner, and thus the book is highly esteemed by all.

The essential and inner purport of the Vedas and Upanisads of the Aryans is directly explained, and the essence of various non-Aryan doctrines can also be found. Sri Gita teaches us enlightenment through the selfless execution of scripturally ordained actions. When the consciousness is thus purified, self-realisation or spiritual realisation is attained. In its maturity, this pure realisation blossoms into loving service in the joyful, divine plane.

From the standpoint of sambandha-jnan or ‘knowledge of relationship’, Sri Gita gives us the conception that the Absolute Reality is a transcendental personality; from the standpoint of prayojan or ‘the objective’, spiritual love for the Absolute Reality is given as the highest attainment; and from the standpoint of abhidheya or ‘the means’, we are taught that one must initially offer all his actions to the Supreme Lord, followed by the cultivation of self-realisation favourable to realisation of the Lord, and finally surrender to the Lord, to the exclusion of all other endeavours. Ultimately, the means will culminate in the objective when, in one’s perfected spiritual form, one whole-heartedly engages in the transcendental loving service of the Lord.

Sri Gita has clearly shown the distinctions between the various paths, such as the path of action, including worship of the gods for worldly fulfillment, and the path of knowledge, for the attainment of liberation. The thoughtful reader can note that Sri Gita, by its comparative study, refutes the misconception that the many paths and goals are ‘all one’. Rather, it is stated, “Yo yach chhradhah sa eva sah: a man is known by his faith.”

These verses would warrant deep consideration in this respect:

“The yogi is superior to persons engaged in austerities, superior to the person of knowledge, and superior to the person of action. Therefore, O Arjuna, be a yogi. And best of all yogis is My faithful devotee for whom I am the only goal, and who serves Me whole-heartedly. This is My opinion.” (6.46–47)

Showing the inferiority and meaninglessness of dry renunciation, the gift of Sri Gita is most substantial and positive. Rather then merely renouncing action, one should selflessly offer one’s actions to the Supreme Lord (karma-yoga). Ultimately, based on one’s surrender, one will be inspired to act in devotion (bhakti) for the Lord alone. This is the conclusive and sublime teaching of Sri Gita. In the finest conception, the overall excellence of Sri Gita is found in its gift of devotion. In its full manifestation, such devotion is prema-bhakti, loving devotion to the all-attractive Supreme Personality—Sri Krishna, Reality the Beautiful.

Secret, more secret, and the most secret of all teachings have been given, as the congregational chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord (sankirtan), and service in spontaneity (bhava-seva), with exclusive surrender and dedication to the transcendental pleasure of Krishna as the ultimate goal of life, as sung by the vibrant clarion call of Sri Gitasarva-dharman parityajya Mam ekam saranam vraja—and as deeply contemplated by the followers of the lotus footsteps of the Supreme Lord who mercifully appears as the saviour in this Age of Kali—Sri Chaitanyachandra, and as corroborated by the divine succession of saintly teachers.

May Lord Sri Krishna accept the offering of this edition.

Swami B. R. Sridhar

Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Math

Nabadwip

Janmastami

Bengali year 1368

प्रथमोऽध्यायः
Chapter One

Sainya-darsana: Observing the Armies

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच ।

धर्म्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्व्वत सञ्जय ॥१॥

dhrtarastra uvacha

dharma-ksetre kuru-ksetre samaveta yuyutsavah
mamakah pandavas chaiva kim akurvata sanjaya [1]

dhrtarastrah uvacha–Dhrtarastra said: (he) sanjaya–O Sanjaya; dharma-ksetre kuru-ksetre–at the holy land of Kuruksetra; mamakah–Duryodhan and party; pandavah cha–and Yudhisthir and party; samavetah–who assembled; yuyutsavah–desirous of battle; eva–thereafter; akurvata kim–did what? [1]

1 Dhrtarastra said: O Sanjaya, what happened when my sons and the sons of Pandu assembled for battle at the holy place of Kuruksetra?

सञ्जय उवाच ।

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्य्योधनस्तदा ।
आचार्य्यमुपसङ्गम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत् ॥२॥

sanjaya uvacha

drstva tu pandavanikam vyudham duryodhanas tada
acharyam upasangamya raja vachanam abravit [2]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: tada tu–Then; raja duryodhanah–King Duryodhan; drstva–having seen; pandava-anikam–the soldiers of the Pandavas; vyudham–arrayed in military formation; abravit–spoke; vachanam–the following words; upasangamya–approaching; acharyam–Dronacharya. [2]

2 Sanjaya said: Seeing the Pandavas’ soldiers and armies arrayed for battle, King Duryodhan approached Dronacharya and said:

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य्य महतीं चमूम् ।
व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥३॥

pasyaitam pandu-putranam acharya mahatim chamum
vyudham drupada-putrena tava sisyena dhimata [3]

(he) acharya–O respected teacher; pasya–please observe; etam mahatim–this great; chamum–army of seven aksauhinis (one aksauhini is 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 65,610 horses, and 109,350 foot-soldiers); pandu-putranam–of the Pandavas; vyudham–arranged in military formation; tava dhimata sisyena–by your intelligent disciple; drupada-putrena–Dhrstadyumna, the son of Drupada. [3]

3 O my teacher, please observe the great armies of the Pandavas, arranged in military formation by your brilliant disciple, Dhrstadyumna.

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्ज्जुनसमा युधि ।
युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥४॥

धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्य्यवान् ।
पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः ॥५॥

युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्य्यवान् ।
सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व्व एव महारथाः ॥६॥

atra sura mahesvasa bhimarjuna-sama yudhi
yuyudhano viratas cha drupadas cha maha-rathah [4]

dhrstaketus chekitanah kasirajas cha viryavan
purujit kuntibhojas cha saibyas cha nara-pungavah [5]

yudhamanyus cha vikranta uttamaujas cha viryavan
saubhadro draupadeyas cha sarva eva maha-rathah [6]

atra–In this phalanx; (santi)–are; surah–warriors; mahesvasah–great archers; bhima-arjuna-samah–comparable to Bhima and Arjuna; yudhi–in battle; (yatha)–such as; yuyudhanah–Satyaki; cha–and; viratah–King Virata; maha-rathah drupadah cha–and the great warrior Drupada; dhrstaketuh–Dhrstaketu; chekitanah–King Chekitana; viryavan kasirajah cha–and the powerful King of Kasi; purujit–Purujit; kuntibhojah cha–and Kuntibhoja; nara-pungavah saibyah cha–and the noble King Saibya; vikrantah yudhamanyuh cha–and valiant Yudhamanyu; viryavan uttamaujah cha–heroic Uttamauja; saubhadrah–Abhimanyu; draupadeyah cha–and the sons of Draupadi; eva–indeed; sarva maha-rathah–all great warriors. [4–6]

4–6 Among these soldiers are the expert archers Bhima, Arjuna, and others equally skilled in battle, like Satyaki, King Virata, the great fighter Drupada, Dhrstaketu, Chekitana, the mighty hero Kasiraj, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, the noble King Saibya, the valiant Yudhamanyu, the herioc Uttamauja, Abhimanyu, and the sons of Draupadi. They are all great warriors, indeed.

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।
नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते ॥७॥

asmakam tu visista ye tan nibodha dvijottama
nayaka mama sainyasya samjnartham tan bravimi te [7]

(he) dvija-uttama–O Dronacharya, best of the twice-born; nibodha–kindly consider; tan–those; asmakam–of us; tu ye visistah–who are the prominent; nayakah–commanders; mama sainyasya–of my armies. bravimi–I speak; te–to you; tan–of them; samjna-artham–by name. [7]

7 O best of the twice-born, please consider, too, the foremost amongst us, the commanders of my armies. I submit their names before you:

भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिञ्जयः ।
अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिर्जयद्रथः ॥८॥

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्व्वे युद्धविशारदाः ॥९॥

bhavan bhismas cha karnas cha krpas cha samitinjayah
asvatthama vikarnas cha saumadattir jayadrathah [8]

anye cha bahavah sura mad-arthe tyakta-jivitah
nana-sastra-praharanah sarve yuddha-visaradah [9]

bhavan–Your respected self; bhismah cha–Bhisma; karnah cha–and Karna; samitinjayah krpah cha–Krpa, who is victorious in battle; asvatthama–Asvatthama; vikarnah cha–Vikarna; saumadattih–Bhurisrava; jayadrathah–Jayadratha; anye cha bahavah surah–and many other warriors; (santi)–are present; nana-sastra-praharanah–armed with various weapons; sarve–all; yuddha-visaradah–skilled in battle; tyakta-jivitah–and prepared to sacrifice their lives; mad-arthe–for my sake. [8–9]

8–9 Firstly there is your respected self, then Bhisma, Karna, the ever victorious Krpacharya, Asvatthama, Vikarna, Bhurisrava, Jayadratha, and many other heroes skilled in the art of warfare, all armed with various weapons and prepared to lay down their very lives for me.

अपर्य्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।
पर्य्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ॥१०॥

aparyaptam tad asmakam balam bhismabhiraksitam
paryaptam tv idam etesam balam bhimabhiraksitam [10]

asmakam tat balam–That strength of our army; bhisma-abhiraksitam–protected by Bhisma; (bhati)–appears; aparyaptam–unlimited (or insufficient); tu–but; idam balam–the strength of this army; etesam–of theirs; bhima-abhiraksitam–protected by Bhima; (bhati)–appears; paryaptam–limited (or sufficient) [both interpretations are possible]. [10]

10 The strength of our army, headed by Bhisma, seems inestimable, yet the strength of the Pandavas’ army, protected by Bhima, is estimable.

अयनेषु च सर्व्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।
भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व्व एव हि ॥११॥

ayanesu cha sarvesu yatha-bhagam avasthitah
bhismam evabhiraksantu bhavantah sarva eva hi [11]

bhavantah–You; sarve eva hi–all indeed; abhiraksantu–may support; bhismam eva–Bhisma; sarvesu ayanesu cha–at all points of entrance into the formation; avasthitah (santah)–being situated; yatha-bhagam–at your posts. [11]

11 Now take up your posts at the strategic points of the formation in support of Bhisma.

तस्य सञ्जनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।
सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ॥१२॥

tasya sanjanayan harsam kuru-vrddhah pitamahah
simha-nadam vinadyochchaih sankham dadhmau pratapavan [12]

pratapavan–The hero; kuru-vrddhah-pitamahah–the venerable ‘grandfather’ Bhisma; simha-nadam vinadya–roaring like the lion; sankham dadhmau–then blew his conchshell; uchchaih–very loudly; tasya harsam sanjanayan–for the pleasure of Duryodhan. [12]

12 Then, with a war-cry like the roar of a lion, the venerable elder, Bhisma, loudly blew his conchshell to encourage Duryodhan.

ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्य्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।
सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत् ॥१३॥

tatah sankhas cha bheryas cha panavanaka-gomukhah
sahasaivabhyahanyanta sa sabdas tumulo ’bhavat [13]

tatah–Thereafter; sankhah cha bheryah cha panava-anaka gomukhah–conchshells, kettledrums, hand-drums, bugles, and other instruments; sahasa eva abhyahanyanta–were immediately sounded. sah sabdah–That sound; tumulah abhavat–was tumultuous. [13]

13 At once there arose a tumultuous vibration of conchshells, kettledrums, hand-drums, bugles, and the resounding of many instruments.

ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।
माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः ॥१४॥

tatah svetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
madhavah pandavas chaiva divyau sankhau pradadhmatuh [14]

tatah–Thereafter; madhavah pandavah cha eva–both Sri Krishna and Arjuna; sthitau–situated; mahati syandane–in a magnificent chariot; svetaih hayaih yukte–yoked with white horses; pradadhmatuh–sounded; divyau sankhau–divine conchshells. [14]

14 Then Lord Sri Krishna and Arjuna, in a magnificent chariot drawn by white horses, blew their divine conchshells.

पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः ।
पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्म्मा वृकोदरः ॥१५॥

panchajanyam hrsikeso devadattam dhananjayah
paundram dadhmau maha-sankham bhima-karma vrkodarah [15]

hrsikesah–Sri Krishna; dadhmau–sounded; panchajanyam–the Panchajanya; dhananjayah–Arjuna (sounded); devadattam–the Devadatta; (cha)–and; bhimakarma vrkodarah–the performer of mighty tasks, Bhimasen (sounded); maha-sankham–the great conchshell; paundram–named Paundra. [15]

15 Hrsikes blew His conchshell Panchajanya; Dhananjaya sounded his, the Devadatta; and Bhimasen, the performer of mighty tasks, blew the conchshell Paundra.

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।
नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ॥१६॥

anantavijayam raja kunti-putro yudhisthirah
nakulah sahadevas cha sughosa-manipuspakau [16]

kunti-putrah raja yudhisthirah–King Yudhisthir, the son of Kunti; (dadhmau)–sounded; anantavijayam–the Anantavijay; nakulah sahadevah cha–and Nakula and Sahadeva (sounded); sughosa-manipuspakau–the conchshells named Sughosa and Manipuspaka. [16]

16 King Yudhisthir, the son of Kunti, blew the Anantavijay, while Nakul and Sahadev blew the conchshells Sughosa and Manipuspaka.

काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।
धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ॥१७॥

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व्वशः पृथिवीपते ।
सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक् ॥१८॥

kasyas cha paramesv-asah sikhandi cha maha-rathah
dhrstadyumno viratas cha satyakis chaparajitah [17]

drupado draupadeyas cha sarvasah prthivi-pate
saubhadras cha maha-bahuh sankhan dadhmuh prthak prthak [18]

(he) prthivi-pate–O lord of the earth, Dhrtarastra; kasyah cha–the King of Kasi; parama-isu-asah–skilled in bowmanship; maha-rathah sikhandi cha–and the great warrior, Sikhandi; dhrstadyumnah viratah cha–Dhrstadyumna and King Virata; cha–and; aparajitah–the unconquerable; satyakih–Satyaki; drupadah–King Drupada; draupadeyah cha–the sons of Draupadi; maha-bahuh saubhadrah cha–and the mighty Abhimanyu; sarvasah–all; dadhmuh–sounded; prthak prthak sankhan–their respective conchshells. [17–18]

17–18 O lord of the earth, the skilled archer Kasiraj, the great warrior Sikhandi, Dhrstadyumna, King Virata, the unconquerable Satyaki, King Drupada, the sons of Draupadi, and the mighty son of Subhadra, Abhimanyu—all blew their conchshells.

स घोषो धार्त्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।
नभश्च पृथिवीञ्चैव तुमुलोऽभ्यनुनादयन् ॥१९॥

sa ghoso dhartarastranam hrdayani vyadarayat
nabhas cha prthivin chaiva tumulo ’bhyanunadayan [19]

sah tumulah ghosah–That tumultuous sound; abhyanunadayan–echoing; prthivim cha nabhah cha eva–throughout the land and heavens; vyadarayat–rent, pierced; hrdayani–the hearts; dhartarastranam–of the sons of Dhrtarastra. [19]

19 Resounding throughout the land and heavens, the tremendous vibration of those conchshells pierced the hearts of the sons of Dhrtarastra.

अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्त्तराष्ट्रान्कपिध्वजः ।
प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसम्पाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ।
हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते ॥२०॥

atha vyavasthitan drstva dhartarastran kapi-dhvajah
pravrtte sastra-sampate dhanur udyamya pandavah
hrsikesam tada vakyam idam aha mahi-pate [20]

(he) mahi-pate–O King; atha–thereafter; pravrtte (sati)–at the time for commencing; sastra-sampate–the casting of weapons; kapi-dhvajah pandavah–Arjuna of the Hanuman flag; dhartarastran vyavasthitan drstva–having seen the sons of Dhrtarastra arrayed before him ready for battle; tada–at that time; dhanuh udyamya–taking up his bow; aha–spoke; idam vakyam–these words; hrsikesam–to Sri Krishna. [20]

20 O King, as the battle was about to commence, Arjuna, whose chariot was adorned with the flag of Hanuman, seeing Duryodhan and his army poised for battle, took up his bow and said to Sri Krishna:

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ॥२१॥

यावदेतान्निरीक्षेऽहं योद्धुकामानवस्थितान् ।
कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन्रणसमुद्यमे ॥२२॥

योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।
धार्त्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ॥२३॥

arjuna uvacha

senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me ’chyuta [21]

yavad etan nirikse ’ham yoddhu-kaman avasthitan
kair maya saha yoddhavyam asmin rana-samudyame [22]

yotsyamanan avekse ’ham ya ete ’tra samagatah
dhartarastrasya durbuddher yuddhe priya-chikirsavah [23]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) achyuta–O Achyuta; sthapaya–please place; me ratham–my chariot; madhye–between; ubhayoh senayoh–both armies; yavat–so that; aham–I; nirikse–can observe; yoddhu-kaman avasthitan etan–these warriors desirous of battle; kaih saha–with whom; maya yoddhavyam–I have to fight; asmin rana-samudyame–on this battlefield; aham–and I; avekse–may see; (tan) yotsyamanan–the warriors; atra yuddhe–in this battle; ete ye samagatah–who have come; priya-chikirsavah–as well-wishers; durbuddheh dhartarastrasya–of wicked Duryodhan. [21–23]

21–23 O Krishna, please place my chariot between the two armies so I may observe the warriors with whom I must contend on this battlefield, and who have come to fight for the satisfaction of the wicked Duryodhan.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ॥२४॥

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्व्वेषाञ्च महीक्षिताम् ।
उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ॥२५।

sanjaya uvacha

evam ukto hrsikeso gudakesena bharata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthapayitva rathottamam [24]

bhisma-drona-pramukhatah sarvesan cha mahiksitam
uvacha partha pasyaitan samavetan kurun iti [25]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: (he) bharata–O Dhrtarastra; evam uktah (san)–this being spoken; gudakesena–by Arjuna, the conqueror of sleep; hrsikesah–Sri Krishna; sthapayitva–placing; ratha-uttamam–the grand chariot; ubhayoh senayoh madhye–between both armies; (puratah)–before; bhisma-drona-pramukhatah–Bhisma, Drona, and company; sarvesam cha mahi-ksitam–and all the chieftains; uvacha iti–spoke thus: (he) partha–O Arjuna; pasya–behold; samavetan etan kurun–these assembled Kurus. [24–25]

24–25 Sanjaya said: O descendant of Bharat, after the vigilant Arjuna spoke these words, Sri Krishna, the Lord of the perceptions of all living beings, drew the grand chariot between both armies, before Bhisma, Drona, and all the chieftains of the earth. The Lord then said: O Partha, behold the Kauravas assembled here for battle!

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।
आचार्य्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा ।
श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ॥२६॥

tatrapasyat sthitan parthah pitrn atha pitamahan
acharyan matulan bhratrn putran pautran sakhims tatha
svasuran suhrdas chaiva senayor ubhayor api [26]

atha–Thereafter; eva–certainly; parthah–Arjuna; api apasyat–could also see; sthitan–situated; tatra–there; (madhye)–within; ubhayoh senayoh–both armies; pitrn–paternal elders; pitamahan–grandfathers; acharyan–teachers; matulan–maternal elders; bhratrn–brothers; putran–sons; pautran–grandsons; sakhin–friends; tatha svasuran–fathers-in-law; suhrdah cha–and well-wishers. [26]

26 There, within both armies, Arjuna saw paternal and maternal elders, grandfathers, teachers, brothers, sons, grandsons, fathers-in-law, friends, and other well-wishers.

तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्व्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् ।
कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्नदमब्रवीत् ॥२७॥

tan samiksya sa kaunteyah sarvan bandhun avasthitan
krpaya parayavisto visidann idam abravit [27]

samiksya–Seeing; tan sarvan bandhun–all these kinsmen; avasthitan–present; (tatra)–on the battlefield; sah kaunteyah–that son of Kunti; paraya krpaya avistah–overwhelmed with great compassion; visidan (san)–and being grief-stricken; idam abravit–spoke thus. [27]

27 Seeing his kinsmen present on the battlefield, Arjuna, the son of Kunti, was grief-stricken and overcome with pity. He said:

अर्ज्जुन उवाच

दृष्ट्वेमान्स्वजनान्कृष्ण युयुत्सून्समवस्थितान् ।
सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखञ्च परिशुष्यति ॥२८॥

arjuna uvacha

drstveman svajanan krsna yuyutsun samavasthitan
sidanti mama gatrani mukhan cha parisusyati [28]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) krsna–O Krishna; drstva–seeing; iman svajanan–all these friends and relatives; samavasthitan–assembled; yuyutsun–and desirous of battle; mama gatrani–my body; sidanti–feels exhausted; mukham cha parisusyati–and my mouth is becoming dry. [28]

28 O Krishna, seeing all these relatives and friends assembled and eager for battle, the strength is draining from my limbs and my mouth feels parched.

वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते ।
गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ॥२९॥

vepathus cha sarire me roma-harsas cha jayate
gandivam sramsate hastat tvak chaiva paridahyate [29]

me sarire–In my body; vepathuh–are tremors; cha–and; romaharsah–bodily hairs standing on end; cha jayate–is also occuring. gandivam–The bow Gandiva; sramsate–is slipping; hastat–from my hand; tvak cha–and my skin; paridahyate eva–burns too. [29]

29 I am trembling and the hairs on my body are standing on end, my skin is burning, and I am losing grip of my Gandiva bow.

न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ।
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ॥३०॥

na cha saknomy avasthatum bhramativa cha me manah
nimittani cha pasyami viparitani kesava [30]

(he) kesava–O Sri Krishna; cha–and; (aham)–I; na saknomi–am unable to; avasthatum cha–compose myself any longer; iva–as; me manah–my mind; bhramati–is flickering; pasyami cha–and I see; viparitani nimittani–bad omens. [30]

30 O Kesava, I cannot maintain my composure any longer. My mind is disturbed, and I see bad omens.

न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ।
न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ॥३१॥

na cha sreyo ’nupasyami hatva svajanam ahave
na kankse vijayam krsna na cha rajyam sukhani cha [31]

(he) krsna–O Krishna; na anupasyami cha–nor do I see; sreyah–any good; svajanam hatva–in killing my kinsmen; ahave–in battle. (aham)–I; vijayam na kankse–desire neither victory; na cha rajyam cha sukhani–nor the enjoyment of a kingdom. [31]

31 I do not see any good in killing my kinsmen in this battle. O Krishna, I have no wish for victory or to enjoy a kingdom.

किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ।
येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ॥३२॥

त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ।
आचार्य्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ॥३३॥

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबन्धिनस्तथा ।
एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ॥३४॥

kim no rajyena govinda kim bhogair jivitena va
yesam arthe kanksitam no rajyam bhogah sukhani cha [32]

ta ime ’vasthita yuddhe pranams tyaktva dhanani cha
acharyah pitarah putras tathaiva cha pitamahah [33]

matulah svasurah pautrah syalah sambandhinas tatha
etan na hantum ichchhami ghnato ’pi madhusudana [34]

(he) govinda–O Sri Krishna; kim nah rajyena–of what value is our kingdom; kim va bhogaih jivitena–and what is the need of its royal pleasures, or life itself; yesam arthe–if those for whom; nah–our; rajyam bhogah sukhani cha–kingdom with its pleasures and enjoyable objects; kanksitam–is desirable; te ime–all these; acharyah–teachers; pitarah–fatherly elders; putrah–sons; tatha eva cha–and also even; pitamahah–grandfathers; matulah–maternal uncles; svasurah–fathers-in-law; pautrah–grandsons; syalah–brothers-in-law; tatha sambandhinah–and other relatives; yuddhe avasthitah–are present on the battlefield; tyaktva–risking; dhanani pranan cha–their wealth and lives? (he) madhusudana–(Therefore,) O Madhusudan; ghnatah api–though I may be killed by them; na ichchhami–I do not wish; etan hantum–to kill them. [32–34]

32–34 O Govinda, if those for whom we desire all this—teachers, paternal and maternal elders, sons, grandfathers, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives—are about to risk their wealth and lives in battle, of what value is our kingdom and its royal pleasures, or even life itself? O Madhusudan, I do not wish to kill them even though I, myself, may be killed.

अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ।
निहत्य धार्त्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्द्दन ॥३५॥

api trailokya-rajyasya hetoh kim nu mahi-krte
nihatya dhartarastran nah ka pritih syaj janardana [35]

(he) janardana–O Sri Krishna; ka pritih syat–what happiness can be possible; nah–for us; nihatya–by killing; dhartarastran–the sons of Dhrtarastra; trailokya rajyasya hetoh api–for the sovereignty of even the three worlds; mahi-krte kim nu–not to speak of ruling the earth? [35]

35 O Janardan, even if we gain sovereignty over the three worlds, not to speak of ruling the earth, how can we be happy if we kill the sons of Dhrtarastra?

पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः ।
तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्त्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ।
स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ॥३६॥

papam evasrayed asman hatvaitan atatayinah
tasman narha vayam hantum dhartarastran svabandhavan
svajanam hi katham hatva sukhinah syama madhava [36]

(he) madhava–O Madhava; papam eva–only sin; asrayet–will enter; asman–us; hatva–by killing; etan atatayinah–these adversaries. tasmat–Therefore; vayam–we; na arhah–are wrong; hantum–to kill; svabandhavan–our own family members; dhartarastran–the sons of Dhrtarastra. svajanam hatva hi–By killing our kinsmen; katham–how; (vayam) syama–can we be; sukhinah–happy? [36]

36 Only sin will befall us if we slay our teachers and guardians, though they be our adversaries. We cannot take the lives of our own relatives, the sons of Dhrtarastra. O Madhava, how can we be happy by killing our kinsmen?

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ॥३७॥

कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्त्तितुम् ।
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्द्दन ॥३८॥

yadyapy ete na pasyanti lobhopahata-chetasah
kula-ksaya-krtam dosam mitra-drohe cha patakam [37]

katham na jneyam asmabhih papad asman nivartitum
kula-ksaya-krtam dosam prapasyadbhir janardana [38]

(he) janardana–O Janardan, Krishna; yadyapi ete–although these persons; lobha-upahata-chetasah (santah)–their hearts being afflicted with greed; patakam na pasyanti–do not see the sin; mitra-drohe–of betraying one’s friends; cha–and; kula-ksaya-krtam dosam–the sin of destroying the dynasty; (tathapi)–nonetheless; katham–how; na jneyam–should it not be known; asmabhih–by us; nivartitum–to refrain; asmat papat–from this sinful act; prapasyadbhih–clearly seeing; kula-ksaya-krtam dosam–the evil of destroying the dynasty? [37–38]

37–38 Although they, overwhelmed with greed, cannot see the sin of betraying one’s friends and destroying the dynasty, O Janardan, how can we not refrain from this heinous act, being in full knowledge of the consequences?

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्म्माः सनातनाः ।
धर्म्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्म्मोऽभिभवत्युत ॥३९॥

kula-ksaye pranasyanti kula-dharmah sanatanah
dharme naste kulam krtsnam adharmo ’bhibhavaty uta [39]

kula-ksaye–With the decline of the dynasty; sanatanah–the traditional; kula-dharmah–religious practices of the dynasty; pranasyanti–are destroyed. dharme naste (sati)–When religious practices are lost; adharmah–irreligion; abhibhavati–overcomes; krtsnam uta kulam–the entire dynasty. [39]

39 With the decline of the dynasty, its religious traditions are lost. When religious practices are lost, irreligion overcomes the entire dynasty.

अधर्म्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसङ्करः ॥४०॥

adharmabhibhavat krsna pradusyanti kula-striyah
strisu dustasu varsneya jayate varna-sankarah [40]

(he) krsna–O Krishna; adharma-abhibhavat–when the family is overcome by irreligion; kula-striyah–the women of the family; pradusyanti–are polluted. (he) varsneya–O descendant of the Vrsni dynasty; strisu dustasu (satsu)–when the women of the family become corrupt; jayate–the result is; varna-sankarah–adulterated progeny. [40]

40 O Krishna, descendant of the Vrsni dynasty, when the dynasty is thus overcome by irreligion, the women of the family become corrupt and adulterated progeny is the result.

सङ्करो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ॥४१॥

sankaro narakayaiva kula-ghnanam kulasya cha
patanti pitaro hy esam lupta-pindodaka-kriyah [41]

sankarah–Adulterated progeny; narakaya eva (bhavati)–causes a hellish condition; kulasya kula-ghnanam cha–for both the dynasty and its destroyers. esam–Their; pitarah–forefathers; patanti hi–surely fall; lupta-pinda-udaka-kriyah–due to the cessation of obsequial offerings of food and water. [41]

41 Adulterated progeny forces both the family and its aggressors into a hellish existence. The same fate befalls their ancestors, because regular offerings of food and water to them cease.

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसङ्करकारकैः ।
उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्म्माः कुलधर्म्माश्च शाश्वताः ॥४२॥

dosair etaih kula-ghnanam varna-sankara-karakaih
utsadyante jati-dharmah kula-dharmas cha sasvatah [42]

etaih dosaih–By such heinous acts; kula-ghnanam–of the destroyers of the dynasty; varna-sankara-karakaih–causing varna-sankara, adulterated progeny; sasvatah–traditional; kula-dharmah jati-dharmah cha–familial and socio-religious functions; utsadyante–are ruined. [42]

42 Such heinous acts by the destroyers of the dynasty are the cause of adulterated progeny, ruining the culture of a civilized society and noble lineage.

उत्सन्नकुलधर्म्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्द्दन ।
नरके नियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ॥४३॥

utsanna-kula-dharmanam manusyanam janardana
narake niyatam vaso bhavatity anususruma [43]

(he) janardana–O Janardan; (vayam) anususruma–We have heard; iti–that; manusyanam–for those persons; utsanna-kula-dharmanam–whose family traditions have been destroyed; niyatam–constant; narake vasah–residence in hell; bhavati–occurs. [43]

43 O Janardan, we have heard that persons whose familial, social and religious traditions are disrupted dwell always in hell.

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्त्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।
यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ॥४४॥

aho bata mahat-papam kartum vyavasita vayam
yad rajya-sukha-lobhena hantum svajanam udyatah [44]

aho bata–Alas, what a tragedy! vayam–We; vyavasitah–have resolved; kartum–to commit; mahat-papam–a most heinous sin. yat rajya-sukha-lobhena–Out of greed for royal pleasures; udyatah–we are prepared; svajanam hantum–to slay our relatives. [44]

44 Alas, what a grave sin we have resolved to commit! Driven by greed for trifling royal happiness, we are about to slay our own kinsmen.

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।
धार्त्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ॥४५॥

yadi mam apratikaram asastram sastra-panayah
dhartarastra rane hanyus tan me ksemataram bhavet [45]

yadi–If; dhartarastrah–the sons of Dhrtarastra; sastra-panayah–equipped with weapons; hanyuh–kill; mam–me; asastram–unarmed; apratikaram–and unresisting; rane–in battle; tat–that; bhavet–will be; ksemataram–more auspicious; me–for me. [45]

45 If, unarmed and unresisting, I am killed on this battlefield by the armed sons of Dhrtarastra, that will be more auspicious for me.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

एवमुक्त्वार्ज्जुनः सङ्ख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।
विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ॥४६॥

sanjaya uvacha

evam uktvarjunah sankhye rathopastha upavisat
visrjya sa-saram chapam soka-samvigna-manasah [46]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: arjunah–Arjuna; evam uktva–having thus spoken; sankhye–on the battlefield; visrjya–casting aside; chapam–bow; sa-saram–and arrows; upavisat–sat down; ratha-upasthah–on the chariot; soka-samvigna-manasah–his heart heavy with sorrow. [46]

46 Sanjaya said: There, on the battlefield, speaking these words, Arjuna cast aside his bow and arrows and sat down on the chariot, his heart filled with sadness.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्यां
भीष्मपर्व्वणि श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे सैन्यदर्शनं नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः ॥१॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma-
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade sainya-
darsanam nama prathamo ’dhyayah [1]

End of Chapter One
Observing the Armies
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

Section Indicator

द्वितीयोऽध्यायः
Chapter Two

Sankhya-yoga: The Constitution of the Soul

सञ्जय उवाच ।

तं तथा कृपयाविष्टमश्रुपूर्णाकुलेक्षणम् ।
विषीदन्तमदं वाक्यमुवाच मधुसूदनः ॥१॥

sanjaya uvacha

tam tatha krpayavistam asru-purnakuleksanam
visidantam idam vakyam uvacha madhusudanah [1]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: madhusudanah–Sri Krishna; tatha–then; uvacha–spoke; idam vakyam–these words; visidantam tam–to the saddened Arjuna; krpaya-avistam–whose heart was filled with pity; asru-purna-akula-iksanam–his eyes brimming with tears, showing his distress. [1]

1 Sanjaya said: The Supreme Lord, Madhusudan, then spoke to the saddened Arjuna whose heart was filled with pity, his eyes brimming with tears.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमदं विषमे समुपस्थितम् ।
अनार्य्यजुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्त्तिकरमर्ज्जुन ॥२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

kutas tva kasmalam idam visame samupasthitam
anarya-justam asvargyam akirti-karam arjuna [2]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; visame–in this crisis; kutah–how; idam kasmalam–has this illusion; tva–of yours; samupasthitam–occured? anarya-justam–This does not befit an Aryan (noble person); asvargyam–it is an obstacle to the attainment of heaven; akirti-karam–and the cause of infamy. [2]

2 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, how has such illusion overcome you at this crucial moment? This does not befit an Aryan, and it leads not to heaven but to infamy.

क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत्त्वय्यपपद्यते ।
क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परन्तप ॥३॥

klaibyam ma sma gamah partha naitat tvayy upapadyate
ksudram hrdaya-daurbalyam tyaktvottistha parantapa [3]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; klaibyam ma sma gamah–do not be overcome by cowardice. etat–This; na upapadyate–does not befit; tvayi–you. (he) parantapa–O subduer of the enemy; tyaktva–giving up; ksudram hrdaya-daurbalyam–petty weakheartedness; uttistha–arise for battle. [3]

3 O son of Kunti, give up this cowardice, for it does not befit you. O great hero, cast off this petty weakness of heart and arise for battle!

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

कथं भीष्ममहं सङ्ख्ये द्रोणञ्च मधुसूदन ।
इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि पूजार्हावरिसूदन ॥४॥

arjuna uvacha

katham bhismam aham sankhye dronan cha madhusudana
isubhih pratiyotsyami pujarhav arisudana [4]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) madhusudana arisudana–O Madhusudan, slayer of the enemy; katham aham–how can I; pratiyotsyami–counterattack; isubhih–with arrows; sankhye–in battle; (laksi-krtya)–aiming at; puja-arhau–worshippable; bhismam dronam cha–Bhisma and Drona? [4]

4 Arjuna said: O Madhusudan, slayer of the enemy, how can I counterattack, shooting arrows at venerable Bhisma and my teacher Drona, who are worthy of my worship?

गुरूनहत्वा हि महानुभावाञ्
श्रेयो भोक्तुं भैक्ष्यमपीह लोके ।
हत्वार्थकामांस्तु गुरूनहैव
भुञ्जीय भोगान्रुधिरप्रदिग्धान् ॥५॥

gurun ahatva hi mahanubhavan
sreyo bhoktum bhaiksyam apiha loke
hatvartha-kamams tu gurun ihaiva
bhunjiya bhogan rudhira-pradigdhan [5]

sreyah–Better; bhaiksyam api bhoktum–to live on food obtained by begging; iha loke–in this world; ahatva hi–without killing; maha-anubhavan gurun–noble elders and teachers. tu–Otherwise; gurun hatva–by killing our teachers and superiors; bhunjiya–we shall enjoy; rudhira-pradigdhan–their blood-tainted; artha-kaman bhogan–wealth and coveted enjoyable objects; iha eva–here. [5]

5 It is better to live in this world and beg, without taking the lives of our noble elders and teachers. Otherwise, by killing them we shall remain in this world only to enjoy their wealth and possessions tainted with their blood.

न चैतद्वद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो
यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः ।
यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामस्
तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्त्तराष्ट्राः ॥६॥

na chaitad vidmah kataran no gariyo
yad va jayema yadi va no jayeyuh
yan eva hatva na jijivisamas
te ’vasthitah pramukhe dhartarastrah [6]

yat va–If indeed; (vayam)–we; jayema–win; yadi va–or if; (ete)–these men; nah jayeyuh–happen to conquer us; na cha vidmah–we do not understand; etat katarat–which of these; gariyah–is more beneficial; nah–for us. te dhartarastrah–Those very sons of Dhrtarastra; yan hatva–by killing whom; na jijivisamah eva–we do not wish to even live; avasthitah–are present; pramukhe–before us for battle. [6]

6 I cannot understand which will be better—victory or defeat; for if we kill the sons of Dhrtarastra, who now stand before us on the battlefront, we shall not wish to live.

कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावः
पृच्छामि त्वां धर्म्मसम्मूढचेताः ।
यच्छ्रेयः स्यान्निश्चतं ब्रूहि तन्मे
शिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ॥७॥

karpanya-dosopahata-svabhavah
prchchhami tvam dharma-sammudha-chetah
yach chhreyah syan nischitam bruhi tan me
sisyas te ’ham sadhi mam tvam prapannam [7]

karpanya-dosa upahata-svabhavah–Losing heart, thus losing the courage of the warrior by apprehending the fall of the dynasty; (tatha)–and; dharma-sammudha-chetah–bewildered in determining my duty and non-duty; (aham) prchchhami–I am asking; tvam–You; (tvam) bruhi–You please say; tat–that (course of action); yat–which; syat–may; nischitam–be ascertained; sreyah–as best; me–for me. aham–I am; te sisyah–ready for Your counsel and direction; (atah)–therefore; sadhi–please instruct; mam–me; tvam prapannam–Your surrendered soul. [7]

7 Now I am bewildered. What is my real duty? I am losing heart and distraught. So please tell me clearly what is the best course of action to take. I am Your surrendered disciple; please instruct me.

न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद्
यच्छोकमुच्छोषणमिन्द्रियाणाम् ।
अवाप्य भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं
राज्यं सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यम् ॥८॥

na hi prapasyami mamapanudyad
yach chhokam uchchhosanam indriyanam
avapya bhumav asapatnam rddham
rajyam suranam api chadhipatyam [8]

avapya–After gaining; asapatnam–an unrivalled; rddham–expansive; rajyam–kingdom; bhumau–on earth; cha–and; adhipatyam–sovereignty; suranam api–over even the demigods; (aham)–I; na hi prapasyami–do not see; yat–that which; apanudyat–will dispel; mama–my; sokam–grief; uchchhosanam–that saps; indriyanam–my senses. [8]

8 Even if we gain an unrivalled, flourishing kingdom on earth and sovereignty over heaven, I see nothing to dispel my debilitating grief.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

एवमुक्त्वा हृषीकेशं गुडाकेशः परन्तपः ।
न योत्स्य इति गोविन्दमुक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह ॥९॥

sanjaya uvacha

evam uktva hrsikesam gudakesah parantapah
na yotsya iti govindam uktva tusnim babhuva ha [9]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: evam uktva–Having spoken thus; hrsikesam–unto Sri Krishna; gudakesah–sense-controlled Arjuna, the conqueror of sleep; parantapah–the chastiser of the enemy; uktva iti–then said; govindam–to Govinda: (aham) na yotsye–“I shall not fight”; babhuva ha–and then was; tusnim–silent. [9]

9 Sanjaya said: Thus the valiant, vigilant Arjuna spoke to Krishna, who is Hrsikes, the Lord of the senses of all beings. Then he declared, “Govinda, I will not fight”, and fell silent.

तमुवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव भारत ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वचः ॥१०॥

tam uvacha hrsikesah prahasann iva bharata
senayor ubhayor madhye visidantam idam vachah [10]

(he) bharata–O Dhrtarastra; ubhayoh senayoh madhye–situated between both armies; hrsikesah–Hrsikes, Krishna; prahasan iva–smilingly; uvacha–spoke; idam vachah–these words; visidantam–to the grief-stricken; tam–Arjuna. [10]

10 O Bharat, there amidst the armies, Sri Hrsikes, smiling, spoke thus to the grief-stricken Arjuna:

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वं प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे ।
गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः ॥११॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

asochyan anvasochas tvam prajna-vadams cha bhasase
gatasun agatasums cha nanusochanti panditah [11]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: tvam–you; anvasochah–are lamenting; asochyan–for those unworthy of grief; prajna-vadan cha bhasase–and speaking like a wise man. panditah–The wise; na anusochanti–do not lament; gatasun–for the dead; agatasun cha–or the living. [11]

11 The Lord said: O Arjuna, you are lamenting for that which is unworthy of grief, yet speaking words of wisdom. The wise lament neither for the living nor the dead.

न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः ।
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्व्वे वयमतः परम् ॥१२॥

na tv evaham jatu nasam na tvam neme janadhipah
na chaiva na bhavisyamah sarve vayam atah param [12]

(iti) tu na eva–It is not a fact that; aham–I; na asam–did not exist; jatu–ever before; (iti) na–nor is it that; tvam na–you did not exist; (iti na)–nor is it that; ime janadhipah–all these kings; na–did not exist; cha–and; (iti na) eva–nor is it that; sarve vayam na bhavisyamah–we will all no longer exist; atah param–hereafter. [12]

12 Never was there a time when you, I, or all these kings did not exist. Just as we exist in the present, so have we existed in the past, and shall continue to exist in the future.

देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ॥१३॥

dehino ’smin yatha dehe kaumaram yauvanam jara
tatha dehantara-praptir dhiras tatra na muhyati [13]

yatha–As; asmin dehe–in this body; dehinah–of the embodied living being; kaumaram–childhood; yauvanam–youth; jara–and old age; (bhavati)–occur; tatha–so also; deha-antara praptih–the attainment of yet another body; (bhavati)–occurs. dhirah–The wise; na muhyati–are not deluded; tatra–by that. [13]

13 As the living being passes through the bodily changes of childhood, youth, and old age, it similarly attains another body at death. The wise are not deluded by this.

मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः ।
आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ॥१४॥

matra-sparsas tu kaunteya sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah
agamapayino ’nityas tams titiksasva bharata [14]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna, son of Kunti; matra-sparsah tu–material contact—the engagement of the senses with their objects; sita-usna-sukha-duhkha-dah–produces cold and heat, pleasure and pain sensations. (te) agama-apayinah–These come and go; anityah–and are temporary. (atah)–Therefore; (he) bharata–O Arjuna; titiksasva–endure; tan–them. [14]

14 O son of Kunti, the engagement of the senses with their objects produces the sensations of cold, heat, pleasure, and pain. But these effects are temporary—they come and go. Therefore, O Bharat, you must endure them.

यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ ।
समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ॥१५॥

yam hi na vyathayanty ete purusam purusarsabha
sama-duhkha-sukham dhiram so ’mrtatvaya kalpate [15]

(he) purusa-rsabha–O noblest of men; sah dhiram purusam–the wise man; sama-duhkha-sukham–equipoised in happiness and unhappiness; yam–who; ete–these; (matra-sparsah)–actions of the senses engaging with material sense objects; na vyathayanti–cannot disturb; kalpate hi–is alone qualified; amrtatvaya–for immortality. [15]

15 O noblest of men, the wise man who is equipoised in pleasure and pain, and undisturbed by sense-experiences, is alone qualified for immortality.

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः ।
उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ॥१६॥

nasato vidyate bhavo nabhavo vidyate satah
ubhayor api drsto ’ntas tv anayos tattva-darsibhih [16]

asatah–Of a destructible object; na vidyate–there is no; bhavah–eternal existence; tu–and; satah–of an eternal object; na vidyate–there is no; abhavah–destruction. antah–Such a conclusion, i.e., of the nature; anayoh ubhayoh api–of each; drstah–has been realised; tattva-darsibhih–by the seers of the truth.

16 Of the asat (destructible object, such as the mutable body and associated phenomena) there is no eternal existence; of the sat (eternal object, the soul) there is no destruction or change. The nature of each has been realised by the seers of the truth.

अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्व्वमिदं ततम् ।
विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्त्तुमर्हति ॥१७॥

avinasi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam
vinasam avyayasyasya na kaschit kartum arhati [17]

tu–But; viddhi–know that; tat–the soul; yena–by which; idam sarvam–this entire body; tatam–is pervaded; avinasi–is indestructible. na kaschit–No one; arhati–is able; vinasam kartum–to bring about the destruction; avyayasya asya–of this imperishable soul. [17]

17 Know that the soul, by which the entire body is pervaded, is indestructible. No one can destroy the imperishable soul.

अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः ।
अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद्युध्यस्व भारत ॥१८॥

antavanta ime deha nityasyoktah saririnah
anasino ’prameyasya tasmad yudhyasva bharata [18]

saririnah–Of the living being; nityasya–who is always the same; anasinah–indestructible; aprameyasya–and immeasurable, due to his extremely subtle nature; ime dehah–all these bodies; uktah–are said to be; antavantah–subject to destruction; tasmat–therefore; (he) bharata–O Arjuna; yudhyasva–fight. [18]

18 The soul is said to be eternal, indestructible and immeasurable. Only these physical bodies are subject to destruction. Therefore fight, O Bharat.

य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं यश्चैनं मन्यते हतम् ।
उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायं हन्ति न हन्यते ॥१९॥

ya enam vetti hantaram yas chainam manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijanito nayam hanti na hanyate [19]

yah–Those persons who; vetti–think; enam–this soul to be; hantaram–a killer; yah cha enam manyate–and those who think it; hatam–killed; tau ubhau–both of them; na vijanitah–are ignorant; (yasmat)–since; ayam–this soul; na hanti–neither kills anyone; na hanyate–nor is killed by anyone. [19]

19 Those who think the living being slays, and those who think it is slain, are ignorant of the true nature of the soul; for the soul neither slays nor is slain.

न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचिन्
नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः ।
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो

न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥२०॥

na jayate mriyate va kadachin
nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah
ajo nityah sasvato ’yam purano
na hanyate hanyamane sarire [20]

ayam–This soul; na jayate–is neither born; va na mriyate–nor dies; kadachit–at any time; bhutva na va–nor being; bhavita–will it be created; bhuyah–again. ayam ajah–This soul is birthless; nityah–eternal; sasvatah–free from decay; puranah–ancient, changeless; (cha)–and; (ayam)–the soul; na hanyate–is never destroyed; sarire hanyamane (api)–even if the body is destroyed. [20]

20 The soul is neither born nor dies; it has neither been nor will it be created, because it is unborn and eternal. It is ever-youthful, yet ancient. It is not destroyed when the body is destroyed.

वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम् ।
कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम् ॥२१॥

vedavinasinam nityam ya enam ajam avyayam
katham sa purusah partha kam ghatayati hanti kam [21]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; yah–that person who; veda–knows; enam–this soul as; nityam–eternal; ajam–birthless; avyayam–immutable; avinasinam–and indestructible; katham–how can; sah purusah ghatayati–that person cause the death; kam–of anyone; (va)–or; (katham)–how can; hanti–he kill; kam–anyone? [21]

21 O Partha, knowing the soul to be indestructible, eternal, birthless and immutable, how can a person kill or cause anyone to be killed?

वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय
नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि ।
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णान्य्
अन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ॥२२॥

vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaya
navani grhnati naro ’parani
tatha sarirani vihaya jirnany
anyani samyati navani dehi [22]

yatha–As; narah–a man; vihaya–rejecting; jirnani vasamsi–torn clothes; grhnati–accepts; aparani navani–new garments; tatha–similarly; dehi–the soul; vihaya–rejecting; jirnani–old and decrepit; sarirani–bodies; samyati–accepts; anyani navani–new bodies. [22]

22 As a person adopts new garments, discarding those that are old and worn, similarly, the soul continues to adopt new bodies, leaving those that are old and useless.

नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।
न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ॥२३॥

nainam chhindanti sastrani nainam dahati pavakah
na chainam kledayanty apo na sosayati marutah [23]

sastrani–Weapons; na chhindanti–cannot pierce; enam–the soul; pavakah–fire; na dahati–cannot burn; enam–the soul; apah–water; na kledayanti–cannot dampen; enam–the soul; cha–and; marutah–the air; na sosayati–cannot dry; (enam)–the soul. [23]

23 Weapons cannot pierce the soul, and fire cannot burn it. Water cannot wet it, and air cannot dry it.

अच्छेद्योऽयमदाह्योऽयमक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च ।
नित्यः सर्व्वगतः स्थाणुरचलोऽयं सनातनः ॥२४॥

अव्यक्तोऽयमचिन्त्योऽयमविकार्य्योऽयमुच्यते ।
तस्मादेवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुमर्हसि ॥२५॥

achchhedyo ’yam adahyo ’yam akledyo ’sosya eva cha
nityah sarva-gatah sthanur achalo ’yam sanatanah [24]

avyakto ’yam achintyo ’yam avikaryo ’yam uchyate
tasmad evam viditvainam nanusochitum arhasi [25]

ayam achchhedyah–The soul is indivisible; ayam adahyah–it cannot be burned; (ayam) akledyah–it cannot be moistened; (ayam) asosyah eva cha–and it cannot be dried. ayam nityah–It is everlasting; sarva-gatah–reaching all planes, migratory through all species of life according to its actions; sthanuh–still; achalah–immovable; sanatanah–beginningless, changeless, ever-present. ayam uchyate–It is said to be; avyaktah–imperceptible due to its extremely subtle nature; ayam achintyah–inconceivable; ayam avikaryah–and untransformable. tasmat–Therefore; viditva–knowing; enam–the soul; evam–as such; anusochitum na arhasi–it is inappropriate to grieve for it. [24–25]

24–25 It is said that the soul is indivisible and cannot be burned, moistened, or dried. It is eternal, it reaches all planes yet remains still, immovable, and ever-present. It is imperceptible, inconceivable, and untransformable (by the sixfold transformations*). Therefore, knowing the nature of the soul as such, there is no reason to lament for it.

*Birth, existence, growth, maturity, diminution, and destruction.

अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् ।
तथापि त्वं महाबाहो नैनं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२६॥
जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च ।
तस्मादपरिहार्य्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२७॥

atha chainam nitya-jatam nityam va manyase mrtam
tathapi tvam maha-baho nainam sochitum arhasi [26]

jatasya hi dhruvo mrtyur dhruvam janma mrtasya cha
tasmad apariharye ’rthe na tvam sochitum arhasi [27]

(he) maha-baho–O best of warriors, Arjuna; atha cha–and even if; manyase–you think; enam–the soul; nitya-jatam–to be always born; va–or; nityam mrtam–always subject to death; tatha api–even then; tvam–you; sochitum na arhasi–ought not grieve; enam–for it; hi–since; jatasya–for one who has taken birth; mrtyuh–death; dhruvah–is certain; mrtasya cha–and for one who is dead; janma–birth, for undergoing the reactions to his past actions; dhruvam–is certain. tasmat–Therefore; tvam–you; na arhasi–ought not; sochitum–grieve; apariharye arthe–for the inevitable. [26–27]

26–27 And, O best of warriors, even if you think that the soul is perpetually subject to birth and death, you still have no reason to lament. For one who is born, death is certain, and for one who dies, he must be reborn to undergo the reactions of his past actions. Therefore, you should not lament over the inevitable.

अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत ।
अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ॥२८॥

avyaktadini bhutani vyakta-madhyani bharata
avyakta-nidhanany eva tatra ka paridevana [28]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; bhutani–of the living beings; avyaktadini–the situation before birth is unknown; vyakta-madhyani–the period between birth and death is known; avyakta-nidhanany eva–and the situation after death is again unknown; ka paridevana–so what cause is there for grief; tatra–in that matter?

28 O Bharat, when all living beings are unmanifest before birth, manifest between birth and death, and again unmanifest at death, why lament for them?

आश्चर्य्यवत्पश्यति कश्चिदेनम्
आश्चर्य्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः ।
आश्चर्य्यवच्चैनमन्यः शृणोति
श्रुत्वाप्येनं वेद न चैव कश्चित् ॥२९॥

ascharyavat pasyati kaschid enam
ascharyavad vadati tathaiva chanyah
ascharyavach chainam anyah srnoti
srutvapy enam veda na chaiva kaschit [29]

kaschit–Some persons; pasyati–see; enam–the soul; ascharyavat–as astonishing. tatha eva–Similarly; anyah cha–others, too; vadati–describe; (enam)–the soul; ascharyavat–as astonishing; anyah cha–and others; srnoti–hear; enam–of the soul; ascharyavat–as astonishing; kaschit cha eva–and some; srutva api–though hearing about it; na veda–do not know; enam–the soul. [29]

29 Some see the soul as astonishing, some describe it as astonishing, some hear of it as astonishing, while others, though hearing about it, know nothing of it.

देही नित्यमवध्योऽयं देहे सर्व्वस्य भारत ।
तस्मात्सर्व्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥३०॥

dehi nityam avadhyo ’yam dehe sarvasya bharata
tasmat sarvani bhutani na tvam sochitum arhasi [30]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; dehe–in the bodies; sarvasya–of all living beings; ayam–this; dehi–soul; nityam–is eternal; avadhyah–unslayable. tasmat–Therefore; tvam–you; sochitum na arhasi–should not lament; sarvani bhutani–for any living beings. [30]

30 O Bharat, the soul dwelling within the bodies of all living beings is eternal and cannot be slain. Therefore, you need lament for no one.

स्वधर्म्ममपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुमर्हसि ।
धर्म्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत्क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते ॥३१॥

svadharmam api chaveksya na vikampitum arhasi
dharmyaddhi yuddhach chhreyo ’nyat ksatriyasya na vidyate [31]

api–Moreover; na arhasi–you should not; vikampitum–fear; cha aveksya–considering, too; svadharmam–your natural duty as a warrior; hi–since; ksatriyasya–for a ksatriya, or one who upholds the law; na vidyate–there is no; anyat sreyah–better course of action; dharmyat yudhat–than a battle for justice.

31 Moreover, considering your natural duty, you have no reason to waver, since there is no action more auspicious for a warrior than a battle for justice.

यदृच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारमपावृतम् ।
सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धमीदृशम् ॥३२॥

yadrchchhaya chopapannam svarga-dvaram apavrtam
sukhinah ksatriyah partha labhante yuddham idrsam [32]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; sukhinah–the fortunate; ksatriyah–warriors; labhante–attain; yuddham–a battle; idrsam–like this; upapannam–present; yadrchchhaya–of its own accord; apavrtam svarga-dvaram cha–as an open door to heaven. [32]

32 O Partha, only the most fortunate warriors are blessed with the opportunity of such a battle, which has come to you like an open door to heaven.

Commentary

One’s natural duty or ‘svadharma’ is of two types—relative or absolute—according to the soul’s state of either material bondage or liberation respectively. In the liberated state, the natural function of the soul is purely spiritual devotional service, for the transcendental pleasure of the Supreme Lord alone. But in the state of material bondage, a person’s natural duty possesses mundane attributes. The conditioned soul accepts various births throughout the 8,400,000 species of life according to his actions, until by the influence of piety he obtains a human birth. Then, according to his nature, he may adopt a position and prescribed duty in the God-centred socio-religious system (Daiva-varnasram), which helps one attain the natural duty of the liberated state.

In this respect, the natural duty of the liberated soul is somewhat covered by the relativity of the material world; yet, within the God-centred socio-religious system, it is nonetheless considered a person’s natural duty, as, for example, smoke-covered fire is still considered fire, despite its covering.

अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि ।
ततः स्वधर्म्मं कीर्त्तिञ्च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥३३॥

atha chet tvam imam dharmyam sangramam na karisyasi
tatah svadharmam kirtin cha hitva papam avapsyasi [33]

atha–Otherwise; chet–if; tvam–you; na karisyasi–do not engage; imam dharmyam sangramam–in this battle for justice; tatah–then; hitva–leaving; svadharmam kirtim cha–the ksatriya’s duty and glory; avapsyasi–you will incur; papam–sin. [33]

33 But if you choose not to fight this battle for justice, your religious principles will be lost, fame will desert you, and sin will overcome you.

अकीर्त्तिञ्चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययाम् ।
सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्त्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते ॥३४॥

akirtin chapi bhutani kathayisyanti te ’vyayam
sambhavitasya chakirtir maranad atirichyate [34]

cha–Also; bhutani–the people; kathayisyanti–will speak; avyayam–for all time; te–of your; akirtim api–infamy; cha–and; akirtih–infamy; atirichyate–is worse; maranat–than death; sambhavitasya–for the respected. [34]

34 People will speak of your infamy for all time to come; and for the renowned, infamy is worse than death.

भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महारथाः ।
येषाञ्च त्वं बहुमतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम् ॥३५॥

bhayad ranad uparatam mamsyante tvam maha-rathah
yesan cha tvam bahu-mato bhutva yasyasi laghavam [35]

maha-rathah–Great warriors like Duryodhan and others; mamsyante–will consider that; tvam–you; uparatam–desisted; ranat–from battle; bhayat–out of fear; cha–and; yesam–of those for whom; tvam–you; bahu-matah bhutva–have been the object of great honour; laghavam yasyasi–you will be held the object of ridicule. [35]

35 The great warriors who highly honour you will ridicule you, considering that you were afraid to fight.

अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून्वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः ।
निन्दन्तस्तव सामर्थ्यं ततो दुःखतरं नु किम् ॥३६॥

avachya-vadams cha bahun vadisyanti tavahitah
nindantas tava samarthyam tato duhkhataram nu kim [36]

tava ahitah–Your enemies; vadisyanti–will speak; bahun avachya-vadan cha–many unworthy words; nindantah–condemning; tava samarthyam–your capabilities. nu–Alas, Arjuna; kim–what could be; duhkhataram–more painful; tatah–than that? [36]

36 Your enemies will mock you. What could be more painful?

हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम् ।
तस्मादुत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥३७॥

hato va prapsyasi svargam jitva va bhoksyase mahim
tasmad uttistha kaunteya yuddhaya krta-nischayah [37]

hatah va–If killed in battle; svargam prapsyasi–you will attain heaven; jitva va–or by gaining victory; bhoksyase–you will enjoy; mahim–the earth. tasmat–Therefore; (he) kaunteya–O Arjuna; krta-nischayah (san)–being confident of success; uttistha–arise; yuddhaya–for battle. [37]

37 O son of Kunti, if you are killed, you will attain heaven, and if you are victorious, you will enjoy your life on earth. Therefore, being confident of your success, arise for battle!

सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ ।
ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥३८॥

sukha-duhkhe same krtva labhalabhau jayajayau
tato yuddhaya yujyasva naivam papam avapsyasi [38]

same krtva–By seeing with an attitude of equanimity; sukha-duhkhe–pleasure and pain; labha-alabhau–gain and loss; jaya-ajayau (cha)–and victory and defeat; tatah–thereafter; yujyasva–engage; yuddhaya–in battle. evam–In this way; na avapsyasi–you will not incur; papam–sin. [38]

38 Considering pleasure and pain, gain and loss, and victory and defeat to be one and the same—fight. No sin will be incurred by you.

एषा तेऽभिहिता साङ्ख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां शृनु ॥
बुद्ध्या युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्म्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि ॥३९॥

esa te ’bhihita sankhye buddhir yoge tv imam srnu
buddhya yukto yaya partha karma-bandham prahasyasi [39]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; abhihita te–I have revealed to you; esa buddhih sankhye–this knowledge of the soul. tu–Further; srnu–hear of; imam–this knowledge; yoge–in (bhakti-) yoga, in practice; yaya buddhya yuktah–attaining which wisdom; prahasyasi–you will be completely freed; karma-bandham–from the bondage of action. [39]

39 I have revealed to you this knowledge (buddhi) of the soul. Now hear from Me how to act in this knowledge (bhakti-yoga), through which you will be able to free yourself from the bondage of action.

Commentary

“It will be revealed that buddhi-yoga (yoga of wisdom) is a singular path. When buddhi-yoga is seen to be limited by the ideal of action, it is known as karma-yoga; when it extends beyond action up to the peak of knowledge, it is known as jnana-yoga or sankhya-yoga; and when, transcending the limitations of both action and knowledge it touches bhakti or devotion, it is then known as bhakti-yoga, or perfectly pure and complete buddhi-yoga.”

—Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur

नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते ।
स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्म्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ॥४०॥

nehabhikrama-naso ’sti pratyavayo na vidyate
svalpam apy asya dharmasya trayate mahato bhayat [40]

iha–In this (bhakti-) yoga; na asti–there is no; abhikrama-nasah–failure in the beginning; na vidyate–and there is no; pratyavayah–diminution of results. svalpam api–Even the slightest practice; asya dharmasya–of this bhakti-yoga; trayate–saves one; mahatah bhayat–from the great fear of birth and death in the material world. [40]

40 On this path there can be no loss and no harm. The slightest practice of such a spiritual ideal saves one from the greatest fear.

Commentary

Mahabhay, the greatest fear, is generally considered to be the fear of repeated birth and death in this world. But mahabhay also refers to sayujya-mukti, the liberation of merging into the impersonal non-differentiated consciousness of Brahmaloka, Viraja, or a kind of impersonal samadhi. Renunciation alone leads to sayujya-mukti, the cessation of birth and death, but not to a life in the positive plane. It takes one to a permanent ‘burial’ in Brahmaloka. The demon of mukti will devour one wholesale, and therefore it is even more dangerous than this ordinary life of action and reaction. Mukti means a strike in the organic system, so it must be avoided. For example, to either ignore duties in a factory or to declare a strike by cessation of duties are both abnormal.

Bhukti, exploitation, and mukti, renunciation, are both fearsome ghosts. Therefore, here, mahabhay means the great apprehension of falling prey to both the ghost of exploitation leading to birth and death, as well as the ghost of committing suicide by merging into the impersonalism of incarceration in Brahmaloka—fear of both bhoga-bhumi, the land of exploitation, and tyaga-bhumi, the plane of renunciation. It is stated in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.22, 1.1.9):

भुक्तिमुक्तिस्पृहा यावत् पिशाची हृदि वर्त्तते ।
तावद्भक्तिसुखस्यात्र कथमभ्युदयो भवेत् ॥

bhukti-mukti-sprha yavat pisachi hrdi vartate
tavad bhakti-sukhasyatra katham abhyudayo bhavet

“The ecstasy of devotion to Krishna will never appear in a heart that is haunted by the ghosts of exploitation and renunciation.”

अन्याभिलाषिता शून्यं ज्ञानकर्म्माद्यनावृतम् ।
आनुकूल्येन कृष्णनुशीलनं भक्तरुत्तमा ॥

anyabhilasita sunyam jnana-karmady anavrtam
anukulyena krsnanusilanam bhaktir uttama

“The highest devotion is that which is cultivated for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord Krishna, with no desire except to serve Him, and divested of all external attempts such as worldly action, knowledge in search of the impersonal Absolute, or the meditational attempt to become one with God.”

Only the Supreme Lord is abhay, beyond apprehension. Therefore nothing but participation in His service can free one from the ghosts of exploitation and renunciation, bhukti and mukti. If we subtract bhukti and mukti, then only positive bhakti, devotion, is the remainder. Therefore, without devotion, everything is mahabhay, great danger.

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेकेह कुरुनन्दन ।
बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम् ॥४१॥

vyavasayatmika buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana
bahu-sakha hy anantas cha buddhayo ’vyavasayinam [41]

(he) kuru-nandana–O Arjuna, descendant of the Kuru dynasty; vyavasaya-atmika buddhih–the resolute intelligence; iha–to practise this (bhakti-) yoga; eka (eva)–is onepointed; (tu)–but; buddhayah–the intelligence; avyavasayinam–of the irresolute—those who nurture mundane desires; hi–is certainly; anantah–endlessly; bahu-sakhah cha–many-branched, splayed. [41]

41 O descendant of the Kuru dynasty, resolute intelligence dedicated to Me is one-pointed—I am its only objective. But irresolute intelligence is splayed by endless desires for mundane enjoyment.

यामिमां पुष्पितां वाच प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः ।
वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः ॥४२॥

yam imam puspitam vacham pravadanty avipaschitah
veda-vada-ratah partha nanyad astiti vadinah [42]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; avipaschitah–the unwise; veda-vada-ratah–who are fond of interpreting the Vedas, not knowing the true directive of the Vedas; vadinah iti–say that; na asti–there is no; anyat–other (divine or controlling) principle beyond beasts, food, offspring, heaven, etc.; pravadanti–and they glorify as supreme; yam imam vacham–those statements which; puspitam–momentarily please the ear (which, thus taken out of context, are effectively poisonous as they do not help the spiritual progress of the soul). [42]

42 O Partha, unwise persons, not knowing that the chief directive of the Vedas is the attainment of the Supreme Truth, are fond of interpreting the fleetingly enchanting words of the karma-kanda section of the Vedas as ultimate.

कामात्मानः स्वर्गपराः जन्मकर्म्मफलप्रदाम् ।
क्रियाविशेषबहुलां भोगैश्वर्य्यगतिं प्रति ॥४३॥

kamatmanah svarga-parah janma-karma-phala-pradam
kriya-visesa-bahulam bhogaisvarya-gatim prati [43]

kama-atmanah–Their hearts filled with selfish desires; svarga-parah–heaven is their goal; kriya-visesa-bahulam–and they advocate the various ceremonies and rituals; janmakarma-phala-pradam–which yield high birth; bhoga-aisvarya-gatim prati–and lead to enjoyment and opulence. [43]

43 Their hearts are filled with desires and their goal is heaven. They advocate the many sacrifices and rituals that yield wealth, worldly pleasures, and high birth.

भोगैश्वर्य्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ॥४४॥

bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam tayapahrta-chetasam
vyavasayatmika buddhih samadhau na vidhiyate [44]

bhoga-aisvarya-prasaktanam–Of those persons attached to enjoyment and opulence; apahrta-chetasam–whose minds are deluded; taya–by those flowery words of the Vedas; vyavasaya-atmika buddhih–the resolve; samadhau–in dedication to the Supreme Lord; na vidhiyate–is not accomplished. [44]

44 Thus attached to enjoyment and opulence, deluded by these flowery words of the Vedas, they do not attain the resolve to dedicate themselves to the Supreme Lord.

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्ज्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ॥४५॥

traigunya-visaya veda nistraigunyo bhavarjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-ksema atmavan [45]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; vedah–the Vedas; trai-gunya-visayah–deal with the modes of material nature—worldly subjects. nirdvandvah–Give up duality (honour and dishonour, etc., in the purview of these modes); nitya-sattva-sthah–be always situated in the truth (or remain with the true devotees); niryoga-ksemah–free from acquisition and preservation; (cha)–and; atmavan (san)–engaging in this buddhi-yoga, yoga of wisdom that I teach you; bhava–become; nistraigunyah–transcendental to the three modes of material nature. [45]

45 O Arjuna, the Vedas deal with the three modes of material nature (by accommodating fruitive action and liberation as an allowance and incentive for persons who are ignorant of the true objective of the Vedas). But you, Arjuna, give up duality and all pursuits for gain and preservation, stand ever in the plane of truth, and by the yoga of wisdom, transcend the modes of nature.

(The objective of the Vedas is transcendental. Without fruitive action or liberation, O Arjuna, follow the transcendental path of devotion to the Lord as taught by the Vedas.)

यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्व्वतः सम्प्लुतोदके ।
तावान्सर्व्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥४६॥

yavan artha udapane sarvatah samplutodake
tavan sarvesu vedesu brahmanasya vijanatah [46]

yavan arthah–Of various purposes; (sidhyati)–achieved; udapane–by a well or pond; tavan (eva arthah)–all the purposes; sarvatah–of all these wells; (sidhyati)–are achieved; (tato ’pi vaisistyena)–better than that; sampluta-udake–by a large expanse of water, a lake. (evam)–Similarly; (yavan arthah sidhyati)–of the various purposes fulfilled; sarvesu vedesu–by the prayers described in all the Vedas for worshipping the various demigods; (tavan arthah sidhyati)–those purposes are all fulfilled; (bhagavad aradhane eva)–by worshipping the Supreme Lord; brahmanasya vijanatah–for the brahman who is in full knowledge that devotion to the Lord is the sole purport of the Vedas. [46]

46 As all the purposes served by several ponds can be served better by a large lake, similarly, the fruits of worshipping the various gods by their respective Vedic prayers are surpassed by serving Me. The knower of Brahma who thus knows the purport of the Vedas fulfils all life’s objectives.

कर्म्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।
मा कर्म्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्म्मणि ॥४७॥

karmany evadhikaras te ma phalesu kadachana
ma karma-phala-hetur bhur ma te sango ’stv akarmani [47]

te–Your; adhikarah–right; eva karmani–is to perform your prescribed duties; ma kadachana (bhuh)–but never; phalesu–to the results. ma bhuh–Be neither; karma-phala-hetuh–motivated by the fruits of action; ma–nor; astu–may; akarmani–non-performance of your prescribed duties; (bhuh)–be; te–your; sangah–inclination. [47]

47 Your right is to your work, never to the fruits. Be neither motivated by the fruit of action nor inclined to give up action.

योगस्थः कुरु कर्म्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥४८॥

yoga-sthah kuru karmani sangam tyaktva dhananjaya
siddhy-asiddhyoh samo bhutva samatvam yoga uchyate [48]

(he) dhananjaya–O Arjuna; yoga-sthah–stand in yoga; tyaktva–giving up; sangam–ego; samah bhutva–and being equipoised; siddhi-asiddhyoh–in success and failure; kuru–do; karmani–your duties; (yatah)–as; samatvam–such equanimity; uchyate–is called; yogah–yoga. [48]

48 O Dhananjaya, give up the ego that you are the doer, and be equipoised in success and failure. Thus stand firm in the plane of yoga and do your prescribed duties. Such a state of balance is indeed known as yoga.

दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनञ्जय ।
बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहेतवः ॥४९॥

durena hy avaram karma buddhi-yogad dhananjaya
buddhau saranam anvichchha krpanah phala-hetavah [49]

(he) dhananjaya–O Dhananjaya; karma hi–action alone; durena avaram–is far inferior; buddhi-yogat–to the yoga of wisdom; (atah)–therefore; anvichchha–seek; saranam–refuge; buddhau–in the wisdom of equanimity. phala-hetavah–Those motivated by the fruits of their actions; krpanah–are misers. [49]

49 O Dhananjaya, (fruitive) action is far inferior to this yoga of wisdom; those motivated by the fruits of their actions are misers. Therefore, seek refuge in the selfless wisdom of equanimity.

बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते ।
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्म्मसु कौशलम् ॥५०॥

buddhi-yukto jahatiha ubhe sukrta-duskrte
tasmad yogaya yujyasva yogah karmasu kausalam [50]

buddhi-yuktah–The wise person; jahati–abstains; ubhe–from both; sukrta-duskrte–pious and sinful actions; iha–in this world. tasmat–Therefore; yujyasva–engage; yogaya–in yoga. yogah–Yoga; kausalam–is the expertise; karmasu–of action. [50]

50 The wise person abstains from both good and bad actions in this world. Engage thus in yoga, as yoga is the art of all works.

कर्म्मजं बुद्धियुक्ता हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः ।
जन्मबन्धविनिर्म्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्यनामयम् ॥५१॥

karma-jam buddhi-yukta hi phalam tyaktva manisinah
janma-bandha-vinirmuktah padam gachchhanty anamayam [51]

hi–Since; tyaktva–by giving up; phalam–the fruits; karma-jam–born of work; buddhi-yuktah–the wise; manisinah (santah)–are enlightened; janma-bandha-vinirmuktah (santah)–and attaining liberation from the bondage of birth; gachchhanti–attain; padam–the plane; anamayam–beyond suffering. [51]

51 The wise are enlightened by giving up the fruits of their actions, and thus attaining liberation from the bondage of birth, they reach the plane beyond all suffering.

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।
तदा गन्तासि निर्व्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ॥५२॥

yada te moha-kalilam buddhir vyatitarisyati
tada gantasi nirvedam srotavyasya srutasya cha [52]

yada–When; te–your; buddhih–intelligence; vyatitarisyati–overcomes; moha-kalilam–the strong illusion (of bodily identification); tada–then; (tvam) gantasi–you will attain; nirvedam–indifference; srotavyasya–of all to be heard; srutasya cha–and already heard. [52]

52 When your intelligence fully emerges from the dense forest of illusion, you will be indifferent to all that has been heard or is yet to be heard.

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।
समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ॥५३॥

sruti-vipratipanna te yada sthasyati nischala
samadhav achala buddhis tada yogam avapsyasi [53]

yada–When; te buddhih–your intelligence; achala–unmoved; sruti-vipratipanna–by the apparent contradictions of the Vedas; sthasyati–remains; nischala samadhau–steadily absorbed in consciousness of the Supreme; tada–then; avapsyasi–you will attain; yogam–yoga. [53]

53 You shall attain perfect yoga or pure devotion when your intelligence, undisturbed by the apparent contradictions of the Vedas, abides in the Lord.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥५४॥

arjuna uvacha

sthita-prajnasya ka bhasa samadhi-sthasya kesava
sthita-dhih kim prabhaseta kim asita vrajeta kim [54]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) kesava–O Kesava; ka bhasa–what is the description; sthita-prajnasya–of a person of firmly established wisdom; samadhi-sthasya–one in samadhi, absorbed in thought of the Supreme? sthita-dhih kim prabhaseta–How does such a person of steady mind speak? kim asita kim vrajeta–How does he be and act? [54]

54 Arjuna said: O Kesava, what are the characteristics of the person of firmly established wisdom, who is fully absorbed in consciousness of the Supreme (samadhi)? How does such a man of steady mind speak, be, and act in this world?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्व्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् ।
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥५५॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

prajahati yada kaman sarvan partha mano-gatan
atmany evatmana tustah sthita-prajnas tadochyate [55]

sri bhagavan uvacha–Sri Krishna said: (he) partha–O son of Kunti; yada–when; (jivah)–the living being; prajahati–gives up; sarvan–all; kaman–desires; manah-gatan–entering the mind; tustah (bhavati)–and is content; atmana eva–by the self; atmani–within the self; tada–then; (sah)–that person; uchyate–is said to be; sthita-prajnah–of steady intelligence. [55]

55 The Supreme Lord said: O Partha, one who rejects all desires that enter the mind and remains self-satisfied within is known as a person whose wisdom is firmly established.

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।
वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥५६॥

duhkhesv anudvigna-manah sukhesu vigata-sprhah
vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah sthita-dhir munir uchyate [56]

anudvigna-manah–One whose mind is undisturbed; duhkhesu–by sorrow; vigata-sprhah sukhesu–and whose hankering for pleasure has gone; (cha)–and; vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah–who is free from attachment, fear, and anger; (sah eva)–such a person; uchyate–is said to be; munih–a silent sage; sthita-dhih–of steady intelligence. [56]

56 One who is undisturbed by sorrow, whose hankering for pleasure has gone, and who is free from attachment, fear, and anger, is known as a silent sage of steady mind.

यः सर्व्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।
नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥५७॥

yah sarvatranabhisnehas tat tat prapya subhasubham
nabhinandati na dvesti tasya prajna pratisthita [57]

yah–One who; anabhisnehah–is without attachment; sarvatra–for anything in this world; na abhinandati–neither joyful; na dvesti–nor resentful; prapya–in the event of; subha-asubham–auspiciousness or inauspiciousness; tat tat–respectively; tasya–his; prajna–wisdom; pratisthita–is firmly established. [57]

57 One who is not attached to anything in this world, who neither enjoys nor resents auspiciousness or inauspiciousness—his wisdom is firmly established.

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्म्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्व्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥५८॥

yada samharate chayam kurmo ’nganiva sarvasah
indriyanindriyarthebhyas tasya prajna pratisthita [58]

yada cha–When; ayam–this person; sarvasah–completely; samharate–withdraws; kurmah angani iva–like the limbs of a tortoise; indriyani–the perceptual senses; indriya-arthebhyah–from their objects (sound, touch, form, taste, and smell); (tada)–then; tasya–his; prajna–wisdom; pratisthita–is firmly established. [58]

58 When one’s senses are controlled and totally withdrawn from their objects, like the limbs of the tortoise withdrawn in its shell, his wisdom is firmly established.

विषया विनिवर्त्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।
रसवर्ज्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्त्तते ॥५९॥

visaya vinivartante niraharasya dehinah
rasa-varjam raso ’py asya param drstva nivartate [59]

dehinah–For the embodied; niraharasya–who restricts the senses; visayah–the objects of the senses; vinivartante–recede; rasa-varjam–but not the taste to enjoy them. rasah api–But even the taste; nivartate–disappears; asya–for the man of wisdom; drstva–by the vision; param–of the Supreme. [59]

59 The embodied being may renounce the sense objects, but the taste for them remains. But that, too, vanishes for the man of wisdom, by his vision of the Supreme.

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।
इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥६०॥

yatato hy api kaunteya purusasya vipaschitah
indriyani pramathini haranti prasabham manah [60]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna; hi–yet; indriyani pramathini–the turbulent senses; prasabham–forcibly; haranti–snatch away; manah–the mind; vipaschitah purusasya api–of even the wise person; yatatah–striving for liberation. [60]

60 And yet, O son of Kunti, the turbulent senses can forcibly plunder the mind of even the wise person striving for liberation.

तानि सर्व्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।
वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥६१॥

tani sarvani samyamya yukta asita mat-parah
vase hi yasyendriyani tasya prajna pratisthita [61]

samyamya–Controlling; tani sarvani–all these senses; mat-parah–the person absorbed in consciousness of Me, devoted to Me; yuktah asita–should remain one-pointed in concentration; hi–for; yasya–he whose; indriyani–senses; vase–have been brought under control; tasya–his; prajna–intelligence; pratisthita–is steady. [61]

61 Devoted to Me, the bhakti-yogi brings his senses under proper control. Firmly established is the wisdom of one whose senses are controlled.

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते ।
सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥६२॥

dhyayato visayan pumsah sangas tesupajayate
sangat sanjayate kamah kamat krodho ’bhijayate [62]

dhyayatah–(Otherwise, without devotion, renunciation alone fails:) By thinking of; visayan–the objects of the senses; pumsah–a person’s; sangah–attachment; tesu–to them; upajayate–is born. sangat–From attachment; kamah–desire; sanjayate–is born. kamat–From desire; krodhah–anger; abhijayate–arises. [62]

62 But one whose thoughts dwell on the objects of the senses becomes attached to them. From attachment, desire is born, and from desire, anger arises.

क्रोधाद्भवति सम्मोहः सम्मोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ॥६३॥

krodhad bhavati sammohah sammohat smrti-vibhramah
smrti-bhramsad buddhi-naso buddhi-nasat pranasyati [63]

krodhat–From anger; sammohah–delusion; bhavati–occurs. sammohat–From delusion; smrti-vibhramah–forgetfulness of scriptural morality; (bhavati)–occurs. smrti-bhram sat–From forgetfulness; buddhi-nasah–loss of truth-seeking intelligence; (bhavati)–occurs. buddhi-nasat–From loss of intelligence; (puman)–a person; pranasyati–falls into samsara, the cycle of birth and death in the material world. [63]

63 Anger gives rise to delusion, and the power of delusion causes forgetfulness; forgetfulness destroys the intelligence, and when the intelligence is lost, one loses all.

रागद्वेषविमुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् ।
आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ॥६४॥

raga-dvesa-vimuktais tu visayan indriyais charan
atma-vasyair vidheyatma prasadam adhigachchhati [64]

tu–But; vidheya-atma–the person who can control his mind at will—whose mind is obedient to him; raga-dvesa-vimuktaih (or -viyuktaih in another reading)–free from attraction and repulsion, adopting yukta-vairagya or devotionally integrated detachment; charan–actively accepting; visayan–objects; atma-vasyaih indriyaih–through senses under his own control; adhigachchhati–attains; prasadam–tranquillity. [64]

64 But the integrated person who can control his mind at will, and who, free from attraction and repulsion, accepts his worldly necessities through his controlled senses, attains tranquillity.

प्रसादे सर्व्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते ।
प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्यशु बुद्धिः पर्य्यवतिष्ठते ॥६५॥

prasade sarva-duhkhanam hanir asyopajayate
prasanna-chetaso hy asu buddhih paryavatisthate [65]

prasade (sati)–When the heart is tranquil; asya–for such a person; hanih–the end; sarva-duhkhanam–of all sorrows; upajayate–occurs; hi–since; buddhih–the wisdom; prasanna-chetasah–of the peaceful-hearted person; asu–swiftly becomes; pari-avatisthate–steadfast. [65]

65 When one attains a peaceful heart, all his sorrows are dispelled. The tranquil person’s wisdom swiftly becomes steadfast.

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।
न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥६६॥

nasti buddhir ayuktasya na chayuktasya bhavana
na chabhavayatah santir asantasya kutah sukham [66]

ayuktasya–For a person without self-control; na asti–there is no; buddhih–wisdom, self-knowledge. ayuktasya–For such a person devoid of this intelligence; na cha (asti)–there is no; bhavana–meditation on the Lord, purity of thought. abhavayatah–For one without meditation; na cha (asti)–there is no; santih–peace. asantasya–For a person who has no peace; kutah–where is; sukham–happiness? [66]

66 A person bereft of self-control can have neither wisdom nor meditation. Without meditation there is no peace, and without peace, where is the hope for happiness?

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते ।
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ॥६७॥

indriyanam hi charatam yan mano ’nuvidhiyate
tad asya harati prajnam vayur navam ivambhasi [67]

hi–Because; iva–as; vayuh–an unfavourable wind; (harati)–carries away; navam–a boat; ambhasi–on the ocean; (tadvat)–similarly; indriyanam–of the senses; charatam–that wander about their objects; yat–whichever sense; manah–the mind; anuvidhiyate–follows; tat–that sense; harati–carries away, lures towards its object; prajnam–the wisdom, intelligence; asya–of that person bereft of self-control. [67]

67 As a boat on the ocean is thrown off course by an unfavourable wind, similarly, the wisdom of a person lacking self-control is carried away by even one of the roaming senses that the mind might follow.

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्व्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥६८॥

tasmad yasya maha-baho nigrhitani sarvasah
indriyanindriyarthebhyas tasya prajna pratisthita [68]

(he) maha-baho–O subduer of the enemy; tasmat–therefore; yasya–he whose; indriyani–senses; nigrhitani–are withdrawn; sarvasah–fully; indriya-arthebhyah–from the sense objects; tasya–his; prajna–wisdom; pratisthita–is firmly established. [68]

68 Therefore, O subduer of the enemy, one whose senses are fully withdrawn from their objects is a person of firmly established wisdom.

या निशा सर्व्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्त्ति संयमी ।
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥६९॥

ya nisa sarva-bhutanam tasyam jagarti samyami
yasyam jagrati bhutani sa nisa pasyato muneh [69]

sarva-bhutanam ya nisa–That which is night for all living beings (who, immersed in ignorance, remain asleep to spiritual knowledge); tasyam–in that night; samyami–the self-disciplined person; jagarti–remains awake (joyful in his spiritual intelligence). yasyam–That (mundane intelligence) in which; bhutani–all living beings; jagrati–remain awake (experience the pleasures and pains, sorrows and delusions of worldly life); sa–such (mundane intelligence) is; nisa–night; muneh–for the sage; pasyatah–who sees (the futility of mundane endeavours and remains indifferent to the dualities). [69]

69 That which is day for the self-controlled sage is night for all beings, and that which is day for all beings is night for the sage who sees. (The living beings absorbed in mundane life are asleep to the spiritual joy of the realised soul, who remains indifferent to their quest for the pleasures of the senses, devoid of spiritual joy.)

आपूर्य्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं
समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।
तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्व्वे
स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥७०॥

apuryamanam achala-pratistham
samudram apah pravisanti yadvat
tadvat kama yam pravisanti sarve
sa santim apnoti na kama-kami [70]

yadvat–As; apah–water; pravisanti–enters; samudram–the ocean; apuryamanam–which is always full; achala-pratistham–it remains steady, its water never crossing the shore; tadvat–similar is; yam–that sage who; sarve kamah–all desires; pravisanti–enter to be enjoyed (for they cannot disturb his mind). sah–He alone; apnoti–attains; santim–peace; (tu)–but; kama-kami–a person who nurtures desires; na (tad apnoti)–cannot achieve that. [70]

70 As the ocean remains full and unchanged though many rivers and streams enter into it, the person of firmly established wisdom attains peace despite all desires entering him. But a person who nurtures desires cannot know peace.

विहाय कामान्यः सर्व्वान्पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः ।
निर्म्ममो निरहङ्कारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥७१॥

vihaya kaman yah sarvan pumams charati nihsprhah
nirmamo nirahankarah sa santim adhigachchhati [71]

yah puman–That person who; vihaya–giving up; sarvan kaman–all desires; charati–moves through the world; nisprhah–free from hankering; nirahankarah nirmamah–free from the false ego of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ in relation to the body and its attachments (having a divine relationship with the Supreme); sah–he; adhigachchhati–attains; santim–peace. [71]

71 Only a person who lives his life abandoning all desires, hankering, ego and possessiveness, can know real peace.

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।
स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्व्वाणमृच्छति ॥७२॥

esa brahmi sthitih partha nainam prapya vimuhyati
sthitvasyam anta-kale ’pi brahma-nirvanam rchchhati [72]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; esa brahmi sthitih–this is the state of realising Brahma, the Absolute. enam prapya–Having reached this; (narah)–a person; na vimuhyati–is freed from the delusion of mundane existence. rchchhati–He attains; brahma-nirvanam–liberation from matter and entrance into the divine plane; sthitva–being situated; asyam–in this state; anta-kale api–even at the time of death. [72]

72 O Partha, this is realisation of the Absolute, attaining which a person is freed from the delusion of mundane existence. Even at the time of death, only a momentary attainment of this state leads one to the divine abode.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे साङ्ख्य योगो नाम द्वितोयोऽध्यायः ॥२॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma-
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade
sankhya-yogo nama dvitiyo ’dhyayah [2]

End of Chapter Two
The Contitution Of The Soul
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

तृतीयोऽध्यायः
Chapter Three

Karma-yoga: The Path of Action

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

ज्यायसी चेत्कर्म्मणस्ते मता बुद्धिर्जनार्द्दन ।
तत्किं कर्म्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

jyayasi chet karmanas te mata buddhir janardana
tat kim karmani ghore mam niyojayasi kesava [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) janardana–O Janardan; (he) kesava–O Kesava; chet–if; te mata–it is Your opinion that; buddhih–wisdom; jyayasi–is superior; karmanah–to action; tat kim–why, then; niyojayasi mam–do You urge me to engage; ghore karmani–in the terrible action of warfare? [1]

1 Arjuna said: O Janardan, O Kesava, if You consider wisdom superior to action, why, then, do you urge me to engage in the violence of warfare?

व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे ।
तदेकं वद निश्चत्य येन श्रेयोऽहमाप्नुयाम् ॥२॥

vyamisreneva vakyena buddhim mohayasiva me
tad ekam vada nischitya yena sreyo ’ham apnuyam [2]

mohayasi iva–You are bewildering; me–my; buddhim–intelligence; vakyena–by Your words; vyamisrena iva–by their ambiguous meanings, sometimes praising action and sometimes praising wisdom. tat–Therefore; nischitya–ascertaining; ekam–one; vada–please say; yena–that by which; aham–I; apnuyam–can obtain; sreyah–the highest benefit. [2]

2 I am confused by Your words. They appear to be ambiguous, sometimes supporting action and sometimes supporting wisdom. So please tell me, which is the most beneficial path for me to take?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

लोकेऽस्मिन्द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ ।
ज्ञानयोगेन साङ्ख्यानां कर्म्मयोगेन योगिनाम् ॥३॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

loke ’smin dvi-vidha nistha pura prokta mayanagha
jnana-yogena sankhyanam karma-yogena yoginam [3]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Lord said: (he) anagha–O sinless Arjuna; asmin loke–in this world; dvi-vidha nistha–two ways; prokta–have been spoken of; maya–by Me; pura–in the previous chapter: (nistha sthapita)–the established practice; sankhyanam–of the realised; jnana-yogena–by the yoga of knowledge; (nistha sthapita)–and the established practice; yoginam–of those engaged in action in the world; karma-yogena–by the yoga of selfless action. [3]

3 The Supreme Lord replied: O sinless one, I have described the two paths to be found in this world—the yoga of wisdom practised by the realised and the yoga of selfless action practised by those active in the world. (Both paths touch the beginnings of devotional practice since the ladder to the plane of devotion is one, while the practice is twofold according to the stage attained.)

न कर्म्मणामनारम्भान्नैष्कर्म्म्यं पुरुषोऽश्नुते ।
न च सन्न्यसनादेव सिद्धिं समधिगच्छति ॥४॥

na karmanam anarambhan naiskarmyam puruso ’snute
na cha sannyasanad eva siddhim samadhigachchhati [4]

purusah–A person; na asnute–cannot attain; naiskarmyam–to the state of spiritual consciousness beyond material activity; anarambhat–by refraining from; karmanam–(scripturally prescribed) actions; na samadhigachchhati–and he cannot attain; siddhim–fulfillment, perfection; sannyasanat eva cha–by renunciation alone. [4]

4 One cannot attain freedom from action by refraining from action. Nor can one attain fulfillment by renunciation alone.

न हि कश्चत्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्म्मकृत् ।
कार्य्यते ह्यवशः कर्म्म सर्व्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ॥५॥

na hi kaschit ksanam api jatu tisthaty akarmakrt
karyate hy avasah karma sarvah prakrti-jair gunaih [5]

kaschit–One; na hi tisthati–cannot remain; jatu–at any time; akarma-krt–without engaging in activity; ksanam api–even for a moment. sarvah hi–Indeed, all living beings; avasah–are helplessly; karma karyate–engaged in activity; prakrti-jaih gunaih–by the modes or qualities born of material nature. [5]

5 No one can refrain from activity for even a moment. Everyone is impelled to act by the modes of material nature. (Thus the person of impure consciousness should not disregard scripturally prescribed purificatory works.)

कर्म्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य य आस्ते मनसा स्मरन् ।
इन्द्रियार्थान्विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते ॥६॥

karmendriyani samyamya ya aste manasa smaran
indriyarthan vimudhatma mithyacharah sa uchyate [6]

yah–That person who; samyamya–having controlled; karma-indriyani–the senses of action—the hands, legs, etc. (see 13.6); smaran aste–remembers, dwells on; indriya-arthan–the sense objects; manasa–within his mind; sah–that person; uchyate–is known as; vimudha-atma–a fool; mithya-acharah–and a hypocrite. [6]

6 One who externally restrains his hands, legs, and other senses of action, but whose mind dwells on sense objects, is a fool. Know him to be a hypocrite.

यस्त्वन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्यारभतेऽर्ज्जुन ।
कर्म्मेन्द्रियैः कर्म्मयोगमसक्तः स विशिष्यते ॥७॥

yas tv indriyani manasa niyamyarabhate ’rjuna
karmendriyaih karma-yogam asaktah sa visisyate [7]

(he) arjuna–O Dhananjaya; yah tu–but he, who; niyamya–having stabilised; indriyani–the senses; manasa–by the mind; arabhate–engages in; karma-yogam–the yoga of action as directed by the scriptures; karma-indriyaih–utilising the senses of action; asaktah–without any desire for the results; sah–that person; visisyate–is superior to such a hypocrite. [7]

7 O Arjuna, superior is one who (though married) has stabilised his senses by the mind and engaged in the yoga of selfless action.

नियतं कुरु कर्म्म त्वं कर्म्म ज्यायो ह्यकर्म्मणः ।
शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्येदकर्म्मणः ॥८॥

niyatam kuru karma tvam karma jyayo hy akarmanah
sarira-yatrapi cha te na prasiddhyed akarmanah [8]

tvam–You; kuru–perform; niyatam karma–prescribed duties; hi–since; karma–the performance of duty; jyayah–is superior; akarmanah–to renouncing duty. akarmanah cha–By becoming inactive; te sarira yatra api–even your bodily sustenance; na prasiddhyet–will not be accomplished. [8]

8 Perform your prescribed duties, since to be active is better than idleness. Inactive persons cannot even maintain their existence. (By giving up fruitive action and performing your obligatory duties, your heart will be purified. Surpassing the plane of renunciation, you will attain pure devotion, transcendental to the mundane plane.)

यज्ञार्थात्कर्म्मणोऽन्यत्र लोकोऽयं कर्म्मबन्धनः ।
तदर्थं कर्म्म कौन्तेय मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ॥९॥

yajnarthat karmano ’nyatra loko ’yam karma-bandhanah
tad-artham karma kaunteya mukta-sangah samachara [9]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna; ayam lokah–all the living beings of this world; karma-bandhanah (bhavati)–come into bondage by their action; karmanah anyatra–other than action; yajna-arthat–as selfless duty offered to Lord Visnu. (atah)–Therefore; mukta-sangah (san)–being free from attachment; karma samachara–be fully active; tat-artham–for the purpose of such sacrifice, for Him. [9]

9 Selfless duty performed as an offering to the Supreme Lord is called yajna, or sacrifice. O Arjuna, all action performed for any other purpose is the cause of bondage in this world of repeated birth and death. Therefore, remaining unattached to the fruits of action, perform all your duties in the spirit of such sacrifice. (Such selfless action is the way to begin devotional practice, gradually realise the presence of the Lord, and ultimately attain pure devotion transcendental to the modes of material nature [nirguna bhakti]).

सहयज्ञाः प्रजाः सृष्ट्वा पुरोवाच प्रजापतिः ।
अनेन प्रसविष्यध्वमेष वोऽस्त्विष्टकामधुक् ॥१०॥

saha-yajnah prajah srstva purovacha prajapatih
anena prasavisyadhvam esa vo ’stv ista-kama-dhuk [10]

pura–At the universal manifestation; srstva–after manifesting; saha-yajnah prajah–the progeny of the world, with sacrifices for Lord Visnu; prajapatih–Lord Brahma; uvacha–said: prasavisyadhvam–“May your prosperity flourish; anena–by this religious practice. esah astu–May this sacrifice be; vah–your; ista-kama-dhuk–bestower of desired objects.” [10]

10 In the beginning, Lord Brahma manifested the progeny of the world, along with sacrifices. He instructed them thus: “Take shelter of this religious principle of sacrifice; prosper and flourish. May such sacrifice be the bestower of the things you desire.”

देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः ।
परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ॥११॥

devan bhavayatanena te deva bhavayantu vah
parasparam bhavayantah sreyah param avapsyatha [11]

anena–“By this yajna; (yujam)–you all; bhavayata–propitiate; devan–the demigods; te devah (api)–and the demigods being thus pleased; bhavayantu vah–may bestow upon you your desired fruits. (evam)–In this way; parasparam–mutually; bhavayantah–nourished; avapsyatha–you will obtain; param sreyah–the ultimate auspiciousness.” [11]

11 “Propitiate the gods by sacrifices, and may they satisfy you by bestowing your desired fruits. In this way, through mutual nourishment, you will be the gainers of great auspiciousness.”

इष्टान्भोगान्हि वो देवा दास्यन्ते यज्ञभाविताः ।
तैर्दत्तानप्रदायैभ्यो यो भुङ्क्ते स्तेन एव सः ॥१२॥

istan bhogan hi vo deva dasyante yajna-bhavitah
tair dattan apradayaibhyo yo bhunkte stena eva sah [12]

devah–The demigods (as limbs of My universal form); yajna-bhavitah (santah)–being pleased by sacrifices; dasyante–will bestow; vah–upon you; istan bhogan–desired enjoyable objects. hi–Therefore; yah–he who; bhunkte–enjoys; taih dattan–food provided by the demigods; (vrstyadi dvarena)–via the rain, etc.; apradaya–without making any offerings (of that food); (pancha-yajna-adhibhih)–by means of the five kinds of sacrifices, etc.; ebhyah–to those demigods, who are all under My shelter; sah–that person; stenah eva–is but a thief. [12]

12 Propitiated by sacrifices, the gods (My worldly representatives) will bestow upon you all your desired enjoyable things. But one who enjoys what is given by the gods without offering it to them, is a thief.

यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्व्वकिल्बिषैः ।
भुञ्जते ते त्वघं पापा ये पचन्त्यात्मकारणात् ॥१३॥

yajna-sistasinah santo muchyante sarva-kilbisaih
bhunjate te tv agham papa ye pachanty atma-karanat [13]

santah–Virtuous persons; yajna-sista-asinah–who partake of the remnants of sacrifice to the demigods (universal administrators subordinate to the Lord); muchyante–are liberated; sarva-kilbisaih–from all sin (pancha-suna, five types of sin due to five kinds of violence to other living beings). ye tu–But those who; pachanti–cook; atma-karanat–for their own pleasure; te–those; papah–sinful persons; bhunjate–eat; (eva)–only; agham–sin. [13]

13 By accepting sacrificial remnants of the universal gods*, virtuous persons are liberated from all sins arising from violence towards other living entities. But those who prepare food for their own pleasure partake only of sin.

* The remnants referred to here are not the same as the Krishna-prasad (food that has been offered to the Supreme Lord by His devotees). See 9.20–26.

अन्नाद्भवन्ति भूतानि पर्ज्जन्यादन्नसम्भवः ।
यज्ञाद्भवति पर्ज्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्म्मसमुद्भवः ॥१४॥

annad bhavanti bhutani parjanyad anna-sambhavah
yajnad bhavati parjanyo yajnah karma-samudbhavah [14]

annat–From food (transformed into semen and blood); bhutani–(the physical bodies of) all living entities; bhavanti–are manifest. anna-sambhavah–Food is manifest; parjanyat–due to rainfall. parjanyah–Rainfall; bhavati–occurs; yajnat–due to yajna, sacrifice. yajnah–Sacrifice; karma-samudbhavah–is born of action. [14]

14 The living beings’ bodies are manifest from food, food is manifest due to rain, rainfall ensues from the performance of sacrifice, and action is the cause of sacrifice.

कर्म्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम् ।
तस्मात्सर्व्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥१५॥

karma brahmodbhavam viddhi brahmaksara-samudbhavam
tasmat sarva-gatam brahma nityam yajne pratisthitam [15]

viddhi–Know that; karma–action; brahma-udbhavam–is born of the Vedas. brahma–The Vedas; aksara-samudbhavam–are born of Aksara, the Imperishable. tasmat–Therefore; sarva-gatam–the all-pervading; brahma–Supreme Lord; nityam pratisthitam–is always situated; yajne–within sacrifice. [15]

15 Action is prescribed in the Vedas, and the Vedas originate in Aksara, the Imperishable. Therefore, the all-pervading, imperishable Lord is ever present within the acts of sacrifice offered to Him.

एवं प्रवर्त्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्त्तयतीह यः ।
अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति ॥१६॥

evam pravartitam chakram nanuvartayatiha yah
aghayur indriyaramo mogham partha sa jivati [16]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; yah–one who; iha–in this life; na anuvartayati–does not follow; chakram–the cycle; evam pravartitam–thus established in the nature of cause and effect; (parama-purusena)–by the Supreme Personality; sah–he; jivati–lives; agha-ayuh–a life of sin; indriya-aramah–enjoying the senses; mogham–in vain. [16]

16 O Arjuna, one who does not respect this natural causal cycle leads a life of sin, enjoying the senses in vain.

यस्त्वात्मरतिरेव स्यादात्मतृप्तश्च मानवः ।
आत्मन्येव च सन्तुष्टस्तस्य कार्य्यं न विद्यते ॥१७॥

yas tv atma-ratir eva syad atma-trptas cha manavah
atmany eva cha santustas tasya karyam na vidyate [17]

tu–But; yah manavah–that man who; syat–is; atma-ratih–internally ecstatic; atma-trptah eva cha–internally satiated; cha–and; santustah–fully satisfied; atmani eva–in the self alone; tasya–his; karyam–duties; na vidyate–are none. [17]

17 Yet there is no duty to fulfill for the realised person who delights within the self, being fully satisfied within. (His only worldly action or karma is as required for his subsistence.)

नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन ।
न चास्य सर्व्वभूतेषु कश्चदर्थव्यपाश्रयः ॥१८॥

naiva tasya krtenartho nakrteneha kaschana
na chasya sarva-bhutesu kaschid artha-vyapasrayah [18]

iha–In this world; tasya–for that atmarama, one who delights in the self; arthah na eva–no piety is gained; krtena–by action; kaschana (anarthah) na–nor is any sin committed; akrtena–by inaction; sarva-bhutesu cha–and of all beings; kaschit na (bhavati)–no one is; asya artha-vyapasrayah–depended on by him for any purpose. [18]

18 In the world, he neither gains by action, nor loses by inaction. He does not depend on any other being (from Lord Brahma down to the simplest life-form) for any purpose.

तस्मादसक्तः सततं कार्य्यं कर्म्म समाचर ।
असक्तो ह्याचरन्कर्म्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः ॥१९॥

tasmad asaktah satatam karyam karma samachara
asakto hy acharan karma param apnoti purusah [19]

tasmat–Therefore; asaktah (san)–being unattached to the fruits of your actions; satatam–always; samachara–perfectly perform; karyam karma–prescribed duties; hi–since; karma acharan–by performing these duties; asaktah–without attachment; purusah–a person; apnoti–attains; param–liberation, param-bhakti—pure devotion. [19]

19 So perform your prescribed duties without attachment. By selflessly executing one’s duties a person attains liberation. (True liberation is the state of pure devotion, attained in the maturity of selfless action.)

कर्म्मणैव हि संसिद्धिमास्थिता जनकादयः ।
लोकसङ्ग्रहमेवापि सम्पश्यन्कर्त्तुमर्हसि ॥२०॥

karmanaiva hi samsiddhim asthita janakadayah
loka-sangraham evapi sampasyan kartum arhasi [20]

janaka-adayah–The learned, such as King Janaka and others; hi–certainly; asthitah–obtained; samsiddhim–success—devotion; karmana eva–by fulfilling their duties. arhasi–Be prepared; kartum–to do; (karma)–work; api–also; loka-sangraham sampasyan eva–in the consideration of the welfare of the people. [20]

20 King Janaka and other learned personalities succeeded in attaining devotion through the execution of their prescribed duties. So it is fitting that you fulfill your duty in consideration of the welfare of the people.

यद्यदाचरति श्रेष्ठस्तत्तदेवेतरो जनः ।
स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्त्तते ॥२१॥

yad yad acharati sresthas tat tad evetaro janah
sa yat pramanam kurute lokas tad anuvartate [21]

yat yat–However; srestah–the great personality; acharati–conducts himself; itarah janah–other lesser men; (acharati)–will conduct themselves; tat tat eva–accordingly. yat–Whatever; sah–the great personality; kurute–accepts; pramanam–as the standard; lokah–ordinary men; tat anuvartate–follow that. [21]

21 The masses follow the ways of great men, following the standards they set.

न मे पार्थास्ति कर्त्तव्यं त्रिषु लोकेषु किञ्चन ।
नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त्त एव च कर्म्मणि ॥२२॥

na me parthasti kartavyam trisu lokesu kinchana
nanavaptam avaptavyam varta eva cha karmani [22]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; trisu lokesu–in the three worlds; na asti–there is not; kinchana–any; kartavyam–duty to be done; me–for Me; (yatah)–since; na (asti kinchana)–there is nothing; anavaptam–unobtained; avaptavyam–or to be obtained; (mama)–for Me; (tathapi)–and yet; varte eva cha–I am engaged; karmani–in activity. [22]

22 O Arjuna, I have no duty in the three worlds. I lack nothing, and there is nothing to be attained by Me; and yet, I, Myself, am active.

यदि ह्यहं न वर्त्तेयं जातु कर्म्मण्यतन्द्रितः ।
मम वर्त्त्मानुवर्त्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्व्वशः ॥२३॥

yadi hy aham na varteyam jatu karmany atandritah
mama vartmanuvartante manusyah partha sarvasah [23]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; yadi jatu–if ever; aham–I; na varteyam–do not engage; atandritah–attentively; karmani–in duties; (tarhi)–then; hi–certainly; manusyah–all men; anuvartante–will follow; mama–My; vartma–path; sarvasah–in all respects. [23]

23 O Arjuna, if ever I do not engage attentively in duties, then all men, following My example, will give up their duties.

उत्सीदेयुरिमे लोका न कुर्य्यां कर्म्म चेदहम् ।
सङ्करस्य च कर्त्ता स्यामुपहन्यामिमाः प्रजाः ॥२४॥

utsideyur ime loka na kuryam karma ched aham
sankarasya cha karta syam upahanyam imah prajah [24]

chet–If; aham–I; na kuryan–do not engage in; karma–duty; (tarhi)–then; ime lokah–the inhabitants of these worlds; utsideyuh–will be ruined; (karma tyaktva)–by renouncing their duty; cha–and; (aham)–I; syam–will be; karta–the maker; sankarasya–of varna-sankara, or adulterated progeny; (evam aham eva)–and in this way, I alone; upahanyam–will cause the downfall; imah prajah–of these people. [24]

24 If I do not engage in duty, the people of these worlds will renounce their duties and fall to ruination. Thus I will be responsible for their downfall, caused by adulterated progeny.

सक्ताः कर्म्मण्यविद्वांसो यथा कुर्व्वन्ति भारत ।
कुर्य्याद्विद्वांस्तथासक्तश्चिकीर्षुर्लोकसङ्ग्रहम् ॥२५॥

saktah karmany avidvamso yatha kurvanti bharata
kuryad vidvams tathasaktas chikirsur loka-sangraham [25]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; yatha–just as; avidvamsah–the ignorant; karmani saktah–attached to work; kurvanti–perform; (karmani)–work; tatha–similarly; vidvan–the wise; asaktah (san)–being unattached; kuryat–should work; chikirsuh–wishing; lokasan graham–to guide the people. [25]

25 O Arjuna, as ignorant persons work with attachment, the wise, too, must work, but without attachment, in order to guide the general people who exist in the plane of worldly action. (They differ not in their work but in their attitudes of attachment and detachment.)

न बुद्धिभेदं जनयेदज्ञानां कर्म्मसङ्गिनाम् ।
योजयेत्सर्व्वकर्म्माणि विद्वान्युक्तः समाचरन् ॥२६॥

na buddhi-bhedam janayed ajnanam karma-sanginam
yojayet sarva-karmani vidvan yuktah samacharan [26]

vidvan–The learned, the teacher of jnana-yoga; na janayet–must not create; ajnanam–among ignorant men; karma-sanginam–who are attached to work; buddhi-bhedam–the confusion to neglect duties and cultivate knowledge. (api tu)–Rather; yuktah (san)–remaining unattached; samacharan–fully executing; sarva-karmani–all duties; (ajnan) yojayet–they should encourage the ignorant in their duties. [26]

26 The scripturally learned teacher should not create confusion in the minds of ignorant, attached men by apparently advocating the neglect of duty for the cultivation of knowledge. Rather, he should set the example of selflessness in fulfilling duties, thus encouraging the ignorant in the performance of their prescribed duties.

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्म्माणि सर्व्वशः ।
अहङ्कारविमूढात्मा कर्त्ताहमिति मन्यते ॥२७॥

prakrteh kriyamanani gunaih karmani sarvasah
ahankara-vimudhatma kartaham iti manyate [27]

karmani–Actions; kriyamanani–are effected; sarvasah–in all ways; gunaih–(by the senses, impelled) by the modes; prakrteh–of material nature; (tu)–but; ahankara-vimudha-atma–one deluded by bodily ego; manyate iti–thinks thus; aham karta–“I am the doer.” [27]

27 All actions in the world are in every respect effected by the modes of material nature (which impell the senses). But a man deluded by bodily identification thinks, “I alone am accomplishing this work.”

तत्त्ववित्तु महाबाहो गुणकर्म्मविभागयोः ।
गुणा गुणेषु वर्त्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जते ॥२८॥

tattvavit tu maha-baho guna-karma-vibhagayoh
guna gunesu vartanta iti matva na sajjate [28]

tu–But; (he) maha-baho–O Arjuna, best of heroes; tattva-vit–one who is in knowledge; guna-karma-vibhagayoh–of the division of the modes of material nature (the three modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance), and action (the functional demigods, the senses, and the sense objects); (sah)–he; matva–considering; iti–that; gunah–the modes (in the form of the senses of perception—ear, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose, activated by the demigods); vartante–are engaged; gunesu–within the modes (in the form of the sense objects of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell); na sajjate–is not attached to them, not absorbed in them. [28]

28 However, O mighty-armed Arjuna, one who is in knowledge of the division of the modes of material nature and action, knows that the modes are engaging within the modes, and he is detached from them. (One who knows that the three modes activated by the demigods impell the engagement of the senses with their objects, knows himself to be independent of these elements, therefore he does not consider himself a doer.)

प्रकृतेर्गुणसम्मूढाः सज्जन्ते गुणकर्म्मसु ।
तानकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान्कृत्स्नविन्न विचालयेत् ॥२९॥

prakrter guna-sammudhah sajjante guna-karmasu
tan akrtsna-vido mandan krtsna-vin na vichalayet [29]

prakrteh-guna-sammudhah–Persons bewildered by the modes; sajjante–are absorbed; guna-karmasu–in the functions of the modes (the engagement of the senses with their objects). krtsna-vit–Those possessing knowledge; na vichalayet–should not agitate (by trying to induce them to accept knowledge of self and non-self); tan–those; akrtsna-vidah–ignorant; mandan–unfortunate persons; (kintu gunavesa-nivartakam niskama karmaiva karayet)–but should rather engage them in selfless action which frees them from absorption in the modes of nature. [29]

29 Persons bewildered by the modes of nature are absorbed in the functions of the modes (the engagement of the senses with their objects). Enlightened persons should not agitate such ignorant, unfortunate persons by trying to convince them of higher philosophical truths. (Rather, they should advise the conditioned souls to practise selfless action, which liberates them from absorption in the modes.)

मयि सर्व्वाणि कर्म्माणि सन्न्यस्याध्यात्मचेतसा ।
निराशीर्निर्म्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ॥३०॥

mayi sarvani karmani sannyasyadhyatma-chetasa
nirasir nirmamo bhutva yudhyasva vigata-jvarah [30]

sannyasya–Completely surrendering; sarvani karmani–all activities; mayi–unto Me; adhyatma-chetasa–always conscious of the Spiritual Being; bhutva–being; nirasih–without fruitive desire; nirmamah–without possessiveness; vigata-jvarah (cha)–and without anguish; yudhyasva–fight. [30]

30 Surrender all your activities to Me with this understanding: “All my actions are under the control of the indwelling Lord.” In such consciousness, free from possessiveness and anguish, take recourse to battle (as your natural duty).

ये मे मतमिदं नित्यमनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः ।
श्रद्धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो मुच्यन्ते तेऽपि कर्म्मभिः ॥३१॥

ye me matam idam nityam anutisthanti manavah
sraddhavanto ’nasuyanto muchyante te ’pi karmabhih [31]

ye manavah–Those men who; sraddhavantah–faithfully; anasuyantah–and unbegrudgingly; nityam–always; anutisthanti–execute; idam–this; me matam–teaching of Mine, of selfless action; te api–they too; muchyante–are liberated; karmabhih–from the bondage of karma, or action and reaction in the mundane plane. [31]

31 Faithful, unbegrudging men who always practise My teaching, this yoga of selfless action, are liberated from the bondage of action, even though they engage in action.

ये त्वेतदभ्यसूयन्तो नानुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतम् ।
सर्व्वज्ञानविमूढांस्तान्विद्धि नष्टानचेतसः ॥३२॥

ye tv etad abhyasuyanto nanutisthanti me matam
sarva-jnana-vimudhams tan viddhi nastan achetasah [32]

ye tu–But those who; abhyasuyantah–out of resentment; na anutisthanti–do not follow; etat me matam–that teaching of Mine; tan viddhi–know them to be; sarva-jnana-vimudhan–deprived of all knowledge; nastan–completely deviated from the goal of human life; achetasah–and bereft of good intelligence. [32]

32 But the arrogant who resent My teaching are bereft of all knowledge. Know them to be lost in ignorance.

सदृशं चेष्टते स्वस्याः प्रकृतेर्ज्ञानवानपि ।
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति ॥३३॥

sadrsam chestate svasyah prakrter jnanavan api
prakrtim yanti bhutani nigrahah kim karisyati [33]

jnanavan api–Even a knowledgable person; chestate–acts; sadrsam–according to; svasyah prakrteh–his nature. bhutani–Living beings; prakrtim yanti–follow their natures. kim karisyati–What will be the use of; nigrahah–repression; (tesam)–of them? [33]

33 For even a knowledgable person tends to act according to his nature (mundane inclinations). The living beings’ endeavours are dictated by their natures. What, then, can repression accomplish?

इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।
तयोर्न वशमागच्छेत्तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थिनौ ॥३४॥

indriyasyendriyasyarthe raga-dvesau vyavasthitau
tayor na vasam agachchhet tau hy asya paripanthinau [34]

raga-dvesau–Attraction and aversion; indriyasya–of all the senses; vyavasthitau–exist; indriyasya-arthe–for their objects. (tathapi)–However; vasam na agachchhet–One must not be controlled; tayoh–by such attraction and aversion; hi–since; tau pari-panthinau–they are an obstacle; asya–to the spiritual practitioner. [34]

34 Although the senses are attracted to and repelled by the sense objects, one must not be controlled by these urges, for they are the greatest enemy of the candidate for self-realisation.

श्रेयान्स्वधर्म्मो विगुणः परधर्म्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वधर्म्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्म्मो भयावहः ॥३५॥

sreyan svadharmo vigunah para-dharmat svanusthitat
svadharme nidhanam sreyah para-dharmo bhayavahah [35]

svadharmah–One’s own function; vigunah–tinged with faults; sreyan–is better; para-dharmat–than another’s function; su-anusthitat–done well. nidhanam–Even death; svadharme–on one’s own path of duty (according to one’s appropiate position in the varnasram or God-centred socio-religious system); sreyah–is better. para-dharmah–Another’s path of duty; bhaya-avahah–is dangerous. [35]

35 Even if it is imperfect, it is better to do one’s duty according to one’s own nature, than to do another’s well. Even death in the discharge of one’s own duty is better, for to perform another’s is dangerous.

Commentary

The eternal, superexcellent, natural function (dharma) of the soul is pure devotion to Adhoksaja, the transcendental Lord. Therefore, even if this function is somewhat imperfectly attempted by one with external malpractices, such an attempt will be superior to the ‘good’ practices within the material modes of nature and worldly chain of actions and habits foreign to the soul’s nature. Even if death occurs during the cultivation of such pure devotion in proper saintly association, it is the bestower of the ultimate good; but in the name of good practices to ignorantly follow ‘another’s path’—anything other than devotion to the Lord (dvitiyabhinives)—is bhayavah, endangering to the spiritual progress of the soul.*

* भयं द्वितीयाभिनिवेशतः स्याद्
ईशादपेतस्य विपर्य्ययोऽस्मृतिः ।
तन्माययातो बुध आभजेत्तं
भक्त्यैकयेशं गुरुदेवतात्मा ॥

bhayam dvitiyabhinivesatah syad
isad apetasya viparyayo ’smrtih
tan mayayato budha abhajet tam
bhaktyaikayesam guru-devatatma

(SB: 11.2.37)

“A person of fine intelligence will serve with single-minded devotion his Lord who is his teacher and dearmost friend. But those who have turned away from the Lord adopt the illusory ego of considering the perishable body to be the self, forgetting their true identities. Their consciousness absorbed in ‘secondary pursuits’, i.e., mundane objectives, they are always fearful on account of the body and its attachments.”

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापञ्चरति पूरुषः ।
अनिच्छन्नपि वार्ष्णेय बलादिव नियोजितः ॥३६॥

arjuna uvacha

atha kena prayukto ’yam papan charati purusah
anichchhann api varsneya balad iva niyojitah [36]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: atha–Now; (he) varsneya–O descendant of the Vrsni dynasty; kena prayuktah (san)–being incited by what; ayam purusah charati–does this living being commit; papam–sinful activities; anichchhan api–even unwillingly; niyojitah iva–as if engaged; balat–by force? [36]

36 Arjuna inquired: O descendant of the Vrsnis, by what is the living being compelled to commit sinful activities, even unwillingly, as if by force?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः ।
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् ॥३७॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

kama esa krodha esa rajoguna-samudbhavah
mahasano maha-papma viddhy enam iha vairinam [37]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: esah kamah–It is this desire to enjoy the mundane; esah krodhah–transformed into anger. rajo-guna-samudbhavah–It arises from the mode of passion, and from that desire, blind anger is born. viddhi enam–Know such desire to be; maha-asanah–never satisfied; maha-papma–greatly wrathful; vairinam–and the worst enemy of the living being; iha–in this world. [37]

37 The Supreme Lord replied: It is the desire to enjoy the mundane that induces a person to commit sin, and in different situations it produces anger. It is utterly insatiable, extremely malicious, and the worst enemy of the living being in this world.

धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर्यथादर्शो मलेन च ।
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस्तथा तेनेदमावृतम् ॥३८॥

dhumenavriyate vahnir yathadarso malena cha
yatholbenavrto garbhas tatha tenedam avrtam [38]

yatha–As; vahnih–fire; avriyate–is covered; dhumena–by smoke; yatha–as; adarsah–a mirror; (avriyate)–is covered; malena–by dust; (yatha) cha–and as; garbhah–the embryo; avrtah–is covered; ulbena–by the womb; tatha–similarly; idam–one’s consciousness; avrtam–is covered; tena–by that desire. [38]

38 As fire is thinly veiled by smoke, as a mirror is thickly covered with dust, and as the embryo remains completely enclosed within the womb, similarly, this desire covers the consciousness of the living being (in these three degrees of intensity, according to the modes of material nature—goodness, passion, and ignorance respectively).

आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा ।
कामरूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्पूरेणानलेन च ॥३९॥

avrtam jnanam etena jnanino nitya-vairina
kama-rupena kaunteya duspurenanalena cha [39]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna, son of Kunti; jnanam–discriminatory knowledge; avrtam–is covered; etena–by this; nitya-vairina–perpetual enemy; jnaninah–of even knowledgable persons; kama-rupena–in the form of desire; duspurena analena cha–which is like insatiable fire. [39]

39 Knowledge is covered by desire, the constant enemy of the wise. It burns like an insatiable fire (never satisfied by offerings of butter).

इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते ।
एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम् ॥४०॥

indriyani mano buddhir asyadhisthanam uchyate
etair vimohayaty esa jnanam avrtya dehinam [40]

uchyate–It is said that; indriyani–the senses; manah buddhih–mind and intelligence; adhisthanam–are the seats; asya–of this enemy, desire. avrtya–Covering; jnanam–one’s knowledge; etaih–via these seats; esah–this desire; vimohayati–deludes; dehinam–the embodied living being. [40]

40 It is said that this enemy, desire, dwelling within the senses, mind, and intelligence, covers the perception of the embodied living being and deludes him.

तस्मात्त्वमिन्द्रियाण्यादौ नियम्य भरतर्षभ ।
पाप्मानं प्रजहि ह्येनं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम् ॥४१॥

tasmat tvam indriyany adau niyamya bharatarsabha
papmanam prajahi hy enam jnana-vijnana-nasanam [41]

(he) bharatarsabha–O Arjuna, noblest of the Bharatas; tvam–you; tasmat–therefore; adau–first; indriyani niyamya–bring the senses under control; hi–and completely; prajahi–destroy; enam–this desire; papmanam–which is the embodiment of sin; jnana-vijnana-nasanam–and the destroyer of both jnan, knowledge of the self and non-self as delineated in the scriptures, and vijnan, realisation of such knowledge. [41]

41 Therefore, O noblest of the Bharatas, control your senses and destroy this desire, the embodiment of sin, which destroys both knowledge and realisation.

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः ।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्बुद्धेर्यः परतस्तु सः ॥४२॥

indriyani parany ahur indriyebhyah param manah
manasas tu para buddhir buddher yah paratas tu sah [42]

(panditah)–The wise; ahuh–say that; indriyani parani–the senses are superior; (visayebhyah)–to matter; manah–the mind; param–is superior; indriyebhyah–to the senses; buddhih–the intelligence or faculty of decision; para–is superior; manasah tu–to the mind, too; yah–and that which; paratah–is superior; buddheh tu–to even the intelligence; sah–is he—the jiva—the soul. [42]

42 It is said by the wise that the senses are superior to matter, the mind is superior to the senses, and the intelligence is superior to the mind; and the soul is superior to even the intelligence.

एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना ।
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ॥४३॥

evam buddheh param buddhva samstabhyatmanam atmana
jahi satrum maha-baho kama-rupam durasadam [43]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty Arjuna; evam–in this way; buddhva–discerning; buddheh param–the soul to be superior to the intelligence; samstabhya–by steadying; atmanam–the mind; atmana–by resolute intelligence—conviction; jahi–destroy; durasadam–the formidable; satrum–enemy; kama-rupam–in the form of desire. [43]

43 O mighty Arjuna, knowing the soul to be superior to the intelligence, steady the mind with resolute intelligence and destroy the formidable enemy, desire.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे कर्म्मयोगो नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः ॥३॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade
karma-yogo nama trtiyo ’dhyayah [3]

End of Chapter Three
The Path of Action
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

चतुर्थोऽध्यायः
Chapter Four

Jnana-yoga: The Path of Knowledge

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवानहमव्ययम् ।
विवस्वान्मनवे प्राह मनुरिक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत् ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

imam vivasvate yogam proktavan aham avyayam
vivasvan manave praha manur iksvakave ’bravit [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Lord said: aham–I; proktavan–imparted; imam–this; avyayam–imperishable; yogam–yoga of knowledge (jnana-yoga) achieved by selfless action; vivasvate–to Surya, the sun-god. vivasvan–Surya; praha–taught; manave–his son, Vaivasvata Manu; manuh–and Manu; abravit–related it; iksvakave–to his son, Iksvaku. [1]

1 The Supreme Lord said: I imparted this imperishable yoga of knowledge, achieved by selfless action, to Surya, the presiding deity of the sun. Surya taught it to his son Vaivasvata Manu, who passed it on to his son Iksvaku.

एवं परम्पराप्राप्तमिमं राजर्षयो विदुः ।
स कालेनेह महता योगो नष्टः परन्तप ॥२॥

evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh
sa kaleneha mahata yogo nastah parantapa [2]

evam–In this way; parampara-praptam–attained through disciplic succession; rajarsayah–the saintly kings; viduh–came to know; imam–this path. (he) parantapa–O Arjuna, subduer of the enemy; sah yogah–that yoga; nastah–has been lost; iha–at present; mahata kalena–after the passage of a long time. [2]

2 O conqueror of the enemy, thus the saintly kings such as Nimi, Janaka, and others learned this yoga, which was passed down to them by disciplic succession. But in the course of time, this teaching has been lost.

स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरातनः ।
भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्येतदुत्तमम् ॥३॥

sa evayam maya te ’dya yogah proktah puratanah
bhakto ’si me sakha cheti rahasyam hy etad uttamam [3]

(tvam)–You; asi–are; me–My; bhaktah sakha cha–devotee and friend. iti (hetoh)–For this reason; ayam sah eva–this very same; puratanah–ancient; yogah–yoga; proktah–is described; adya–today; maya–by Me; te–to you; hi–although; etat–this; uttamam rahasyam–is a great secret. [3]

3 As you are my devotee and friend, I now reveal to you this supreme secret—the eternal yoga.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः ।
कथमेतद्विजानीयां त्वमादौ प्रोक्तवानिति ॥४॥

arjuna uvacha

aparam bhavato janma param janma vivasvatah
katham etad vijaniyam tvam adau proktavan iti [4]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: bhavatah–Your; janma–birth; aparam–is in these times. vivasvatah–The sun-god’s; janma–birth; param–was long ago. (tasmat)–So; katham–how; (aham) vijaniyam–am I to understand; etat–that; adau–in ancient times; tvam–You; proktavan iti–had thus taught; (imam yogam)–this yoga? [4]

4 Arjuna said: Vivasvan, the sun-god, was born in ancient times, long before You were. Therefore, how am I to consider that You previously gave these teachings to him?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

बहूनि मे व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव चर्ज्जुन ।
तान्यहं वेद सर्व्वाणि न त्वं वेत्थ परन्तप ॥५॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

bahuni me vyatitani janmani tava charjuna
tany aham veda sarvani na tvam vettha parantapa [5]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) parantapa arjuna–O Arjuna, subduer of the enemy; bahuni–many; janmani–births; me tava cha–of Mine and yours; vyatitani–have passed. aham–I; veda–know; tani sarvani–all of them; tvam–(but) you; na vettha–do not know; (tani)–them. [5]

5 The Supreme Lord said: O chastiser of the enemy, both you and I have passed through many births. I can remember all of them, whereas you, O Arjuna, cannot.

अजोऽपि सन्नव्ययात्मा भूतानामीश्वरोऽपि सन् ।
प्रकृतिं स्वामधिष्ठाय सम्भवाम्यात्ममायया ॥६॥

ajo ’pi sann avyayatma bhutanam isvaro ’pi san
prakrtim svam adhisthaya sambhavamy atma-mayaya [6]

api–Although; san–being; ajah–birthless; avyaya-atma–of imperishable form; api–and although; san–being; isvarah–the Supreme Lord; bhutanam–of all beings; (aham)–I; adhisthaya–remaining; svam prakrtim–in My own divine nature of truth, auspiciousness, and beauty; sambhavami–appear in the world; atma-mayaya–by My potency, yogamaya. [6]

6 Although My eternal form is transcendental to birth and death, and I am the Lord of all beings, I appear within the world in My divine nature, by My sweet will, extending My internal potency.

यदा यदा हि धर्म्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत ।
अभ्युत्थानमधर्म्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम् ॥७॥

yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata
abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham [7]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; yada yada hi–whenever; glanih–a decline; dharmasya–of religion; (cha)–and; abhyutthanam–an uprising; adharmasya–of irreligion; bhavati–occurs; tada–then; aham srjami–I appear, seemingly like a being born in this world—I make My advent; atmanam–Myself. [7]

7 O Bharata, whenever there is a decline of religion and an uprising of irreligion, I personally make My advent.

परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् ।
धर्म्मसंस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे ॥८॥

paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya cha duskrtam
dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge [8]

paritranaya–For the deliverance; sadhunam–of saintly devotees; (tatha)–and; vinasaya–for the vanquishing; duskrtam–of miscreants; samsthapana-arthaya cha–and for firmly establishing; dharma–dhyan (meditation), yajana (performance of sacrifice), paricharya (worship), and sankirtan (congregational chanting of the Holy Names) all centred on Me; (aham)–I; sambhavami–appear; yuge yuge–age after age. [8]

8 I appear age after age to deliver the saintly devotees, vanquish the miscreants, and firmly establish true religion.

जन्म कर्म्म च मे दिव्यमेवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति मामेति सोऽर्ज्जुन ॥९॥

janma karma cha me divyam evam yo vetti tattvatah
tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so ’rjuna [9]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; yah–one who; vetti–knows; evam–thus; tattvatah–the reality; me–of My; divyam–spontaneous, divine; janma karma cha–birth and activities; sah–he; tyaktva–upon giving up; deham–the body; na eti–does not accept; punah janma–rebirth. mam eti–He attains Me. [9]

9 O Arjuna, one who comes to know thus the truth of My Pastimes of divine birth and activities, does not undergo rebirth. After giving up this body, he attains Me. (My grace is revealed to him as My personal transcendental joyful potency, hladini-sakti. His heart is melted in divine love, and he attains My eternal devotional service.)

वीतरागभयक्रोधा मन्मया मामुपाश्रिताः ।
बहवो ज्ञानतपसा पूता मद्भावमागताः ॥१०॥

vita-raga-bhaya-krodha man-maya mam upasritah
bahavo jnana-tapasa puta mad-bhavam agatah [10]

vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah–Free from mundane attachment, fear, and anger; mat-mayah–wholeheartedly absorbed in services to Me; bahavah–many persons; mam upasritah–in My refuge; putah (santah)–being purified; jnana-tapasa–by knowledge and austerities in relation to My service; agatah–attained; mat-bhavam–My bhava—devotion to Me. [10]

10 Free from attachment, fear, and anger, many persons have taken shelter in Me, absorbing their hearts in My services (hearing, chanting, and remembering). Purified by knowledge and the fire of ordeal in My service, they attained divine love for Me.

ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् ।
मम वर्त्त्मानुवर्त्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्व्वशः ॥११॥

ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham
mama vartmanuvartante manusyah partha sarvasah [11]

yatha–Howsoever; ye–those who; prapadyante–surrender; mam–to Me; aham–I; tatha eva–accordingly; bhajami–reward; tan–them. (he) partha–O Arjuna; sarvasah manusyah–all types of men (on all paths); anuvartante–follow; mama vartma–My path. [11]

11 Howsoever people surrender to Me, I accordingly reward them. Being the ultimate goal of all paths, I am the objective to be attained by all. O Partha, all men follow My various paths.

काङ्क्षन्तः कर्म्मणां सिद्धिं यजन्त इह देवताः ।
क्षिप्रं हि मानुषे लोके सिद्धिर्भवति कर्म्मजा ॥१२॥

kanksantah karmanam siddhim yajanta iha devatah
ksipram hi manuse loke siddhir bhavati karmaja [12]

iha–In this world; kanksantah–persons who desire; siddhim–the fruition; karmanam–of worldly actions; yajante–worship; devatah–the demigods; hi–since; manuse loke–in the human plane; siddhih–the fruit (attainment of heaven, etc.); karma-ja–born of action; bhavati–appears; ksipram–very quickly. [12]

12 Persons who desire the fruit of their actions worship the gods, since in the human plane, actions swiftly bear fruit.

चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्म्मविभागशः ।
तस्य कर्त्तारमपि मां विद्ध्यकर्त्तारमव्ययम् ॥१३॥

chatur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah
tasya kartaram api mam viddhy akartaram avyayam [13]

chatuh-varnyam–The four social divisions or varnas—brahman, ksatriya, vaisya, and sudra; srstam–are manifest; maya–by Me; guna-karma-vibhagasah–classified according to the modes of nature and corresponding activities (vide 18.41–44). kartaram api–Although I am the accomplisher; tasya–of that; viddhi–know; mam–Me; akartaram–to be the non-doer; avyayam–and unchangeable. [13]

13 The four social divisions, classified according to the material modes of nature and corresponding activities, are made manifest by Me. Although I am the doer of this, know Me to be the non-doer and unchangable.

न मां कर्म्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्म्मफले स्पृहा ।
इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्म्मभिर्न स बध्यते ॥१४॥

na mam karmani limpanti na me karma-phale sprha
iti mam yo ’bhijanati karmabhir na sa badhyate [14]

karmani–Actions; na limpanti–do not implicate or taint; mam–Me; (jivam iva)–like the living beings. na (asti)–There is no; sprha–desire; me–of Mine; karma-phale–for the fruits of action. yah–One who; iti–thus; mam abhijanati–knows Me in truth (as the Supreme Lord); sah–he; na badhyate–is not bound; karmabhih–by karma. [14]

14 I am never implicated by action nor do I desire the fruits of action. One who knows Me thus (as the Supreme Lord, transcendental to worldly action) is never bound by action.

एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म्म पूर्व्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः ।
कुरु कर्म्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्व्वैः पूर्व्वतरं कृतम् ॥१५॥

evam jnatva krtam karma purvair api mumuksubhih
kuru karmaiva tasmat tvam purvaih purvataram krtam [15]

jnatva–Knowing; evam–this; mumuksubhih api–the seekers of liberation; purvaih–of previous times; krtam–performed; karma–selfless action. tasmat–Therefore; tvam–you; eva–certainly; kuru–must adopt; karma–the path of selfless action; purvataram krtam–as done in the past; purvaih–by the ancient mahajans, great saintly persons, like Janaka and others. [15]

15 Knowing this basic principle, seekers of liberation in previous times renounced all fruitive work and performed their duties as a selfless offering to Me. Likewise, you should adopt this yoga of selfless action as did the great saintly persons of yore.

किं कर्म्म किमकर्म्मेति कवयोऽप्यत्र मोहिताः ।
तत्ते कर्म्म प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥१६॥

kim karma kim akarmeti kavayo ’py atra mohitah
tat te karma pravaksyami yaj jnatva moksyase ’subhat [16]

kim karma–What is action? kim akarma–what is inaction? iti atra–In this subject; kavayah api–even the learned; mohitah (bhavanti)–are baffled. (atah)–Therefore; pravaksyami–I shall describe; te–to you; tat karma–what is karma and akarma, action and inaction; yat jnatva–knowing which; moksyase–you will be liberated; asubhat–from inauspiciousness. [16]

16 What is action? What is inaction? Even the learned have difficulty understanding this. Hence, I shall enlighten you in this matter, knowing which you will liberated from inauspiciousness.

कर्म्मणो ह्यपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्धव्यञ्च विकर्म्मणः ।
अकर्म्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्म्मणो गतिः ॥१७॥

karmano hy api boddhavyam boddhavyan cha vikarmanah
akarmanas cha boddhavyam gahana karmano gatih [17]

karmanah api boddhavyam–Action prescribed (by the Vedas) should be understood; cha–and; vikarmanah boddhavyam–action prohibited (by the Vedas) should be understood; cha–and; akarmanah boddhavyam–renunciation of action should be understood; hi–since; gatih–the true nature; karmanah–of action; gahana–is very difficult to comprehend. [17]

17 The true nature of action is difficult to comprehend. One should understand prescribed action, prohibited action, and inaction.

कर्म्मण्यकर्म्म यः पश्येदकर्म्मणि च कर्म्म यः ।
स बुद्धिमान्मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्म्मकृत् ॥१८॥

karmany akarma yah pasyed akarmani cha karma yah
sa buddhiman manusyesu sa yuktah krtsna-karma-krt [18]

yah–One who; pasyet–sees; akarma–inaction; karmani–in action; cha–and; yah–who; (pasyet)–sees; karma–action; akarmani–in inaction; sah buddhiman–he is wise; manusyesu–among men. sah yuktah–He is a yogi; krtsna-karma-krt–a performer of all actions. [18]

18 One who sees action within inaction, and inaction within action, is wise among men. He is a yogi and a performer of all actions.

यस्य सर्व्वे समारम्भाः कामसङ्कल्पवर्ज्जिताः ।
ज्ञानाग्निदग्धकर्म्माणं तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः ॥१९॥

yasya sarve samarambhah kama-sankalpa-varjitah
jnanagni-dagdha-karmanam tam ahuh panditam budhah [19]

yasya–One whose; sarve–every; samarambhah–undertaking; kama-sankalpa-varjitah–is without fruitive desire; jnana-agni-dagdha-karmanam–and who has burnt all actions in the fire of knowledge; budhah–the wise; ahuh tam–describe him as; panditam–learned. [19]

19 One whose every action is without fruitive desire, and who burns all actions in the fire of knowledge, is described by the wise as learned.

त्यक्त्वा कर्म्मफलासङ्गं नित्यतृप्तो निराश्रयः ।
कर्म्मण्यभिप्रवृत्तोऽपि नैव किञ्चित्करोति सः ॥२०॥

tyaktva karma-phalasangam nitya-trpto nirasrayah
karmany abhipravrtto ’pi naiva kinchit karoti sah [20]

(yah)–One who; tyaktva–giving up; karma-phala-asangam–attachment to the fruits of action; nirasrayah–is free from mundane dependence; nitya-trptah–and content in the eternal bliss within; sah–he; abhipravrttah api–although fully engaged; karmani–in all kinds of activities; na karoti–does not do; kinchit eva–anything at all. [20]

20 Such a person, giving up attachment to the fruits of action, fully content in the eternal bliss within, and free from mundane dependence, though fully active, does nothing at all.

निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा त्यक्तसर्व्वपरिग्रहः ।
शारीरं केवलं कर्म्म कुर्व्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥२१॥

nirasir yata-chittatma tyakta-sarva-parigrahah
sariram kevalam karma kurvan napnoti kilbisam [21]

nirasih–Desireless; yata-chitta-atma–of controlled mind and body; tyakta-sarva-pari-grahah–and a renouncer of all possessiveness and acquisition; (sah)–that person; na apnoti–does not incur; kilbisam–sin; kurvan (api)–although he performs; sariram karma–action for bodily sustenance; kevalam–only. [21]

21 Desireless, controlling mind and body by the intelligence, and renouncing all possessiveness and acquisition, no sinful or pious reaction is incurred by such a person who may act to acquire mundane objects merely for his bodily sustenance.

यदृच्छालाभसन्तुष्टो द्वन्द्वातीतो विमत्सरः ।
समः सिद्धावसिद्धौ च कृत्वापि न निबध्यते ॥२२॥

yadrchchha-labha-santusto dvandvatito vimatsarah
samah siddhav asiddhau cha krtvapi na nibadhyate [22]

(janah)–A person; yadrchchha-labha-santustah–satisfied with whatever is readily available; dvandva-atitah–beyond dualities such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain, attraction and aversion; vimatsarah–devoid of envy; cha–and; samah–equipoised; siddhau-asiddhau–in the event of either success or failure of action; krtva api–though performing; (karma)–action; na nibadhyate–is not bound. [22]

22 Content with whatever is readily available and unaffected by dualities (of pleasure and pain, attraction and aversion), such a person has no envy. He is equipoised, neither elated nor dejected in success or failure. Though active, he is not bound by any action.

गतसङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञानावस्थितचेतसः।
यज्ञायाचरतः कर्म्म समग्रं प्रविलीयते ॥२३॥

gata-sangasya muktasya jnanavasthita-chetasah
yajnayacharatah karma samagram praviliyate [23]

gata-sangasya–For one who is free from attachment; muktasya–who is liberated; jnana-avasthita-chetasah–who is realised; karma acharatah–who performs action; yajnaya–for yajna, i.e. for the pleasure of the Supreme Lord; samagram–all; (karma)– action; praviliyate–is dissipated, i.e. it does not produce any reaction.

23 For one who is detached, enlightened, and liberated, all his actions, performed in the spirit of sacrifice, are perfectly dissipated.

Commentary

The actions of one practising the yoga of selfless action do not lead to apurva as considered by the philosophers known as karma-mimamsaka. According to their ethical yet atheistic ideology, the karma-mimamsakas or mundane rationalists claim that pious actions produce an unseen, subtle potency known as apurva, which must fructify at the appropriate time after death. Their conception that this fruit can later be shared by others is meant to show the eternality of karma, or action, but it ignores the presence of the Supreme Autocrat.

So the statement of Sri Krishna, “Samagram praviliyate: all actions are dissipated,” ought not be misinterpreted to mean that the actions of liberated souls cause some such remote worldly consequence, or apurva. Rather, the Lord indicates that the actions offered to Him by the selfless karma-yogi do not cause any subsequent reaction to be either enjoyed or suffered by others in this mundane plane.

ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् ।
ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्म्मसमधिना ॥२४॥

brahmarpanam brahma havir brahmagnau brahmana hutam
brahmaiva tena gantavyam brahma-karma-samadhina [24]

arpanam (bhavati)–The sacrificial utensils such as sruk, sruva, or spoon, ladle, etc., are; brahma–Brahma; (arpyamanam) havih–the oblation of ghee, etc.; (bhavati)–is; brahma–Brahma; hutam–offered; brahma-agnau–into the sacrificial fire of Brahma; brahmana (havana karta)–by the brahman offerer who is Brahma. brahma eva–Brahma, the Absolute; gantavyam–is attainable; tena brahma-karma-samadhina–by a person whose consciousness is absorbed in Brahma action. [24]

24 The ladle is Brahma, the oblation is Brahma offered by Brahma into the fire of Brahma. One whose consciousness is fully absorbed in Brahma action certainly attains to Brahma, the Absolute.

दैवमेवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्य्युपासते ।
ब्रह्माग्नावपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति ॥२५॥

daivam evapare yajnam yoginah paryupasate
brahmagnav apare yajnam yajnenaivopajuhvati [25]

apare–Other; yoginah–(karma-) yogis; paryupasate–worship; daivam yajnam eva–the demigods with sacrifice. apare–Other (jnana-) yogis; upajuhvati–offer; yajnam–the self (jivatma, as the element tvam, representing the ghee of sacrifice); brahma-agnau–to the fire of Brahma (or to the Supersoul, Paramatma, as the element tat, representing the sacrificial fire); yajnena eva–by vibrating the pranava mantra, Om. [25]

25 Some yogis offer sacrifices to the demigods, and others offer the self into the fire of Brahma by vibrating the pranava mantra, Om.

श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति ।
शब्दादीन्विषयानन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति ॥२६॥

srotradinindriyany anye samyamagnisu juhvati
sabdadin visayan anya indriyagnisu juhvati [26]

anye–Others (naistika or lifelong celibates); juhvati–offer; indriyani–the senses; srotra-adini–of hearing, etc.; samyama-agnisu–into the fires of self (mental) control. anye–Others (persons in sacred marriage); juhvati–offer; visayan–the sense objects; sabda-adin–sound, etc.; indriya-agnisu–into the fires of the senses. [26]

26 Some offer their senses of hearing, touching, seeing, tasting, and smelling into the fires of self-control; yet others offer the sense objects of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell into the fire of the senses.

सर्व्वाणीन्द्रियकर्म्माणि प्राणकर्म्माणि चापरे ।
आत्मसंयमयोगाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपिते ॥२७॥

sarvanindriya-karmani prana-karmani chapare
atma-samyama-yogagnau juhvati jnana-dipite [27]

apare–Others (meditating mystic yogis in realisation of the pure self [tvam]); juhvati–offer; sarvani–all; indriya-karmani–the functions of the senses; cha–and; prana-karmani–the functions of the ten vital life-airs; atma-samyama-yoga-agnau–into the yogic fire of self-purification; jnana-dipite–ignited by knowledge. [27]

27 Again, there are the yogis who offer all the functions of the senses and the life forces into the yogic fire of self-purification ignited by knowledge.

द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे ।
स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ॥२८॥

dravya-yajnas tapo-yajna yoga-yajnas tathapare
svadhyaya-jnana-yajnas cha yatayah samsita-vratah [28]

(kechit)–Some; dravya-yajnah–sacrifice material possessions or wealth; (kechit)–some; tapah-yajnah–perform sacrifice in the form of penance (such as Chandrayan, etc.); tatha-apare–and others; yoga-yajnah–perform sacrifice in the form of the eightfold mystic yoga practice; (kechana)–and again some; svadhyaya-jnana-yajnah cha–perform ‘knowledge-sacrifice’ in the form of singing and introspectively studying the Vedas. (ete sarve)–All these persons; yatayah–are diligent; samsita-vratah–performers of unshakeable vows. [28]

28 Sincere in their practices and faithful to their vows, some persons sacrifice their possessions, some undergo strict penances as a sacrifice, some practise the eightfold mystic yoga as a sacrifice, and yet others perform ‘knowledge-sacrifice’ by singing and introspectively studying the Vedas.

अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे ।
प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः ।
अपरे नियताहाराः प्राणान्प्राणेषु जुह्वति ॥२९॥

apane juhvati pranam prane ’panam tathapare
pranapana-gati ruddhva pranayama-parayanah
apare niyataharah pranan pranesu juhvati [29]

apare–Others; juhvati apane pranam–bring the ascending air into union with the descending air while inhaling (puraka). tatha–Likewise; (juhvati)–they offer; prane apanam–the descending air into the ascending air while exhaling (rechaka); (cha)–and; ruddhva–stopping; prana-apana-gati–the flow of both prana and apana while retaining the breath (kumbhaka); pranayama-parayanah (bhavanti)–they arduously practise breath-control (pranayam). apare–Others; juhvati–offer; pranan–the senses; pranesu–into the life-airs, the prana-vayu; niyata-aharah–by reducing their intake of food. [29]

29 Others practise breath-control. Closing the right nostril and inhaling through the left, they bring the ascending air into union with the descending; closing the left nostril and exhaling through the right, they similarly offer the descending air into the ascending; then closing both nostrils, they check both ascending and descending airs. Yet other practitioners of sense-control offer all the senses into the life-airs by reducing their food intake.

सर्व्वेऽप्येते यज्ञविदो यज्ञक्षयितकल्मषाः ।
यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ॥३०॥

sarve ’py ete yajna-vido yajna-ksayita-kalmasah
yajna-sistamrta-bhujo yanti brahma sanatanam [30]

ete sarve api–All these persons; yajna-vidah–are knowers of sacrifice. yajna-ksayitakalmasah–Purified of sin by the performance of sacrifice; yajna-sista-amrta-bhujah–they enjoy the neatarean remnants of sacrifice; yanti sanatanam–and reach the eternal; brahma–Brahma, Absolute Truth. [30]

30 All these persons are knowers of sacrifice, purified by sacrifice. Enjoying the nectarean remnants of sacrifice, they attain to the eternal plane of the Absolute.

नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥३१॥

nayam loko ’sty ayajnasya kuto ’nyah kuru-sattama [31]

(he) kuru-sattama–O Arjuna, best of the Kurus; ayam lokah (api)–even this world (or human plane of meagre pleasures); na asti–is denied; ayajnasya–a person who does not perform sacrifice. kutah (praptavyah)–How, then, will it be possible for him to attain; anyah (lokah)–the next world (or heaven)? [31]

31 O Arjuna, foremost of the Kurus, without sacrifice one cannot attain fulfillment in this world, to say nothing of the next.

एवं बहुविधा यज्ञा वितता ब्रह्मणो मुखे ।
कर्म्मजान्विद्धि तान्सर्व्वानेवं ज्ञात्वा विमोक्ष्यसे ॥३२॥

evam bahu-vidha yajna vitata brahmano mukhe
karma-jan viddhi tan sarvan evam jnatva vimoksyase [32]

evam–In this way; bahu-vidhah–many varieties of; yajnah–sacrifices; vitatah–have been elucidated; brahmanah mukhe–by the mouthpiece of the Vedas. (tvam)–You; viddhi–should know; tan sarvan–all those sacrifices; karma-jan–to be born of action, in thought, word, and deed. jnatva–Knowing; evam–this; vimoksyase–you will be liberated from the bondage of action. [32]

32 Thus many types of sacrifice are described in the Vedas and allied scriptures. Know that they are all accomplished through action (of thought, word, and deed). Knowing this, you will be liberated from the bondage of action.

श्रेयान्द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञाज्ज्ञानयज्ञः परन्तप ।
सर्व्वं कर्म्माखिलं पार्थ ज्ञाने परिसमाप्यते ॥३३॥

sreyan dravyamayad yajnaj jnana-yajnah parantapa
sarvam karmakhilam partha jnane parisamapyate [33]

(he) parantapa partha–O Arjuna, subduer of the enemy; jnana-yajnah–‘knowledge-sacrifice’; sreyan–is better; yajnat–than sacrifice; dravya-mayat–of materials; (yatah)–since; sarvam–all; karma–action; akhilam–in its entirety, including its fruit; pari-samapyate–has its consummation; jnane–in knowledge. [33]

33 O Arjuna, subduer of the enemy, ‘knowledge-sacrifice’ is superior to the sacrifice of material objects, because the perfection of all action, including its fruit, is its culmination in knowledge.

तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया ।
उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः ॥३४॥

tad viddhi pranipatena pariprasnena sevaya
upadeksyanti te jnanam jnaninas tattva-darsinah [34]

tat–Such knowledge; viddhi–should be known; pranipatena–by submission, obeisances; pariprasnena–by relevant inquiry; sevaya–and by sincere service. jnaninah–Those learned in the scriptures; tattva-darsinah–endowed with divine revelation of the Supreme Absolute Truth; upadeksyanti–will impart; jnanam–knowledge; te–to you. [34]

34 You will be able to attain knowledge by satisfying the divine master with submission, relevant inquiry, and sincere service. The enlightened souls who are learned in scriptural knowledge and endowed with direct realisation of the Supreme Absolute Truth will impart divine knowledge to you.

यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव ।
येन भूतान्यशेषाणि द्रक्ष्यस्यात्मन्यथो मयि ॥३५॥

yaj jnatva na punar moham evam yasyasi pandava
yena bhutany asesani draksyasy atmany atho mayi [35]

(he) pandava–O Arjuna, son of Pandu; jnatva–knowing; yat (jnanam)–that knowledge; na yasyasi–you will not be subject to; evam–such; moham–illusion; punah–again. yena–By that knowledge; draksyasi–you will see; asesani bhutani–all species from highest to lowest; atmaniin the atma–in their spiritual nature; (prthak upadhitvena)–though appearing in the forms of their various material designations; atha–and; (draksyasi)–you will see them; mayi–in Me. [35]

35 O Pandava, when you are enlightened by this knowledge of the reality, you will no longer be subject to your present illusion. You will see the one spiritual nature in all species of life, from highest to lowest, and that all are situated within Me.

अपि चेदसि पापेभ्यः सर्व्वेभ्यः पापकृत्तमः ।
सर्व्वं ज्ञानप्लवेनैव वृजिनं सन्तरिष्यसि ॥३६॥

api ched asi papebhyah sarvebhyah papa-krttamah
sarvam jnana-plavenaiva vrjinam santarisyasi [36]

api chet–Even if; asi–you are; papa-krttamah–the most sinful; sarvebhyah papebhyah–of all sinners; (tathapi)–nonetheless; santarisyasi eva–you will cross; sarvam vrjinam–all sins; jnana-plavena–by the boat of knowledge. [36]

36 Even if you are the most sinful of all sinners, you will cross the ocean of sins by the boat of knowledge.

यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्ज्जुन ।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्व्वकर्म्माणि भस्मसात्कुरुते तथा ॥३७॥

yathaidhamsi samiddho ’gnir bhasmasat kurute ’rjuna
jnanagnih sarva-karmani bhasmasat kurute tatha [37]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna, yatha–as; samiddhah–blazing; agnih–fire; kurute–renders; edhamsi–firewood; bhasmasat–to ashes; tatha–similarly; jnana-agnih–the fire of knowledge; kurute–renders; sarva-karmani–all karma (worldly actions and reactions in this life); bhasmasat–to ashes. [37]

37 As a blazing fire renders wood to ashes, O Arjuna, the fire of knowledge burns up all worldly actions.

न हि ज्ञानेन सदृशं पवित्रमिह विद्यते ।
तत्स्वयं योगसंसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति ॥३८॥

na hi jnanena sadrsam pavitram iha vidyate
tat svayam yoga-samsiddhah kalenatmani vindati [38]

iha–In this world, or, of the aforementioned practices of austerity, etc.; (kim api) na hi vidyate–there is nothing; pavitram–(as) pure; jnanena sadrsam–as knowledge. yoga-samsiddhah–A person successful in (niskam karma) yoga; vindati–realises; svayam–for himself; tat–that knowledge; atmani–within the heart; kalena–after (a long) time. [38]

38 In this world, there is nothing as pure as knowledge. Eventually, a person who has achieved perfection in the yoga of selfless action naturally realises this knowledge within his heart.

श्रद्धावान्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः ।
ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिमचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥३९॥

sraddhavan labhate jnanam tat-parah samyatendriyah
jnanam labdhva param santim achirenadhigachchati [39]

sraddhavan–The faithful (having faith in the Lord’s words or the scriptures); tat-parah–devoted; samyata-indriyah–sense-controlled person; labhate–attains; jnanam–knowledge. labdhva–Having attained; jnanam–enlightenment; achirena–quickly; adhi-gachhati–he attains; param santim–supreme peace (beyond the mundane). [39]

39 It is the devoted, faithful, and sense-controlled person who attains knowledge. Achieving enlightenment, such a person soon attains the supreme peace.

अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति ।
नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः ॥४०॥

ajnas chasraddadhanas cha samsayatma vinasyati
nayam loko ’sti na paro na sukham samsayatmanah [40]

ajnah–The ignorant (like an animal); cha–and; asraddadhanah–faithless (confused by many interpretations despite scriptural knowledge); samsaya-atma cha–and doubting person (who doubts he will succeed despite having some faith); vinasyati–is ruined by misfortune. samsaya-atmanah–For the doubting person; na asti–there is no; sukham–happiness; na ayam lokah–either in this world; na (cha) parah–or the next. [40]

40 The ignorant, faithless, and doubting person is doomed to misfortune. For the doubting soul there can be happiness neither in this life nor the next.

योगसन्न्यस्तकर्म्माणं ज्ञानसञ्छिन्नसंशयम् ।
आत्मवन्तं न कर्म्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्जय ॥४१॥

yoga-sannyasta-karmanam jnana-sanchhinna-samsayam
atmavantam na karmani nibadhnanti dhananjaya [41]

(he) dhananjaya–O Dhananjaya; karmani–actions; na nibadhnanti–cannot bind; yoga-sannyasta-karmanam–one who has ceased all action in accordance with the path of sannyas, abnegation, by practising niskam karma-yoga, the path of selfless action; jnana-sanchhinna-samsayam–and overcome all his doubts by the cultivation of divine knowledge (sambandha-jnan, knowledge of the eternal serving relationship of the individual soul with the Lord); atma-vantam–and who has realised the nature of the soul. [41]

41 O Dhananjaya, renouncing all worldly actions by following the path of selfless action, one who severs all his doubts by knowledge and realises his internal divine nature, can never be bound by action.

तस्मादज्ञानसम्भूतं हृत्स्थं ज्ञानासिनात्मनः
छित्त्वैनं संशयं योगमातिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भारत ॥४२॥

tasmad ajnana-sambhutam hrt-stham jnanasinatmanah
chhittvainam samsayam yogam atisthottistha bharata [42]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; tasmat–therefore; chhittva–slashing; jnana-asina–by the sword of knowledge, sambandha-jnan; enam–these; samsayam–doubts; atmanah–of yours; hrt-stham–in your heart; ajnana-sambhutam–which are born of ignorance; atistha–take refuge in; yogam–niskam karma-yoga—the yoga of selfless action; (cha)–and; uttistha–arise for battle. [42]

42 Therefore, O Bharat, with the sword of knowledge slash to shreds all these doubts in your heart, which are born of ignorance. Take refuge in selfless action and arise for battle!

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे ज्ञानयोगो नाम चतुर्थोऽध्यायः ॥४॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma-
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade
jnana-yogo nama chaturtho ’dhyayah [4]

End of Chapter Four
The Path of Knowledge
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

पञ्चमोऽध्यायः
Chapter Five

Karma-sannyasa-yoga: The Path of Renunciation of Action

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

सन्न्यासं कर्म्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगञ्च शंससि ।
यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

sannyasam karmanam krsna punar yogan cha samsasi
yach chhreya etayor ekam tan me bruhi sunischitam [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) krsna–O Krishna; (tvam)–You; samsasi–speak of; sannyasam–renunciation; karmanam–of actions; punah–then again; yogam cha–application, yoga (of selfless action, niskam karma-yoga). me bruhi–Please tell me; sunischitam–clearly; yat tat ekam–which one; etayoh–of the two; sreyah–is superior. [1]

1 Arjuna said: O Krishna, you speak of renunciation of actions, and then again, You speak of the path of selfless action. Therefore, please tell me clearly which is superior.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

सन्न्यासः कर्म्मयोगश्च निःश्रेयसकरावुभौ ।
तयोस्तु कर्म्मसन्न्यासात्कर्म्मयोगो विशिष्यते ॥२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

sannyasah karma-yogas cha nihsreyasa-karav ubhau
tayos tu karma-sannyasat karma-yogo visisyate [2]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: ubhau–both; sannyasah karma-yogah cha–renunciation of action and the path of selfless action; nihsreyasa-karau–bring great benefit; tu–but; tayoh–of these two; karma-yoga–the path of selfless action; visisyate–is superior; karma-sannyasat–to renunciation of action. [2]

2 The Supreme Lord said: Both renunciation of action and the path of selfless action bring great benefit. Yet, of the two, know that the way of selfless action is superior.

ज्ञेयः स नित्यसन्न्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते ॥३॥

jneyah sa nitya-sannyasi yo na dvesti na kanksati
nirdvandvo hi maha-baho sukham bandhat pramuchyate [3]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty-armed one; jneyah–it is to be known that; yah–one who; na dvesti–neither resents; na kanksati–nor desires; sah–that person; nitya-sannyasi–is renounced, though performing action; hi–because; nirdvandvah–one who is free from duality; sukham–is easily; pramuchyate–liberated; bandhat–from bondage. [3]

3 O mighty-armed Arjuna, know that one who is free from attraction and aversion is truly renounced, though performing action; for one who is free from duality easily attains liberation from bondage.

साङ्ख्य योगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः ।
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम् ॥४॥

sankhya-yogau prthag balah pravadanti na panditah
ekam apy asthitah samyag ubhayor vindate phalam [4]

balah–The childish, the unwise; pravadanti–say that; sankhya-yogau–the paths of renunciation and (karma-) yoga; prthak–are separate; (tu)–but; panditah–the learned; na (vadanti)–do not say this. samyak asthitah–A person who adopts perfectly; ekam api–only one; vindate–attains; phalam–the result; ubhayoh–of both. [4]

4 The path of renunciation (sankhya-yoga) and the path of selfless action (karma-yoga) are considered separate paths by the unwise, but not by the learned. One who perfectly follows either of these paths will achieve the result of both.

यत्साङ्ख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते ।
एकं साङ्ख्यं च योगञ्च यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥५॥

yat sankhyaih prapyate sthanam tad yogair api gamyate
ekam sankhyan cha yogan cha yah pasyati sa pasyati [5]

yat sthanam–That state which; prapyate–is obtained; sankhyaih–by renunciation (sannyas); tat (sthanam)–that state; gamyate–is reached; yogaih api–by niskam karma-yoga, too. yah–One who; (vivekena)–by proper consideration; ekam pasyati–sees as one; sankhyam cha yogam cha–both sannyas and karma-yoga; sah–he; pasyati–sees. [5]

5 The state achieved by the renunciation of action is also achieved by the performance of selfless action. One who sees these two paths to be one and the same, actually sees.

सन्न्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः ।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म न चिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥६॥

sannyasas tu maha-baho duhkham aptum ayogatah
yoga-yukto munir brahma na chirenadhigachchhati [6]

(he) maha-baho–O best of the valiant; ayogatah–without niskam karma-yoga; sannyasah–renunciation; (bhavati)–is; duhkham aptum–the cause of sorrow; tu–but; yoga-yuktah–one who performs niskam karma-yoga; munih (san)–being a man of knowledge; na chirena–very soon; adhigachchhati–is able to attain to; brahma–the Absolute. [6]

6 O mighty hero, without selfless action, mere renunciation of action is the cause of sorrow. But the wise man who engages in selfless action swiftly attains to the Absolute.

योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः ।
सर्व्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्व्वन्नपि न लिप्यते ॥७॥

yoga-yukto visuddhatma vijitatma jitendriyah
sarva-bhutatmabhutatma kurvann api na lipyate [7]

yoga-yuktah–Engaged in such a yoga process; visuddha-atma–the clean-hearted person; vijita-atma–of controlled mind; jita-indriyah–who has mastery over the senses; na lipyate–is not implicated; kurvan api–although performing action; sarva-bhuta-atmabhuta-atma (san)–having reached the state in which his whole being is pervaded with affection and compassion for all beings. [7]

7 The clean-hearted person thus engaged in yoga controls his mind and senses. Becoming filled with affection and compassion for all beings, although fully active, he is never implicated by any action.

नैव किञ्चित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित् ।
पश्यञ्शृण्वन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन्नश्नन्गच्छन्स्वपञ्श्वसन् ॥८॥

प्रलपन्विसृजन्गृह्णन्नुन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्त्तन्त इति धारयन् ॥९॥

naiva kinchit karomiti yukto manyeta tattva-vit
pasyan srnvan sprsan jighrann asnan gachchhan svapan svasan [8]

pralapan visrjan grhnann unmisan nimisann api
indriyanindriyarthesu vartanta iti dharayan [9]

yuktah tattva-vit–The realised karma-yogi; api–athough engaged in the functions of; pasyan–seeing; srnvan–hearing; sprsan–touching; jighran–smelling; asnan–eating; gachchhan–moving; svapan–sleeping; svasan–breathing; pralapan–speaking; visrjan–evacuating; grhnan–grasping objects in the hands; unmisan–and opening; nimisan–and closing the eyes, or blinking; dharayan–understanding; iti–that; indriyani–the senses, viz., eyes, etc.; vartante–function; indriya-arthesu–in relation to their respective sense objects of form, etc.; iti manyeta–thus considers: (aham)–“I; na karomi–do not do; kinchit eva–anything”. [8–9]

8–9 The realised karma-yogi performs the activities of seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing, speaking, evacuating, grasping objects, blinking the eyes, and so on, and he understands, “My sense organs—eyes, ears, skin, nose, and tongue—function in relation to their respective objects of form, sound, touch, smell, and taste.” Thus, he considers, “I do not perform any action at all.”

ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्म्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः ।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा ॥१०॥

brahmany adhaya karmani sangam tyaktva karoti yah
lipyate na sa papena padma-patram ivambhasa [10]

yah–One who; karoti–acts; adhaya–by offering; karmani–all actions; brahmani–unto the Supreme Lord; tyaktva–having given up; sangam–attachment; sah–he; na lipyate–is not affected; papena–by sin (or piety); padma-patram iva–as a lotus leaf; (na lipyate)–is not touched; ambhasa–by water. [10]

10 One who, though living in this world, selflessly offers all his actions to the Supreme Lord, is not polluted by sin, as a lotus leaf remains on the water yet is untouched by it.

कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि ।
योगिनः कर्म्म कुर्व्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये ॥११॥

kayena manasa buddhya kevalair indriyair api
yoginah karma kurvanti sangam tyaktvatma-suddhaye [11]

tyaktva–By giving up; sangam–attachment (to the fruits of action); yoginah–the karma-yogis; karma kurvanti–perform action; kevalaih–merely; kayena–by the body; manasa–by the mind; buddhya–by the intelligence; api indriyaih–and even by the senses; atma-suddhaye–for purification of the heart, self-purification. [11]

11 By giving up attachment, the karma-yogis perform action merely through the body, mind, intelligence and even the senses, for self-purification.

युक्तः कर्म्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम् ।
अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते ॥१२॥

yuktah karma-phalam tyaktva santim apnoti naisthikim
ayuktah kama-karena phale sakto nibadhyate [12]

yuktah–A niskam karma-yogi, one engaged in the yoga of selfless action; tyaktva–giving up; karma-phalam–the fruits of action; apnoti–attains; naisthikim–uninterrupted; santim–peace, i.e. liberation; (kintu)–but; ayuktah–a sakam karmi, fruitive worker; nibadhyate–becomes bound; saktah (san)–being attached; phale–to the fruits of action; kama-karena–by nurturing fruitive desires. [12]

12 Giving up attachment to the fruits of his actions, the materially unmotivated (niskam) karma-yogi attains constant peace, or liberation from actions and reactions. But the fruitive worker (sakam karmi) is attached to the fruits of his actions, and he becomes implicated by his endeavours.

सर्व्वकर्म्माणि मनसा सन्न्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी ।
नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्व्वन्न कारयन् ॥१३॥

sarva-karmani manasa sannyasyaste sukham vasi
nava-dvare pure dehi naiva kurvan na karayan [13]

manasa–Mentally; sannyasya–renouncing; sarva-karmani–all actions; vasi–the sense-controlled; dehi–embodied being; aste–resides; sukham–happily; nava-dvare pure–in the city of nine gates; na eva kurvan–neither acting; na karayan–nor causing work for others. [13]

13 Mentally renouncing all actions, the sense-controlled embodied living being resides happily within the city of nine gates*, neither acting nor causing work for others.

* The body of nine gates—two eyes, two nostrils, two ears, mouth, anus, and genital.

न कर्त्तृत्वं न कर्म्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः ।
न कर्म्मफलसंयोगं स्वभावस्तु प्रवर्त्तते ॥१४॥

na kartrtvam na karmani lokasya srjati prabhuh
na karma-phala-samyogam svabhavas tu pravartate [14]

prabhuh–The Lord; na srjati–does not generate; lokasya–anyone’s; kartrtvam–ego of considering themselves ‘the doer’; na karmani–nor their actions; na karma-phala-samyogam–nor their association with the fruits of actions; tu–but; svabhavah–their nature (of ignorance since time immemorial); pravartate–initiates these. [14]

14 The Lord does not generate anyone’s ego of considering themselves ‘the doer’, nor their actions, nor their association with the fruits of their actions. These are all a result of their external nature of ignorance since time immemorial.

नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः ।
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः ॥१५॥

nadatte kasyachit papam na chaiva sukrtam vibhuh
ajnanenavrtam jnanam tena muhyanti jantavah [15]

vibhuh–The self-satisfied Supreme Lord; adatte–accepts; na papam–neither the sin; sukrtam cha na eva–nor the peity; kasyachit–of anyone. jnanam–Knowledge; (bhavati)–is; avrtam–covered; ajnanena–by ignorance—by the Lord’s external potency (avidya-sakti), to fulfill the living being’s desire to enjoy the material world; tena–thus; jantavah–the living beings (though spiritual in constitution); muhyanti–are deluded, thinking the body to be the self. [15]

15 The Supreme Lord accepts neither the sin nor the piety of anyone. The living beings fall into illusion because their knowledge is covered by ignorance.

ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः ।
तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम् ॥१६॥

jnanena tu tad ajnanam yesam nasitam atmanah
tesam adityavaj jnanam prakasayati tat param [16]

tu–But; yesam–of those for whom; tat ajnanam–that ignorance; nasitam–has been destroyed; atmanah jnanena–by self-knowledge, by the Lord’s superior potency; tat jnanam–that knowledge; tesam–of those persons; prakasayati–reveals; param–the Supreme Reality; adityavat–like the sun that dispels darkness. [16]

16 For persons whose divine knowledge has awakened, their ignorance is destroyed, and their wisdom, like the shining sun, reveals the Supreme Reality.

तद्बुद्धयस्तदात्मानस्तन्निष्ठास्तत्परायणाः ।
गच्छन्त्यपुनरावृत्तिं ज्ञाननिर्धूतकल्मषाः ॥१७॥

tad-buddhayas tad-atmanas tan-nisthas tat-parayanah
gachchhanty apunar-avrttim jnana-nirdhuta-kalmasah [17]

jnana-nirdhuta-kalmasah–Persons whose ignorance has been destroyed by knowledge; tat-buddhayah–who think constantly of the Supreme Lord; tat-atmanah–who meditate on Him alone; tat-nisthah–who abide in Him always; tat-parayanah–and who are devoted to hearing and singing His glories; (santah)–being so engaged; gachchhanti–they attain; apunah-avrttim–liberation. [17]

17 Those whose illusion has been completely dispelled by knowledge always think of Me, the Supreme Lord; I am their meditation, and they abide in Me alone, hearing and singing My unending glories in pure devotion. Thus, they are liberated from the mundane.

विद्याविनयसम्पन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि ।
शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः ॥१८॥

vidya-vinaya-sampanne brahmane gavi hastini
suni chaiva svapake cha panditah sama-darsinah [18]

sama-darsinah eva–Those who see with equanimity, who see Brahma, transcendence; vidya-vinaya-sampanne–in a learned and humble; brahmane–brahman; gavi–a cow; hastini–an elephant; suni cha–and a dog; svapake cha–or a chandal (dog-eater or outcast); (kathyate)–(such seers) are to be known as; panditah–truly learned. [18]

18 The enlightened souls see transcendence within all living beings, whether the humble and learned brahman, the cow, the elephant, the dog, or the dog-eater. Therefore, they are to be known as pandit—men of true wisdom.

इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः ।
निर्द्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद्ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः ॥१९॥

ihaiva tair jitah sargo yesam samye sthitam manah
nirdosam hi samam brahma tasmad brahmani te sthitah [19]

yesam–For those whose; manah–mind; sthitam–is situated; samye–equipoised in Brahma; sargah–the cycle of birth and death; jitah–is conquered; taih–by them; eva iha–while living within this world. brahma samam hi–Possessing spiritual equanimity; nirdosam–and being faultless (free from attachment and hatred); tasmat–thus; te–they; brahmani sthitah–are situated in Brahma. [19]

19 Those whose minds are equipoised in Brahma have conquered the cycle of birth and death while living within this world. By their perfect spiritual equanimity, they are always situated in transcendence.

न प्रहृष्येत्प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत्प्राप्य चाप्रियम् ।
स्थिरबुद्धिरसम्मूढो ब्रह्मविद्ब्रह्मणि स्थितः ॥२०॥

na prahrsyet priyam prapya nodvijet prapya chapriyam
sthira-buddhir asammudho brahma-vid brahmani sthitah [20]

brahmani sthitah–Fully situated in Brahma; sthira-buddhih–endowed with steady intelligence; asammudhah–devoid of the delusion of considering one’s body and its attachments as ‘me’ and ‘mine’; brahma-vit–one in knowledge of Brahma; na prahrsyet–is neither elated; priyam prapya–by obtaining something desirable; na cha udvijet–nor dejected; apriyam prapya–by obtaining something undesirable. [20]

20 Absorbed in transcendence, endowed with steady intelligence, and free from the delusion of thinking of the body and associated objects as ‘me’ and ‘mine,’ the knower of the Absolute is neither happy when pleasant things come his way nor sad when unpleasant things come his way.

बाह्यस्पर्शेष्वसक्तात्मा विन्दत्यात्मनि यत्सुखम् ।
स ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मा सुखमक्षयमश्नुते ॥२१॥

bahya-sparsesv asaktatma vindaty atmani yat sukham
sa brahma-yoga-yuktatma sukham aksayam asnute [21]

asakta-atma–The person with mind detached; bahya-sparsesu–from external (sense-) enjoyment; (adau)–first; vindati–tastes; (tat) sukham–that happiness; yat atmani (anubhuyamane)–which is experienced in self-realisation; (tatah)–then; brahma-yoga-yukta-atma–absorbing himself in meditation on the Absolute; sah–such a person; asnute–enjoys; aksayam–inexhaustible; sukham–bliss. [21]

21 Detaching his mind from external pleasures, such a knower of the Absolute Truth tastes the inner joy of self-realisation. Then, absorbing himself in meditation on the Absolute, he experiences inexhaustible bliss.

ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा दुःखयोनय एव ते ।
आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः ॥२२॥

ye hi samsparsaja bhoga duhkha-yonaya eva te
ady-antavantah kaunteya na tesu ramate budhah [22]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna; ye bhogah–those pleasures; samsparsa-jah–born of the senses contacting their objects; te duhkha-yonayah eva–are the origin of misery; hi–as; adi-antavantah–they begin and end. (atah)–Therefore; budhah–the wise person; na ramate–does not delight; tesu–in them. [22]

22 O son of Kunti, the pleasures that arise from the contact of the senses with their objects are the cause of unhappiness, as they are transient. The wise never delight in such pleasures.

शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्शरीरविमोक्षणात् ।
कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः ॥२३॥

saknotihaiva yah sodhum prak sarira-vimoksanat
kama-krodhodbhavam vegam sa yuktah sa sukhi narah [23]

yah–One who; saknoti–is able (by the yoga of selfless action); sodhum–to check; kama-krodha-udbhavam vegam–the impulses of desire and anger; iha eva–in this life; prak–before; sarira-vimoksanat–leaving the body; sah narah–that person; yuktah–is a yogi; sah–he; sukhi–is happy. [23]

23 Know that one who, before leaving the body, utilises the opportunity of this life to check the impulses of desire and anger—he is a yogi who knows true happiness.

योऽन्तःसुखोऽन्तरारामस्तथान्तर्ज्योतिरेव यः ।
स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्व्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति ॥२४॥

yo ’ntah-sukho ’ntar-aramas tathantar-jyotir eva yah
sa yogi brahma-nirvanam brahma-bhuto ’dhigachchhati [24]

yah–One who; antah-sukhah–experiences the joy of the self within; antah-aramah–who delights in the self within; tatha yah–and who; eva–in this way; antah-jyotih–sees the illumination within; sah yogi–such a (niskam karma-) yogi (follower of the yoga of selfless action); brahma-bhutah–attaining the transcendental state; adhigachchhati–achieves; brahma-nirvanam–liberation in Brahma; in the personal conception, he reaches the Supersoul, Paramatma. [24]

24 Such a yogi sees the self within and delights in the bliss of the self within. Attaining the transcendental state, he attains liberation from matter (and entry into the abode of Brahma).

लभन्ते ब्रह्मनिर्व्वाणमृषयः क्षीणकल्मषाः ।
छिन्नद्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्व्वभूतहिते रताः ॥२५॥

labhante brahma-nirvanam rsayah ksina-kalmasah
chhinna-dvaidha yatatmanah sarva-bhuta-hite-ratah [25]

ksina-kalmasah–Sinless; yata-atmanah–self-controlled; rsayah–sages; chinna-dvaidhah–with doubts destroyed; sarva-bhuta-hite-ratah–dedicated to the welfare of all; labhante–attain; brahma-nirvanam–liberation from the mundane plane. [25]

25 Sinless, free from doubt, self-controlled, and dedicated to the welfare of all living beings, the seers of truth attain such liberation.

कामक्रोधविमुक्तानां यतीनां यतचेतसाम् ।
अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्व्वाणं वर्त्तते विदितात्मनाम् ॥२६॥

kama-krodha-vimuktanam yatinam yata-chetasam
abhito brahma-nirvanam vartate viditatmanam [26]

yatinam–Of the sannyasis; yata-chetasam–who have controlled their thoughts (conquered the subtle body); vidita-atmanam–who are knowers of the element tvam, the soul; kama-krodha-vimuktanam–and free from desire and anger; brahma-nirvanam–liberation from matter; vartate–occurs; abhitah–either way, whether they live or die. [26]

26 Persons of the renounced order who have controlled their thoughts, who are free from desire and anger, and who have achieved knowledge of the nature of the soul, are liberated whether they live or die.

स्पर्शान्कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः ।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ ॥२७॥

यतेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिर्मुनिर्मोक्षपरायणः ।
विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः ॥२८॥

sparsan krtva bahir bahyams chaksus chaivantare bhruvoh
pranapanau samau krtva nasabhyantara-charinau [27]

yatendriya-mano-buddhir munir moksa-parayanah
vigatechchha-bhaya-krodho yah sada mukta eva sah [28]

yah–That person who; bahih krtva–expelling; bahyan sparsan–external sense objects of sound, etc.; (manah pravistan)–which enter the mind; cha eva (krtva)–and concentrating; chaksuh–the eyes; antare–between; bhruvoh–the eyebrows; krtva samau–stabilising; prana-apanau–inhalation and exhalation; nasa-abhyantara-charinau–flowing through the nostrils; (yah)–that person who; yata-indriya-manah-buddhih–is a controller of the senses, mind, and intelligence; moksa-parayanah–dedicated to liberation; vigata-ichchha-bhaya-krodhah–free from desire, fear, and anger; munih–a contemplative seeker of the self; sah–he; sada–is always; mukta eva–actually liberated. [27–28]

27–28 Expelling from the mind all the external sense objects of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell; centering the concentration and stabilising the incoming and outgoing breath; subjugating the senses, mind, and intelligence; dedicating himself to liberation; his desire, fear, and anger gone, such a sage is ever liberated.

भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्व्वलोकमहेश्वरम् ।
सुहृदं सर्व्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति ॥२९॥

bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram
suhrdam sarva-bhutanam jnatva mam santim rchchhati [29]

(jivah)–The living being; rchchhati–attains; santim–the joy of his original divine identity; jnatva–by knowing; mam–Me; bhoktaram–as the maintainer, or worshippable objective; yajna-tapasam–of the karmis’ sacrifices and the jnanis’ austerities; sarva-loka-maha-isvaram–the worshippable Supreme Lord of all planes—Lord Narayan; suhrdam sarva-bhutanam–and the benefactor of all living beings by mercifully teaching pure devotion to Me, through My devotees, since I am the adorable friend of the devotees—Lord Krishna. [29]

29 I am the enjoyer and objective of the sacrifices performed by persons of action, and of the austerities performed by persons of knowledge. I am Narayan, the indwelling monitor of all planes of life, the worshippable Supreme Personality who awards liberation. I am Krishna, the well-wisher of all and the dear friend of the devotees. One who knows Me thus, attains the bliss of knowing his own original divine identity.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे कर्म्मसन्न्यासयोगो नाम पञ्चमोऽध्यायः ॥५॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma-
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade karma-
sannyasa-yogo nama panchamo ’dhyayah [5]

End of Chapter Five
The Path of Renunciation of Action
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

षष्ठोऽध्यायः
Chapter Six

Dhyana-yoga: The Path of Meditation

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

अनाश्रितः कर्म्मफलं कार्य्यं कर्म्म करोति यः ।
स सन्न्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

anasritah karma-phalam karyam karma karoti yah
sa sannyasi cha yogi cha na niragnir na chakriyah [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: yah–That person who; karoti–performs; karyam–compulsory; karma–scripturally enjoined actions; anasritah–without expectation; karma-phalam–of the fruits of action; sah cha–he is; sannyasi–a sannyasi, one who has given up all for the Lord; yogi cha–and he is a yogi, one in union with the Lord. na niragnih–A sannyasi is not one who merely renounces the fire sacrifice (agnihotra yajna) and other prescribed duties; na cha akriyah–nor is a yogi one who merely renounces physical activities. [1]

1 The Supreme Lord said: Know a genuine sannyasi and yogi as one who, without expectation of the fruits of his actions, performs his duties as prescribed by the scriptures. One is not a sannyasi merely by renouncing the performance of the fire sacrifice and other prescribed duties, and one is not a yogi merely by becoming physically inactive.

यं सन्न्यासमिति प्राहुर्योगं तं विद्धि पाण्डव ।
न ह्यसन्न्यस्तसङ्कल्पो योगी भवति कश्चन ॥२॥

yam sannyasam iti prahur yogam tam viddhi pandava
na hy asannyasta-sankalpo yogi bhavati kaschana [2]

(he) pandavah–O Arjuna; yam–that which; (sudhiyah)–the learned; prahuh–call; sannyasam iti–sannyas, complete renunciation; viddhi–you should know; tam (eva) yogam–as yoga; hi–since; asannyasta-sankalpah–without renunciation of fruitive attachment (the basis of niskam karma-yoga); na kaschana–no one; bhavati–can be; yogi–a yogi. [2]

2 O Arjuna, that which is known as sannyas (complete renunciation) you should know to be yoga, since without renouncing fruitive desire no one can be a yogi.

आरुरुक्षोर्मुनेर्योगं कर्म्म कारणमुच्यते ।
योगारूढस्य तस्यैव शमः कारणमुच्यते ॥३॥

aruruksor muner yogam karma karanam uchyate
yogarudhasya tasyaiva samah karanam uchyate [3]

muneh–For the yoga practitioner; aruruksoh–desirous of ascending; yogam–to steady yoga meditation; (tad arohe)–in the ascent of yoga; karma–action; uchyate–is said; karanam–to be the means. tasya eva yoga-arudhasya–For that person accomplished in yoga, that is, when he has achieved meditation; samah–renunciation of all action; uchyate–is described; karanam–as the means. [3]

3 For the yoga practitioner desirous of attaining steady yoga meditation, action is said to be the means. When he has achieved yoga meditation, renunciation of all action is said to be the means of remaining in meditation.

यदा हि नेन्द्रियार्थेषु न कर्म्मस्वनुषज्जते ।
सर्व्वसङ्कल्पसन्न्यासी योगारूढस्तदोच्यते ॥४॥

yada hi nendriyarthesu na karmasv anusajjate
sarva-sankalpa-sannyasi yogarudhas tadochyate [4]

yada hi–When; (yogi)–the yoga practitioner; na anusajjate–does not become attached; indriya-arthesu–to the objects of the senses—sound, touch, form, taste, and smell; na (anusajjate) karmasu (cha)–and does not become attached to action in pursuit of their enjoyment; sarva-sankalpa-sannyasi (cha bhavati)–and renounces all thoughts of enjoyment; tada–then; uchyate yoga-arudhah–he is said to have attained to yoga. [4]

4 When the yoga practitioner does not become attached to the objects of the senses, and to any action in pursuit of their enjoyment, and renounces all thoughts of enjoyment, then he is said to have attained to yoga.

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत् ।
आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः ॥५॥

uddhared atmanatmanam natmanam avasadayet
atmaiva hy atmano bandhur atmaiva ripur atmanah [5]

atmanam–The living being; uddharet–must be delivered from the bondage of the material world; atmana–by the (detached) mind; atmanam–and the living being; na avasadayet–must not be made to fall down into the bondage of the material world; (atmana)–by the mind (enchanted by sense objects); hi–since; atma eva–this very mind; bandhuh–is the friend; atmanah–of the living being; atma eva–and this very mind; ripuh–is the enemy; atmanah–of the living being. [5]

5 One must elevate himself by the mind, not degrade himself by the mind; for the mind is sometimes the friend of the living being, and in another situation that very mind is his enemy.

बन्धुरात्मात्मनस्तस्य येनैवात्मात्मना जितः ।
अनात्मनस्तु शत्रुत्वे वर्त्तेतात्मैव शत्रुवत् ॥६॥

bandhur atmatmanas tasya yenaivatmatmana jitah
anatmanas tu satrutve vartetatmaiva satruvat [6]

yena atmana–For one by whom; atma–the mind; jitah–has been subjugated; tasya atmanah–that person’s; atma eva–very mind; bandhuh–is a friend; tu–but; anatmanah–for a person of uncontrolled mind; atma eva–that very mind; varteta–is engaged; satrutve–in disservice; satruvat–like an enemy. [6]

6 For one who has conquered the mind, his mind is his friend. For one unable to control the mind, his mind works against him like an enemy.

जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः ।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु तथा मानापमानयोः ॥७॥

jitatmanah prasantasya param atma samahitah
sitosna-sukha-duhkhesu tatha manapamanayoh [7]

sita-usna-sukha-duhkhesu–In cold and heat, happiness and unhappiness; tatha mana-apamanayoh–and in honour and dishonour; atma–the mind; prasantasya–of the peaceful (without attraction and aversion); jitatmanah–yogi who has conquered the mind; (bhavet)–is; param samahitah–in perfect samadhi. [7]

7 The yogi who has conquered the mind remains deeply absorbed in yogic trance, peaceful, and undisturbed by cold and heat, happiness and unhappiness, or honour and dishonour.

ज्ञानविज्ञानतृप्तात्मा कूटस्थो विजितेन्द्रियः ।
युक्त इत्युच्यते योगी समलोष्ट्राश्मकाञ्चनः ॥८॥

jnana-vijnana-trptatma kutastho vijitendriyah
yukta ity uchyate yogi sama-lostrasma-kanchanah [8]

yogi–The yogi; jnana-vijnana-trpta-atma–satisfied in his heart by scriptural knowledge as well as realisation; kuta-sthah–situated in the one unchanging spiritual nature; vijita-indriyah–sense-controlled; sama-lostra-asma-kanchanah–and of equal vision for earth, stone, and gold; uchyate–is said; yuktah iti–to have attained yoga. [8]

8 One who is always satisfied within by both knowledge and realisation, who is always fixed in his spiritual nature, who is sense-controlled, and who has the vision of equality for a clod of earth, a rock, or gold—it is said that such a person has attained yoga.

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु ।
साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ॥९॥

suhrn-mitrary-udasina-madhyastha-dvesya-bandhusu
sadhusv api cha papesu sama-buddhir visisyate [9]

sama-buddhih–One of equipoised intelligence; suhrt-mitra-ari-udasina-madhya-stha-dvesya-bandhusu–towards a well-wisher, a friend, an enemy, an indifferent person, a mediator, a hateful person, a relative; sadhusu–a saintly person; papesu cha api–and a sinner, too; visisyate–such a yogi is well-qualified. [9]

9 Such an eminent yogi has the vision of equality towards a well-wisher, a friend, an enemy, an indifferent person, a mediator, a hateful person, a relative, a saint, and a sinner.

योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः ।
एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः ॥१०॥

yogi yunjita satatam atmanam rahasi sthitah
ekaki yata-chittatma nirasir aparigrahah [10]

yogi–The practising yogi; sthitah–remaining; ekaki–alone; rahasi–in a solitary place; yata-chitta-atma–controlling mind and body; nirasih–desireless; aparigrahah–without enjoyable objects or acquisition; yunjita atmanam–must concentrate his mind; satatam–constantly. [10]

10 The yogi should constantly concentrate his mind by remaining alone in a solitary place, his mind and body controlled, free from desire and acquisition.

शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः ।
नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चेलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् ॥११॥

तत्रैकाग्रं मनः कृत्वा यतचित्तेन्द्रियक्रियः ।
उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्मविशुद्धये ॥१२॥

suchau dese pratisthapya sthiram asanam atmanah
naty-uchchhritam nati-nicham chelajina-kusottaram [11]

tatraikagram manah krtva yata-chittendriya-kriyah
upavisyasane yunjyad yogam atma-visuddhaye [12]

pratisthapya–Establishing; atmanah–his; asanam–seat; chela-ajina-kusa-uttaram–of Kusa grass, deerskin, and cloth; suchau dese–in a clean place; sthiram–which is firm; na ati-uchchhritam–neither too high; na ati-nicham–nor too low; upavisya–sitting; tatra asane–on that seat; yata-chitta-indriya-kriyah–subjugating all mental and sensual activity; krtva–making; manah–the mind; eka-agram–one-pointed; yunjyat–he should practise; yogam–samadhi; atma-visuddhaye–for self-purification, to attain spiritual realisation. [11–12]

11–12 In a clean place, not too high and not too low, the yogi should establish a firm seat of Kusa grass, deerskin, and cloth. Then, sitting on that seat, subjugating all mental and sensual activity, with one-pointed concentration he should practise meditational trance in order to purify his heart.

समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिरः ।
सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन् ॥१३॥

प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः ।
मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः ॥१४॥

samam kaya-siro-grivam dharayann achalam sthirah
sampreksya nasikagram svam disas chanavalokayan [13]

prasantatma vigata-bhir brahmachari-vrate sthitah
manah samyamya mach-chitto yukta asita mat-parah [14]

dharayan–Holding; kaya-sirah-grivam–the body, head, and neck; samam–straight; achalam–still; sthirah–and poised; sampreksya–gazing at; svam nasika–his nose; agram–at the top, between the eyes (centering the concentration); cha anavalokayan–not looking; disah–in all directions; brahmachari-vrate-sthitah–remaining fixed in spirituality (or celibacy); prasanta-atma–with a peaceful heart; vigata-bhih–and fearless; manah samyamya–subjugating the mind; yuktah–the yogi; mat-parah–devoted to Me; asita–should remain; mat-chittah–absorbed in thought of Me. [13–14]

13–14 Soberly keeping his body, head, and neck straight and upright, poised, the yogi should fix his gaze at one point, as though between the eyes, without casting a glance in any direction. Tranquil, fearless, and reposed in the vow of celibacy, he should meditate on Me (as four-armed Visnu), and devoting himself to Me, he should thus practise yoga.

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी नियतमानसः ।
शान्तिं निर्व्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति ॥१५॥

yunjann evam sadatmanam yogi niyata-manasah
santim nirvana-paramam mat-samstham adhigachchhati [15]

evam–In this manner; sada–constantly; yunjan atmanam–engaging the mind in yogic meditation; yogi–the yogi; niyata-manasah–of mind withdrawn from hankering for material enjoyment; adhigachchhati–attains to; santim–the peace; nirvana-paramam–of emancipation by the destruction of material existence; mat-samstham–(the peace) which abides in Me (in My non-differentiated Brahma effulgence [Srila Visvanath Chakravarti Thakur.]). [15]

15 In this way, constantly absorbing his mind in meditation (dhyana-yoga), the yogi who has ceased hankering for material enjoyment achieves the peace of liberation from mundanity, the peace which abides in Me (in my Brahma effulgence).

नात्यश्नतस्तु योगोऽस्ति न चैकान्तमनश्नतः ।
न चातिस्वप्नशीलस्य जाग्रतो नैव चार्ज्जुन ॥१६॥

naty-asnatas tu yogo ’sti na chaikantam anasnatah
na chati-svapna-silasya jagrato naiva charjuna [16]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; yogah–yoga, samadhi; na asti–is not; ati-asnatah tu–for the overeater; na cha–nor; ekantam anasnatah–for the undereater; na cha–nor; ati-svapna-silasya–for one who oversleeps; na cha–nor; eva jagratah–for one who remains awake excessively. [16]

16 O Arjuna, yoga cannot be practised by one who overeats, undereats, oversleeps, or undersleeps.

युक्ताहारविहारस्य युक्तचेष्टस्य कर्म्मसु ।
युक्तस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःखहा ॥१७॥

yuktahara-viharasya yukta-chestasya karmasu
yukta-svapnavabodhasya yogo bhavati duhkha-ha [17]

yukta-ahara-viharasya–For the person whose eating and recreation are regulated; yukta-chestasya-karmasu–whose effort in works is regulated; yukta-svapna-avabodhasya–and whose sleeping and waking hours are in proper measure; yogah–yoga; bhavati–is; duhka-ha–a dispeller of suffering. [17]

17 For a person who eats, relaxes, and works in a regulated way, and who keeps regular hours in proper measure, his practice of yoga dispells all his suffering.

यदा विनियतं चित्तमात्मन्येवावतिष्ठते ।
निःस्पृहः सर्व्वकामेभ्यो युक्त इत्युच्यते तदा ॥१८॥

yada viniyatam chittam atmany evavatisthate
nihsprhah sarva-kamebhyo yukta ity ucyate tada [18]

yada–When; viniyatam–the disciplined; chittam–heart; avatisthate–dwells; atmani eva–in the soul alone; tada–then; nihsprhah–that person detached; sarva-kamebhyah–from all desires; uchyate–is described; yuktah iti–as actually in yoga. [18]

18 When a yogi withdraws the mind from mundane thoughts and centres it unwaveringly in the self, then, free from mundane desires, he is said to be actually situated in yoga, or linked with the Absolute.

यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता ।
योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मनः ॥१९॥

yatha dipo nivata-stho nengate sopama smrta
yogino yata-chittasya yunjato yogam atmanah [19]

yatha–As; dipah–a lamp-flame; nivata-sthah–in a windless place; na ingate–does not waver; sa–such; upama–an analogy; smrta–is cited; yoginah–of the yogi; atmanah–the soul-centred; yogam–yoga; yunjatah–practitioner; yata-chittasya–of unwavering one-pointed mind. [19]

19 It is said, as a lamp-flame situated in a windless place does not waver, similarly, the mind of the yogi absorbed in the self never flickers in its concentration.

यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया ।
यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति ॥२०॥

सुखमात्यन्तिकं यत्तद्बुद्धिग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम् ।
वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश्चलति तत्त्वतः ॥२१॥

यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं ततः ।
यस्मिन्स्थितो न दुःखेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते ॥२२॥

तं विद्याद्दुःखसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम् ।
स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्व्विण्ण चेतसा ॥२३॥

yatroparamate chittam niruddham yoga-sevaya
yatra chaivatmanatmanam pasyann atmani tusyati [20]

sukham atyantikam yat tad buddhi-grahyam atindriyam
vetti yatra na chaivayam sthitas chalati tattvatah [21]

yam labdhva chaparam labham manyate nadhikam tatah
yasmin sthito na duhkhena gurunapi vichalyate [22]

tam vidyad duhkha-samyoga-viyogam yoga-samjnitam
sa nischayena yoktavyo yogo ’nirvinna-chetasa [23]

yatra–That (samadhi) within which; chittam–the mind; niruddham–disciplined; yoga-sevaya–by yoga practice; uparamate–is tranquil (relieved from mundane association); cha–and; yatra–within which; pasyan–having observed; atmanam–the Supersoul, Paramatma; atmana–by the pure self of the same nature as the Supersoul; tusyati–one is satisfied; atmani eva–only in Him; (cha)–and; yatra–by which; ayam–this yogi; vetti tat–experiences that; atyantikam–constant; sukham–bliss; ati-indriyam–transcendental to the senses; yat–which is; buddhi-grahyam–known by spiritual enlightenment; cha–and; (yatra) sthitah (san)–being situated within which; na eva chalati–one never deviates; tattvatah–from reality; (cha)–and; yam labdhva–gaining which; na manyate–one does not consider; aparam labham–any other attainment; adhikam–greater; tatah–than that; cha–and; yasmin sthitah (san)–being situated within which; na vichalyate–one is not disturbed; guruna duhkhena api–even by intense suffering; vidyat–know; tam–that; duhkha-samyoga-viyogam–state within which all association with unhappiness is severed; yoga-samjnitam–to be defined as yoga. yoktavyah–One should practise; sah yogah–this yoga; nischayena–with perseverance; anirvinna-chetasa–and a heart that is never discouraged. [20–23]

20–23 The mind controlled by yoga practice is tranquil, pacified by detachment from mundane association. The yogi remains satisfied in the Lord alone, directly seeing the Supersoul through his purified consciousness. In his spiritual enlightenment, he tastes transcendental, eternal bliss. He never deviates from the reality. He considers that there is no greater gain in this world. He is undisturbed by even the worst suffering. Know that the attainment of such a state, in which all association with unhappiness is severed, is called yoga. Yoga must be practised with perseverance and a heart that is never discouraged.

सङ्कल्पप्रभवान्कामांस्त्यक्त्वा सर्व्वानशेषतः ।
मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः ॥२४॥

sankalpa-prabhavan kamams tyaktva sarvan asesatah
manasaivendriya-gramam viniyamya samantatah [24]

(yoktavyah)–Such yoga must be practised; tyaktva–giving up; sarvan kaman–all desires; sankalpa-prabhavan–born of the thoughts; asesatah–completely (including all impressions); manasa eva–and by the mind (with the vision of the futility of mundane enjoyment); viniyamya–withdrawing; indriya-gramam–the group of senses; samantatah–from all material objects. [24]

24 To practise yoga one must abandon all thoughts that give rise to desires, and using the mind, withdraw the senses from all material objects.

शनैः शनैरुपरमेद्बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया ।
आत्मसंस्थं मनः कृत्वा न किञ्चिदपि चिन्तयेत् ॥२५॥

sanaih sanair uparamed buddhya dhrti-grhitaya
atma-samstham manah krtva na kinchid api chintayet [25]

buddhya–By means of the intelligence; dhrti-grhitaya–controlled by the yogic practice of dharana; manah atma-samstham krtva–completely steadying the mind within the self; sanaih sanaih–and gradually; uparamet–as the mind becomes tranquil; na chintayet–one should not think; kinchit api–of anything else. [25]

25 By steadying the intelligence, one should gradually still the mind and focus it within the self alone.

यतो यतो निश्चलति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् ।
ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत् ॥२६॥

yato yato nischalati manas chanchalam asthiram
tatas tato niyamyaitad atmany eva vasam nayet [26]

yatah yatah–Whatever objects; chanchalam–the fickle; asthiram–unsteady; manah–mind; nischalati–pursues; etat–this mind; niyamya–should be withdrawn; tatah tatah–from those objects; vasam nayet–and should be subjugated; atmani eva–within the self alone. [26]

26 The wavering and unsteady mind should be brought back from whatever mundane objects it pursues, and be held within the self alone.

प्रशान्तमनसं ह्येनं योगिनं सुखमुत्तमम् ।
उपैति शान्तरजसं ब्रह्मभूतमकल्मषम् ॥२७॥

prasanta-manasam hy enam yoginam sukham uttamam
upaiti santa-rajasam brahma-bhutam akalmasam [27]

uttamam sukham–The joy of self-realisation; upaiti–comes; enam yoginam hi–to such a yogi; santa-rajasam–who is free from the action of the mode of passion; prasanta-manasam–of pacified heart; akalmasam–free from the defects of attachment, fear, and anger; brahma-bhutam–and situated in the spiritual nature. [27]

27 The transcendental joy of self-realisation comes to the yogi whose passions are quieted, who is peacefulhearted, free from the defects of attachment, fear, and anger, and always situated in the spiritual nature.

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी विगतकल्मषः ।
सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते ॥२८॥

yunjann evam sadatmanam yogi vigata-kalmasah
sukhena brahma-samsparsam atyantam sukham asnute [28]

evam–In this way; sada yunjan–having constantly experienced by yoga; atmanam–his own internal nature; vigata-kalmasah–the clean-hearted; yogi–yogi; sukhena–easily; asnute–attains; atyantam sukham–boundless, profound ecstasy; brahma-samsparsam–by contact with the divine; realisation of the Supersoul. [28]

28 Thus absorbed in self-realisation, the clean-hearted yogi easily attains the boundless ecstasy of contacting the divine. He realises the Supersoul. (Such yoga is of a devotional nature).

सर्व्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्व्वभूतानि चात्मनि ।
ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्व्वत्र समदर्शनः ॥२९॥

sarva-bhuta-stham atmanam sarva-bhutani chatmani
iksate yoga-yuktatma sarvatra sama-darsanah [29]

yoga-yukta-atma–The yogi who is united with Brahma, the Absolute, who realises himself as qualitatively identical with Brahma; sarvatra sama-darsanah–and is a seer of the same spirituality everywhere; iksate–sees; atmanam–the Supersoul; sarva-bhuta-stham–situated in all beings; cha–and; sarva-bhutani–all beings; (sthitah)–situated; atmani–in the Supersoul. [29]

29 His consciousness united with the Infinite, the master of yoga sees the universal spirituality. He sees the Supreme Soul within all beings, and all beings within the Supreme.

यो मां पश्यति सर्व्वत्र सर्व्वञ्च मयि पश्यति ।
तस्याहं न प्रणश्यामि स च मे न प्रणश्यति ॥३०॥

yo mam pasyati sarvatra sarvan cha mayi pasyati
tasyaham na pranasyami sa cha me na pranasyati [30]

yah–For one who; pasyati–sees; mam–Me; sarvatra–everywhere, in all elements; cha–and; pasyati–sees; sarvam–everything; mayi–in Me; aham–I; na–am never; pranasyami–unseen, lost; tasya–to him; sah cha–and he; na–is never; pranasyati–unseen, lost; me–to Me—he never fails to be conscious of Me. [30]

30 For one who sees Me in everything and everything in Me, I am never lost to him, and he is never lost to Me.

सर्व्वभूतस्थितं यो मां भजत्येकत्वमास्थितः ।
सर्व्वथा वर्त्तमानोऽपि स योगी मयि वर्त्तते ॥३१॥

sarva-bhuta-sthitam yo mam bhajaty ekatvam asthitah
sarvatha vartamano ’pi sa yogi mayi vartate [31]

yah–That yogi who; asthitah–taking shelter; mam–in Me; ekatvam–in My nondifferent form; sarva-bhuta-sthitam–situated in the heart of every being (as the Supersoul, My four-armed form measuring one prades, the distance between the thumb and forefinger); bhajati (mam)–worships Me with devotion (based on hearing, chanting, and remembering); sah yogi–such a yogi; vartate–abides; mayi (eva)–in Me alone; varta-manah api–although present; sarvatha–in all circumstances (whether engaged in the execution of scripturally prescribed duties or not). [31]

31 The yogi who takes shelter of Me and adores Me in My non-different form as the Supersoul situated within the heart of every living being, abides in Me in all circumstances.

आत्मौपम्येन सर्व्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्ज्जुन ।
सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः ॥३२॥

atmaupamyena sarvatra samam pasyati yo ’rjuna
sukham va yadi va duhkham sa yogi paramo matah [32]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; yah–one who; atma-aupamyena–in comparison to himself; pasyati–sees; sukham va yadi va duhkham–the happiness or unhappiness; sarvatra–of all living beings; samam–equal (to his own); sah yogi–such a yogi; matah–in My opinion; paramah–is the best. [32]

32 I consider the best of all yogis to be the one who knows the happiness and unhappiness of all beings as his own.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

योऽयं योगस्त्वया प्रोक्तः साम्येन मधुसूदन ।
एतस्याहं न पश्यामि चञ्चलत्वात्स्थितिं स्थिराम् ॥३३॥

arjuna uvacha

yo ’yam yogas tvaya proktah samyena madhusudana
etasyaham na pasyami chanchalatvat sthitim sthiram [33]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) madhusudana–O Madhusudan; ayam–this; yogah–yoga; yah proktah–that has been described; tvaya–by You; samyena–as equanimity: aham–I; na pasyami–cannot conceive; etasya–its; sthiram–stable; sthitim–state; chanchalatvat–due to the fickle nature; (manasah)–of the mind. [33]

33 Arjuna said: O Madhusudan, because of the fickle nature of the mind, I cannot conceive how one can maintain the equilibrium in yoga that You have described.

चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद्दृढम् ।
तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् ॥३४॥

chanchalam hi manah krsna pramathi balavad drdham
tasyaham nigraham manye vayor iva suduskaram [34]

(he) krsna–O Krishna; hi–for; manah–the mind; chanchalam–is naturally fickle; pramathi–turbulent—disturbing the intelligence, body, and senses; balavat–powerful—uncontrollable by even the intelligence; drdham–and obstinate. (atah)–Therefore; aham–I; manye–consider; nigraham–the control; tasya–of the mind; suduskaram–more difficult; vayoh iva–than (controlling) the wind. [34]

34 O Krishna, the mind is fickle, turbulent, obstinate and very powerful. I consider controlling it to be more difficult than controlling the wind.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् ।
अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते ॥३५॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

asamsayam maha-baho mano durnigraham chalam
abhyasena tu kaunteya vairagyena cha grhyate [35]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) maha-baho–O heroic Arjuna; asamsayam–undoubtedly; manah–the mind; chalam–is fickle; durnigraham–and extremely difficult to control; tu–but; (he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; grhyate–it is controlled; abhyasena–by, under the guidance of a bona fide spiritual master, practice (of meditation on the Supreme Lord); cha–and; vairagyena–by detachment. [35]

35 The Supreme Lord said: O heroic Arjuna, undoubtedly the mind is fickle and extremely difficult to control. However, O son of Kunti, it is possible by practice and detachment.

असंयतात्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः ।
वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्योऽवाप्तुमुपायतः ॥३६॥

asamyatatmana yogo dusprapa iti me matih
vasyatmana tu yatata sakyo ’vaptum upayatah [36]

yogah–Yoga; dusprapah–is difficult to attain; asamyata-atmana–by a person of uncontrolled mind; iti–this is; me–My; matih–opinion; tu–but; yatata–one who strives; vasya-atmana–to control the mind; upayatah–by the appropriate method of arduous practice (sadhana); avaptum sakyah–can attain to yoga. [36]

36 I consider that yoga is difficult to attain for the person of unrestrained mind. But one who strives to restrain the mind by the appropriate practice can succeed in yoga.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच्चलितमानसः ।
अप्राप्य योगसंसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति ॥३७॥

arjuna uvacha

ayatih sraddhayopeto yogach chalita-manasah
aprapya yoga-samsiddhim kam gatim krsna gachchhati [37]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) krsna–O Krishna; kam gatim gachchhati–what is the fate of; sraddhaya upetah–a person who engages in yoga practice due to his faith in yoga scriptures; ayatih–yet is not diligent; yogat chalita-manasah–and whose mind deviates from yoga (due to a lack of practice and abnegation); aprapya–without achieving; yoga-samsiddhim–success in yoga? [37]

37 Arjuna said: O Krishna, what is the destination of a person who, due to his faith in the scriptures, engages in yoga practice, but lacking perseverence, proper practice, and abnegation, is distracted by mundane inclinations and fails to succeed in yoga practice?

कच्चिन्नोभयविभ्रष्टश्छिन्नाभ्रमिव नश्यति ।
अप्रतिष्ठो महाबाहो विमूढो ब्रह्मणः पथि ॥३८॥

kachchin nobhaya-vibhrastas chhinnabhram iva nasyati
apratistho maha-baho vimudho brahmanah pathi [38]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; kachchit na–is it not that; (sah)–such a person; vimudhah–bewildered; brahmanah pathi–on the path of attaining the Absolute; apratisthah–shelterless; ubhaya-vibhrastah–and deviated from the paths of both karma and yoga; nasyati–is lost; iva–like; chhinna-abhram–a scattered cloud? [38]

38 O mighty hero, O Krishna, having deviated from the yoga of attaining the Absolute, shelterless and fallen from the paths of both action and meditation, is not such a person utterly lost, like a scattered cloud?

एतन्मे संशयं कृष्ण छेत्तुमर्हस्यशेषतः ।
त्वदन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्युपपद्यते ॥३९॥

etan me samsayam krsna chhettum arhasy asesatah
tvad-anyah samsayasyasya chhetta na hy upapadyate [39]

(he) krsna–O Krishna; (tvam)–You; arhasi–are able; asesatah chhettum–to completely slash; etat samsayam–this doubt; me–of mine. tvat anyah–Other than You; chhetta–a destroyer; asya samsayasya–of this doubt; na hi upapadyate–is not to be found. [39]

39 O Krishna! No one but You can dispel this doubt of mine. Please mercifully slash it at the root.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस्तस्य विद्यते ।
न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद्दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति ॥४०॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

partha naiveha namutra vinasas tasya vidyate
na hi kalyana-krt kaschid durgatim tata gachchhati [40]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) partha–O son of Kunti; na vidyate–there is no; tasya vinasah–loss for him, he is not denied the happiness of the heavenly plane; iha eva–in this world; na (vidyate)–and there is no; (tasya vinasah)–loss for him, he is not denied the chance of the fortune to see the Supersoul; amutra–in the next life, i.e. in the supramundane plane; hi–since; (he) tata–O dear one; kaschit–any; kalyana-krt–person engaged in virtuous actions; na gachchhati durgatim–does not suffer an ill fate. [40]

40 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, son of Kunti, there is no loss for the unsuccessful yoga practitioner as he is not denied the happiness of the heavenly plane in this world, nor is he denied the chance of the fortune to see the Supersoul in the transcendental realm. This is so, O dear one, because a person who performs virtuous actions never suffers an ill fate.

प्राप्य पुण्यकृतां लोकानुषित्वा शाश्वतीः समाः ।
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोऽभिजायते ॥४१॥

prapya punya-krtam lokan usitva sasvatih samah
suchinam srimatam gehe yoga-bhrasto ’bhijayate [41]

prapya–Attaining to; lokan–the planes; punya-krtam–of the pious; yoga-bhrastah–the person fallen from (comparatively short) yoga practice; usitva–residing; (tatra)–there; sasvatih samah–for many years; abhijayate–takes birth; gehe–in the home; srimatam–of noble, prosperous persons; suchinam–given to pure and honest practices. [41]

41 After residing for many years in all those heavenly planes that are attainable by the performers of great sacrifices such as the Asvamedha, the unsuccessful yoga practitioner takes birth in the home of honourable, prosperous persons given to pure and honest practices.

अथवा योगिनामेव कुले भवति धीमताम् ।
एतद्धि दुर्लभतरं लोके जन्म यदीदृशम् ॥४२॥

athava yoginam eva kule bhavati dhimatam
etaddhi durlabhataram loke janma yad idrsam [42]

athava eva–Otherwise (after relatively longer yoga practice); bhavati–he is born; kule–in a lineage; dhimatam–of teachers of yoga; yoginam–dedicated to yoga practice. hi–Certainly; yat idrsam–such; janma–a birth; etat–as this; durlabhataram–is more rarely attained; loke–in this world. [42]

42 Or he takes birth in the home or family of teachers of yoga, who are dedicated to yoga practice. Such a birth is more rarely attained in this world.

तत्र तं बुद्धिसंयोगं लभते पौर्व्वदैहिकम् ।
यतते च ततो भूयः संसिद्धौ कुरुनन्दन ॥४३॥

tatra tam buddhi-samyogam labhate paurva-daihikam
yatate cha tato bhuyah samsiddhau kuru-nandana [43]

(he) kuru-nandana–O Arjuna, son of Kuru; tatra–in one of these situations; (sah)–he; labhate–attains; tam buddhi-samyogam–that consciousness of the Supersoul; paurva-daihikam–of his previous life. tatah cha–Thereby; yatate–he strives; bhuyah–again; samsiddhau–for spiritual success—to attain the darsan or transcendental vision of the Supersoul. [43]

43 O son of Kuru, within one of these situations, the wisdom he had attained in his previous life is revived, and he again strives for success.

पूर्व्वाभ्यासेन तेनैव ह्रियते ह्यवशोऽपि सः ।
जिज्ञासुरपि योगस्य शब्दब्रह्मातिवर्त्तते ॥४४॥

purvabhyasena tenaiva hriyate hy avaso ’pi sah
jijnasur api yogasya sabda-brahmativartate [44]

hi–Since; avasah api–despite himself; sah eva–he; hriyate–is carried; tena purva-abhyasena–by his practice of the previous life. jijnasuh api–As a seeker; yogasya–of yoga; ativartate–he surpasses; sabda-brahma–(the fruitive rituals of) the Vedas. [44]

44 Despite himself, he is carried by the yoga practice of his previous life. In his search, he surpasses the fruitive rituals of the Vedas.

प्रयत्नाद्यतमानस्तु योगी संशुद्धकिल्बिषः ।
अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥४५॥

prayatnad yatamanas tu yogi samsuddha-kilbisah
aneka-janma-samsiddhas tato yati param gatim [45]

yogi tu–The yogi; yatamanah–striving harder; prayatnat–than the previous attempt; samsuddha-kilbisah–his consciousness cleansed of all worldly attachment; aneka-janma-samsiddhah–gains the perfection of many lifetimes’ endeavours; tatah–and thereby; yati–gains; param gatim–liberation in the form of both self-realisation and Supersoul-realisation. [45]

45 Striving harder than before, the yogi’s consciousness is cleansed of all worldly attachment, and he achieves the fruit of many lifetimes of yoga practice—he attains the supreme destination.

तपस्विभ्योऽधिको योगी ज्ञानिभ्योऽपि मतोऽधिकः ।
कर्म्मिभ्यश्चाधिको योगी तस्माद्योगी भवार्ज्जुन ॥४६॥

tapasvibhyo ’dhiko yogi jnanibhyo ’pi mato ’dhikah
karmibhyas chadhiko yogi tasmad yogi bhavarjuna [46]

yogi–The yogi; adhikah–is superior; tapasvibhyah–to the performer of severe austerities (such as Chandrayan); adhikah api–and is also superior; jnanibhyah–to the jnani, the person of knowledge. yogi–The yogi; adhikah cha–is also superior; karmibhyah–to the karmi, person of action; (iti me)–this is My; matah–consideration. tasmat–Therefore; (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; (tvam)–you; bhava–be; yogi–a yogi. [46]

46 The yogi is superior to persons engaged in severe austerities (such as the Chandrayan vow), superior to the person of knowledge who worships Brahma, and superior to the person of action. Know this to be My conclusion. Therefore, O Arjuna, be a yogi.

योगिनामपि सर्व्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना ।
श्रद्धावान्भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः ॥४७॥

yoginam api sarvesam mad-gatenantar-atmana
sraddhavan bhajate yo mam sa me yuktatamo matah [47]

sarvesam yoginam api–Of all types of yogis on the paths of karma, jnan, tapasya, astanga-yoga, bhakti, etc.; yah–one who; sraddhavan–with firm faith in the holy scriptures which corroborate the superexcellence of devotion for Me; antah-atmana–and with heart; mat-gatena–fully dedicated to Me; bhajate mam–renders service to Me by engaging in the devotional practices based on hearing and chanting My glories; sah–such a devotee; yuktatamah–is foremost. (iti)–This is; me–My; matah–opinion. [47]

47 The best of all yogis is the devotee who has full faith in the authoritative pure devotional scriptures, and who adores Me with all his heart, hearing and singing My divine glories, rendering all services unto Me. This is My opinion.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे ध्यानयोगो नाम षष्ठोऽध्यायः ॥६॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade
dhyana-yogo nama sastho ’dhyayah [6]

End of Chapter Six
The Path of Meditation
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

सप्तमोऽध्यायः
Chapter Seven

Jnana-vijnana-yoga: Knowledge and Realisation of the Supreme

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

मय्यासक्तमनाः पार्थ योगं युञ्जन्मदाश्रयः ।
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच्छृणु ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

mayy asakta-manah partha yogam yunjan mad-asrayah
asamsayam samagram mam yatha jnasyasi tach chhrnu [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) partha–O Arjuna; srnu tat–hear; yatha–how; asakta-manah–with mind attached; mayi–to Me, the Supreme Lord; yunjan yogam–linking your consciousness with Me; mat-asrayah–taking refuge in Me alone (without any attempts of karma, etc.); asamsayam–without doubt; jnasyasi–you will be able to know; mam–Me; samagram–in full—along with My abode, My opulences, and My associates. [1]

1 The Lord said: O Partha, hear from Me how, with mind attached to Me, the Supreme Lord, linking your consciousness with Me and taking refuge in Me alone, you will without doubt be able to know Me, My holy abode, My opulences, and My associates.

ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते ॥२॥

jnanam te ’ham sa-vijnanam idam vaksyamy asesatah
yaj jnatva neha bhuyo ’nyaj jnatavyam avasisyate [2]

aham–I; vaksyami–shall now describe; asesatah–completely; te–to you; idam jnanam–this knowledge of My absolute power (aisvaryamaya-jnan); sa-vijnanam–with the knowledge to be realised of My sweetness (madhurya-anubhav); jnatva–knowing; yat–which; bhuyah–again; anyat–any other; (tava) jnatavyam–thing to be known by you; na avasisyate–will not remain; iha–on this supreme path. [2]

2 Now I shall reveal to you this knowledge of My absolute power as well as the realisation of My sweetness, knowing which, nothing will remain to be known, here on this supreme path.

मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद्यतति सिद्धये ।
यततामपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन्मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ॥३॥

manusyanam sahasresu kaschid yatati siddhaye
yatatam api siddhanam kaschin mam vetti tattvatah [3]

manusyanam sahasresu–Of thousands of men; kaschit–a rare one; yatati–endeavours; siddhaye–for self-realisation and Supersoul-realisation; yatatam siddhanam api–and of thousands who have attained such realisation; kaschit–a rare one; tattvatah–truly; vetti–knows; mam–Me, Syamasundar. [3]

3 Of countless souls, few reach the human form; of thousands of human beings, very few may try to realise the soul and the Supersoul; and of thousands who have attained such realisation, hardly one can actually know Me, Syamasundar.

भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च ।
अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा ॥४॥

bhumir apo ’nalo vayuh kham mano buddhir eva cha
ahankara itiyam me bhinna prakrtir astadha [4]

bhumih–Earth; apah–water; analah–fire; vayuh–air; kham–ether; manah–mind; buddhih–intelligence; ahankarah eva cha–and ego; iti–thus; iyam–this; prakrtih–nature, maya-sakti, illusory potency; me–of Mine; bhinna–is divided; asta-dha–eightfold. [4]

4 Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence, and ego are the eight divisions of My illusory potency in this world.

Commentary

In this verse, it is expressed that jnan, or knowledge, in the true sense of the word and in accordance with the precepts of devotion, is actually Bhagavad-aisvarya-jnan, or knowledge of the supremacy of the Lord. The general seekers of knowledge may consider realisation of the soul—as distinct from the body and material elements—to be enlightenment, but this does not constitute ultimate knowledge.

Thus, to explain the conception of His Lordship, the Lord reveals His forms, His potencies, and their characteristics: “My different aspects are Brahma, Paramatma, and Bhagavan. Brahma is a non-differentiated, formless aspect of My potency. Paramatma, the Supersoul, is also an appearance of My potency (in relation to the cosmic manifestation), and this aspect of Mine is not eternally manifest. Only My form of Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord, is My eternal Self, and in this form My three eternal potencies exist as antaranga- or chit-shakti—the internal, divine potency; bahiranga- or maya-sakti—the external, illusory potency; and tatastha- or jiva-sakti—the marginal potency comprising the innumerable living beings.”

In this verse, the Lord has described His external, illusory potency.

—Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur

अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् ।
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्य्यते जगत् ॥५॥

apareyam itas tv anyam prakrtim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho yayedam dharyate jagat [5]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; iyam–this external nature, external potency; apara–is inferior; tu–but; param–superior; itah–to this; viddhi–you should know; anyam–another; prakrtim–nature, the marginal potency; me–of Mine; jiva-bhutam–in the form of the individual souls; yaya–the conscious potency by which; idam jagat–this world; dharyate–is adopted for enjoyment through fruitive actions. [5]

5 O mighty hero, Arjuna, this external, worldly nature is inferior. But know that superior to this nature is My marginal potency, comprised of the individual souls. Worldly existence is adopted by the souls for enjoyment through fruitive actions. (The divine world emanates from My internal potency and the mundane world from My external potency. The potency of the living beings is known as marginal as they are constitutionally situated midway between these planes. They may choose to reside either in the mundane plane or the divine.)

एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्व्वाणीत्युपधारय ।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा ॥६॥

etad yonini bhutani sarvanity upadharaya
aham krtsnasya jagatah prabhavah pralayas tatha [6]

upadharaya–Understand; iti–that; sarvani bhutani–all living species, moving and stationary; etat yonini–are manifest from these two types of prakrti, or natures, as ksetra and ksetrajna (vide 13.12). aham prabhavah–I am the source of manifestation; tatha pralayah–and dissolution; krtsnasya–of the entire; jagatah–universe. [6]

6 Know that all species, either moving or stationary, are manifest from these two natures as the field of action and the knower of the field; and I alone am the cause of the manifestation and dissolution of the entire universe.

मत्तः परतरं नान्यत्किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय ।
मयि सर्व्वमिदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणिगणा इव ॥७॥

mattah parataram nanyat kinchid asti dhananjaya
mayi sarvam idam protam sutre mani-gana iva [7]

(he) dhananjaya–O Dhananjaya, conqueror of riches; na anyat kinchit–nothing else; asti–is; parataram–superior; mattah–to Me. idam sarvam–This whole world; protam–is threaded; mayi–in Me; iva–like; mani-ganah–gems; sutre–strung on a thread. [7]

7 O Arjuna, there is nothing superior to Me. All existence depends on Me, like gems strung on a thread.

रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्य्ययोः ।
प्रणवः सर्व्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु ॥८॥

raso ’ham apsu kaunteya prabhasmi sasi-suryayoh
pranavah sarva-vedesu sabdah khe paurusam nrsu [8]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; aham asmi–I am present; rasah–by My power as the essential taste; apsu–of water. (aham asmi)–I am present; prabha–by My power of radiance; sasi-suryayoh–in the moon and sun. (aham asmi)–I am present; sarva-vedesu–in all the Vedas; pranavah–as the origin of the Vedas, Omkar. (aham asmi)–I am present; sabdah–as the element of sound; khe–in the ether. (aham asmi)–I am present; paurusam–as masculinity; nrsu–in men. [8]

8 O son of Kunti, I am the taste of water, I am the radiance of the sun and the moon. I am Om, the fundamental vibration in all the Vedas, I am the sound in the ether, and I am the masculinity in men.

पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्याञ्च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ ।
जीवनं सर्व्वभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु ॥९॥

punyo gandhah prthivyan cha tejas chasmi vibhavasau
jivanam sarva-bhutesu tapas chasmi tapasvisu [9]

(aham)–I; asmi–am present; punyah gandhah–as the unmixed fragrance; prthivyam cha–in the earth; tejah vibhavasau cha–and as the force of radiance and heat in fire; asmi–(I) am present; jivanam–as the life-span; sarva-bhutesu–of all beings; cha–and; tapah–the power to endure duality, etc.; tapasvisu–in the performers of austerities. [9]

9 I am the pure fragrance of the earth, and I am the radiance of fire. I am the life-span of all beings, and in ascetics, I am the power to endure duality such as cold and heat.

बीजं मां सर्व्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम् ।
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ॥१०॥

bijam mam sarva-bhutanam viddhi partha sanatanam
buddhir buddhimatam asmi tejas tejasvinam aham [10]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; viddhi–know; mam–Me; sanatanam bijam–as the eternal cause, known as pradhan; sarva-bhutanam–of all life-forms. aham asmi–I am present; buddhih–as the intelligence; buddhi-matam–of the intelligent; tejah–and as the prowess; tejasvinam–of the bold. [10]

10 O Partha, know Me as the eternal, original cause of all life-forms. I am the intelligence of the intelligent, the power of the powerful.

बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्ज्जितम् ।
धर्म्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ ॥११॥

balam balavatam chaham kama-raga-vivarjitam
dharmaviruddho bhutesu kamo ’smi bharatarsabha [11]

(he) bharatarsabha–O best of the dynasty of Bharat; aham asmi–I am present; bala-vatam–for the strong; balam–as strength of sattvika quality, or goodness, which enables one to execute his religious duties; kama-raga-vivarjitam–without selfishness and attachment; cha–and; (aham asmi)–I am present; bhutesu–in the living beings; kamah–as the desire to procreate; dharma-aviruddhah–without crossing the universal principles of religion, i.e. to beget offspring only in one’s wife. [11]

11 O Arjuna, I am the strength of the strong, without selfishness and attachment; and I am the desire for procreation in the living beings which does not contravene the universal principles of religion.

ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये ।
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि ॥१२॥

ye chaiva sattvika bhava rajasas tamasas cha ye
matta eveti tan viddhi na tv aham tesu te mayi [12]

ye ye bhavah eva–Whatever exists; sattvikah–of the nature of goodness; rajasah cha–and of the nature of passion; tamasah cha–and of the nature of ignorance; viddhi–know; tan (sarvan)–all these; iti–as; mattah eva–manifest from Me alone. aham na (varte)–I do not reside; tesu–within them; tu–but; te (vartante) mayi–they are in Me. [12]

12 Furthermore, know that all things, of the nature of goodness, passion, and ignorance, are manifest from Me alone. Nevertheless, I am not in them. They, subordinate to Me, are in Me.

त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्व्वमिदं जगत् ।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम् ॥१३॥

tribhir gunamayair bhavair ebhih sarvam idam jagat
mohitam nabhijanati mam ebhyah param avyayam [13]

idam–This; sarvam–whole; jagat–living world; mohitam–is deluded; ebhih bhavaih tribhih gunamayaih–by this manifestation of the three modes of material nature. (atah)–Therefore; na abhijanati–no one knows; mam–Me, Krishna; ebhyah param–who am transcendental to these modes; avyayam–and immutable. [13]

13 The entire world of living beings is deluded by the three modes of material nature. Therefore, no one can know Me, the Supreme Lord, who am transcendental to these modes and immutable.

दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया ।
मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्ति ते ॥१४॥

daivi hy esa gunamayi mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante mayam etam taranti te [14]

esa–This; daivi–supramundane (alluring); maya–external potency; mama–of Mine; guna-mayi–composed of the three modes of material nature; hi–certainly; duratyaya–is difficult to cross. (tathapi)–However; ye–those who; prapadyante–take shelter; mam eva–in Me alone; te–they; taranti–are able to cross; etam–this almost insurmountable; mayam–maya, illusion. [14]

14 My alluring, ‘trimodal’, illusory potency is practically insurmountable. However, those who take shelter in Me can overcome this powerful obstacle.

न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाःप्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः ।
माययापहृतज्ञाना आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ॥१५॥

na mam duskrtino mudhah prapadyante naradhamah
mayayapahrta-jnana asuram-bhavam-asritah [15]

duskrtinah–These four kinds of wrongdoers or unfortunate persons; na prapadyante–do not surrender; mam–to Me; mudhah–(1) the karmis, or fruitive workers; nara-adhamah–(2) fallen persons, or those who take the path of devotion but later reject it, considering it inadequate or worthless; apahrta-jnanah–(3) those whose knowledge is covered; mayaya–by maya, illusion (despite their study of the scriptures, they consider that only the form of Lord Narayan is worshippable, and that Lord Krishna, Lord Rama, and other factual forms of the Supreme are merely mortal); asuram-bhavam-asritah–and (4) the demoniac (mayavadis, the impersonalists, who dismember My form by their arrows of false logic, resembling demons like Jarasandha). [15]

15 These four kinds of wrongdoers do not surrender unto Me: fruitive workers, comparable to animals; fallen persons who take the highest path, devotion, but later reject it, considering it inadequate or worthless; those whose knowledge covered by illusion, Maya (despite their scriptural study, they consider that only the form of Lord Narayan is worshippable, and they think that Lord Krishna, Lord Rama and other factual forms are merely mortal); and the demoniac (impersonalists who dismember My form by their arrows of false logic, resembling demons like Jarasandha).

चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्ज्जुन ।
आर्त्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ ॥१६॥

chatur-vidha bhajante mam janah sukrtino ’rjuna
arto jijnasur artharthi jnani cha bharatarsbha [16]

(he) bharatarsabha–O great scion of Bharat; (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; artah–one suffering from disease or other afflictions; jijnasuh–one seeking scriptural knowledge or knowledge of the soul; artha-arthi–one desiring earthly or heavenly happiness; cha and; jnani–the purified knower of the soul; (iti) chatuh-vidhah janah–these four kinds of persons; sukrtinah (santah)–being fortunate—influenced by devotion for Me; bhajante mam–worship Me (though their motives may be mixed with action or knowledge). [16]

16 O Arjuna, best of the Bharatas, four kinds of persons have the fortune to worship Me: the afflicted, the seeker of knowledge, the seeker of happiness, and the self-realised.

तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्त एकभक्तिर्विशिष्यते ।
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः ॥१७॥

tesam jnani nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir visisyate
priyo hi jnanino ’ty-artham aham sa cha mama priyah [17]

tesam–Among them; jnani–the self-realised person; eka-bhaktih–My pure devotee; nityah-yuktah–whose consciousness is completely absorbed in Me; visisyate–is the best. hi–For; aham–I, Syamasundar; ati-artham–am very; priyah–dear; jnaninah–to that enlightened soul; sah cha priyah–and he, too, is dear; mama–to Me. [17]

17 Of these four types of devotees, best is the self-realised person who is My pure devotee, and whose consciousnesss is fully absorbed in Me. For I, Syamasundar, am very dear to him, and he is dear to Me.

उदाराः सर्व्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वात्मैव मे मतम् ।
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम् ॥१८॥

udarah sarva evaite jnani tv atmaiva me matam
asthitah sa hi yuktatma mam evanuttamam gatim [18]

eva–Certainly; sarve–all; ete–these persons are; udarah–noble, unselfish souls dear to Me; tu–but; jnani–the spiritually self-realised soul; atma eva–is as dear to Me as My own self. (iti)–This is; me–My; matam–opinion; hi–since; yukta-atma eva (san)–having fully dedicated his heart unto Me; sah–that jnani; eva asthitah–has fully determined; mam–Me, Syamasundar; anuttamam–as the supreme; gatim–goal.[18]

18 Certainly they are all noble souls, dear to Me, yet the spiritually self-realised soul is as beloved to Me as My own self, for he has given his heart to Me as his only shelter and ultimate goal of life.

बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते ।
वासुदेवः सर्व्वमिति स महात्मा सुदुर्लभः ॥१९॥

bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate
vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah [19]

ante–After; bahunam–many; janmanam–births; jnanavan–the enlightened person (by the fortune of sadhu-sanga, devotional association); iti–thus realising; sarvam–everything, the entire world of moving and stationary beings; vasudevah–is of the nature of Vasudev, Sri Krishna; prapadyate–he surrenders; mam–unto Me. sah–Such; mahatma–a great soul; su-durlabhah–is very rare. [19]

19 After many births, the enlightened soul (blessed with devotional association) realises that everything is of the nature of (subordinate to) Vasudev, and thus he surrenders unto Me. Such a great soul is very rare.

कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः ।
तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया ॥२०॥

kamais tais tair hrta-jnanah prapadyante ’nya-devatah
tam tam niyamam asthaya prakrtya niyatah svaya [20]

hrta-jnanah–Persons whose intelligence is misled; taih taih kamaih–by particular worldly desires based on likes and dislikes; niyatah (santah)–being governed; svaya prakrtya–by their own natures; prapadyante–worship; anya-devatah–other godly personalities—the demigods—the sun-god, etc.; asthaya–after adopting; tam tam–the corresponding; niyamam–rituals of fasting, etc. [20]

20 Persons misled by worldly desires, being governed by their own natures, worship other godly personalities like the sun-god and the many demigods, adopting the corresponding rituals to attain their objectives.

यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्च्चितुमिच्छति ।
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम् ॥२१॥

yo yo yam yam tanum bhaktah sraddhayarchitum ichchhati
tasya tasyachalam sraddham tam eva vidadhamy aham [21]

yam yam–According to whichever; tanum–demigod, representing a form of Me; yah yah–a particular; bhaktah–devotee; ichchhati–desires; architum sraddhaya–to worship with faith; aham–I, as the Supersoul dwelling within his heart; eva–certainly; vidadhami–ordain; achalam–firm; sraddham–faith; tasya tasya–in that particular devotee; tam–for that form. [21]

21 According to a person’s desire, as his faith grows to worship a particular demigod, I, as the Supersoul in his heart, make his faith strong in that demigod (representing a form of Me).

स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते ।
लभते च ततः कामान्मयैव विहितान्हि तान् ॥२२॥

sa taya sraddhaya yuktas tasyaradhanam ihate
labhate cha tatah kaman mayaiva vihitan hi tan [22]

yuktah (san)–Being linked; taya sraddhaya–with that firm faith; sah–that devotee; ihate–performs; aradhanam–worship; tasyah–of that demigod’s deity; cha–and; hi– actually; vihitan–arranged; maya eva–by Me alone, as the Supersoul of the demigod; labhate–(the devotee) attains; tan kaman–his desired results; tatah–from that deity. [22]

22 His faith nourished by Me, such a devotee continues worshipping the deity of that demigod and attains all his desired objects from that deity. Again, this happens by My sanction alone, since I am the Supersoul, situated within the heart of the demigod, too.

अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम् ।
देवान्देवयजो यान्ति मद्भक्ता यान्ति मामपि ॥२३॥

antavat tu phalam tesam tad bhavaty alpa-medhasam
devan deva-yajo yanti mad-bhakta yanti mam api [23]

tu–But; tat phalam–that fruit; tesam alpa-medhasam–of those unwise worshippers of the demigods; bhavati–is; antavat–temporary. deva-yajah–The worshippers of the demigods; yanti–reach; devan–the respective demigods; mat-bhaktah api–and My devotees; yanti–reach; mam–Me. [23]

23 But the fruit obtained by those unwise worshippers of the demigods is temporary. They reach the gods they worship, but My devotees come to Me.

अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः ।
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ॥२४॥

avyaktam vyaktim apannam manyante mam abuddhayah
param bhavam ajananto mamavyayam anuttamam [24]

ajanantah–Not knowing; mama–My; avyayam–eternal; anuttamam–superexcellent; param–transcendental; bhavamnature–form, birth, qualities, activities, and Pastimes, etc.; abuddhayah–unwise persons; manyante–think; mam–of Me; avyaktam–as the impersonal or formless Brahma; apannam–which has accepted; vyaktim–birth in Vasudev’s cell as an ordinary human being. [24]

24 My eternal superexcellent nature—My form, qualities, activities, and Pastimes—are all transcendental, but unwise persons cannot know the truth, and they think, “The formless Brahma took birth in Vasudev’s cell as an ordinary human being.”

नाहं प्रकाशः सर्व्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः ।
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम् ॥२५॥

naham prakasah sarvasya yoga-maya-samavrtah
mudho ’yam nabhijanati loko mam ajam avyayam [25]

aham–I; na (bhavami)–am not; prakasah–manifest; sarvasya–to all; yoga-maya-samavrtah–being concealed by My yogamaya potency; (atah)–therefore; ayam–these; mudhah lokah–foolish persons; na abhijanati–cannot know; mam–Me, Syamasundar, the son of Vasudev; ajam–birthless; avyayam–and immutable. [25]

25 By My sweet will, remaining concealed by My own potency, I am not manifest to anyone and everyone. So the foolish cannot know Me, the son of Vasudev, unborn and ever-existent in My divine Syamasundar form of beautiful feature like a blackish rain-cloud.

वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्त्तमानानि चार्ज्जुन ।
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन ॥२६॥

vedaham samatitani vartamanani charjuna
bhavisyani cha bhutani mam tu veda na kaschana [26]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; aham–I; veda–know; samatitani–all past; vartamanani–present; bhavisyani cha–and future; bhutani–mobile and immobile beings; tu–but; kaschana–anyone (either in this world or beyond it); na cha veda–cannot know; mam–Me (due to their knowledge being covered by maya and yogamaya, My external illusory potency and the internal potency of My will). [26]

26 O Arjuna, I know all living beings of the past, present and future, but no one can know Me in truth.

इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत ।
सर्व्वभूतानि सम्मोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्तप ॥२७॥

ichchha-dvesa-samutthena dvandva-mohena bharata
sarva-bhutani sammoham sarge yanti parantapa [27]

(he) bharata (he) parantapa–O Arjuna, chastiser of the enemy; sarge–at the manifestation of the universe; sarva-bhutani–all beings; yanti–become; sammoham–deluded; dvandva-mohena–by the illusion of duality; ichchha-dvesa-samutthena–arising from likes and dislikes. [27]

27 O Arjuna, chastiser of the enemy, at the manifestation of the universe, all beings become deluded by duality based on likes and dislikes.

येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्म्मणाम् ।
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्म्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः ॥२८॥

yesam tv anta-gatam papam jananam punya-karmanam
te dvandva-moha-nirmukta bhajante mam drdha-vratah [28]

tu–But; jananam–persons; punya-karmanam–who are performers of virtuous deeds; yesam–whose; papam–sins; anta-gatam–have been eradicated (by the fortune of association with My pure devotee); te–all such persons; dvandva-moha-nirmuktah–free from the illusion of duality; drdha-vratah–and fixed in consciousness of Me; bhajante–worship, serve; mam–Me. [28]

28 But the performers of virtuous deeds are purified of all sin (by the fortune of association with My pure devotee). Thus freed from the illusion of duality, they worship Me with firm resolve.

जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये ।
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म्म चाखिलम् ॥२९॥

jara-marana-moksaya mam asritya yatanti ye
te brahma tad viduh krtsnam adhyatmam karma chakhilam [29]

ye–Those who; yatanti–strive; jara-marana-moksaya–for freedom from disease and death; asritya–taking shelter, placing their trust and devotion; mam–in Me; te–they; viduh–know; tat brahma–that Brahma; adhyatmam–the individual soul; krtsnam–in full; cha–and; akhilam–all; karma–the action by which the souls are bound to worldly existence. [29]

29 Those who strive for freedom from the world of disease and death, placing their trust and devotion in Me—they know Brahma, they know the soul, and they know karma, the action that binds the soul again and again to this mundane plane of suffering.

साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञञ्च ये विदुः ।
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः ॥३०॥

sadhibhutadhidaivam mam sadhiyajnan cha ye viduh
prayana-kale ’pi cha mam te vidur yukta-chetasah [30]

cha–And; ye–those who; viduh–know; mam–Me; sa-adhibhuta-adhidaivam–in relation to the worldly plane and to the celestial plane; sa-adhiyajnam cha–and in relation to sacrifice; te–those persons; yukta-chetasah–of consciousness absorbed in Me; viduh–know; mam–Me; prayana-kale api–even at the time of death. [30]

30 And those who know Me in relation to the worldly plane, the celestial plane, and the plane of sacrifice—such persons, their consciousness absorbed in Me, know Me even at the time of death. (Afflicted in the face of fearful death, they do not forget Me.)

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे ज्ञानविज्ञानयोगो नाम सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥७॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade jnana-
vijnana-yogo nama saptamo ’dhyayah [7]

End of Chapter Seven
Knowledge and Realisation of the Supreme
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

अष्टमोऽध्यायः
Chapter Eight

Taraka-brahma-yoga: The Merciful Absolute

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म्म पुरुषोत्तम ।
अधिभूतञ्च किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते ॥१॥

अधियज्ञः कथं कोऽत्र देहेऽस्मिन्मधुसूदन ।
प्रयाणकाले च कथं ज्ञेयोऽसि नियतात्मभिः ॥२॥

arjuna uvacha

kim tad-brahma kim adhyatmam kim karma purusottama
adhibhutan cha kim proktam adhidaivam kim uchyate [1]

adhiyajnah katham ko ’tra dehe ’smin madhusudana
prayana-kale cha katham jneyo ’si niyatatmabhih [2]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) purusottama–O Purusottam, Supreme Person; kim–what is; tat–that; brahma–Brahma? adhyatmam kim–What is adhyatma, the soul? karma kim–What is karma, action? cha–And; kim proktam–what is; adhibhutam–adhibhuta, the worldly plane? kim (cha) uchyate–and what is; adhidaivam–adhidaiva, the celestial plane? (he) madhusudana–O Madhusudan; atra dehe–within the body; kah adhiyajnah–who or what is Adhiyajna, the agent of sacrifice? katham–How; (sthitah)–is He present; asmin (dehe)–in this body? katham cha–And how; (tvam) jneyah asi–are You to be known; prayana-kale–at the time of death; niyata-atmabhih–by persons of controlled mind? [1–2]

1–2 Arjuna inquired: O Supreme Person, what is Brahma, and what is the soul? What is action, and what is the worldly plane? What is the celestial plane? O Madhusudan: within the body, who is the agent of sacrifice, and how is He present? And how are You to be known by the self-controlled at the time of death?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

अक्षरं परमं ब्रह्म स्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते ।
भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्म्मसंज्ञितः ॥३॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

aksaram paramam brahma svabhavo ’dhyatmam uchyate
bhuta-bhavodbhava-karo visargah karma-samjnitah [3]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: brahma–Brahma; uchyate–means; aksaram paramam–the imperishable Absolute. adhyatmam–The individual soul; (uchyate)–refers to; svabhavah–the pure spiritual nature. karma–Action; samjnitah–means; visargah–the creative force (or offerings to a demigod); bhuta-bhava-udbhava-karah–which manifests the bodies of the human and other species of life through the agency of gross and subtle material elements. [3]

3 The Supreme Lord spoke thus: It is said that Brahma is the imperishable Absolute, and the soul is the living being’s own pure spiritual nature. By action is meant the creative force (or offerings by charity, sacrifice, and austerity, etc., to a demigod), manifesting, through the gross and subtle elements, the bodies of the human and other species of life.

अधिभूतं क्षरो भावः पुरुषश्चाधिदैवतम् ।
अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्र देहे देहभृतां वर ॥४॥

adhibhutam ksaro bhavah purusas chadhidaivatam
adhiyajno ’ham evatra dehe deha-bhrtam vara [4]

(he) deha-bhrtam vara–O best of embodied beings, Arjuna; adhibhutam–worldly existence; ksarah–is the perishable; bhavah–existence. adhidaivatam–Celestial existence; purusah–is the collective universal form, in which are contained the demigods, headed by the solar gods; cha–and; aham eva–I, indeed; atra dehe–within this body; adhiyajnah–am the Lord of sacrifice in the form of the Supersoul, the sanctioner and rewarder of the (sacrificial etc.) actions of the living beings. [4]

4 O Arjuna, best of beings, the worldly plane means that which is perishable (such as the body). The celestial plane is the collective universal form which encompasses and governs the demigods; and I am the Lord of sacrifice, present as the Supersoul within the bodies of all living beings, as the sanctioner and rewarder of their actions (of sacrifices, etc.).

अन्तकाले च मामेव स्मरन्मुक्त्वा कलेवरम् ।
यः प्रयाति स मद्भावं याति नास्त्यत्र संशयः ॥५॥

anta-kale cha mam eva smaran muktva kalevaram
yah prayati sa mad-bhavam yati nasty atra samsayah [5]

anta-kale cha–At the time of death; yah–one who; smaran–thinks; mam eva–only of Me; muktva–when leaving; kalevaram–the body; prayati–departing this world; sah–he; yati–attains to; mat-bhavam–My nature. na asti–There is no; samsayah–doubt; atra–in this respect. [5]

5 One who thinks of Me at the time of death attains to My nature on departing this world. Of this there is no doubt.

यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम् ।
तं तमेवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्भावभावितः ॥६॥

yam yam vapi smaran bhavam tyajaty ante kalevaram
tam tam evaiti kaunteya sada tad-bhava-bhavitah [6]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; (yah)–one who; tyajati–leaves; kalevaram–the body; smaran–remembering; yam yam va api–whatever; bhavam–object; ante–at the time of death; eti–he attains; tam tam eva–to that very object; tat-bhava-bhavitah–having absorbed his mind in thought of it; sada–constantly. [6]

6 O son of Kunti, one who has always thought of a particular object will remember it and attain to it after leaving the body.

तस्मात्सर्व्वेषु कालेषु मामनुस्मर युध्य च ।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्मामेवैष्यस्यसंशयः ॥७॥

tasmat sarvesu kalesu mam anusmara yudhya cha
mayy arpita-mano-buddhir mam evaisyasy asamsayah [7]

tasmat–Therefore; anusmara–remember; mam–Me; sarvesu kalesu–at all times; cha–and; yudhya–fight, execute your natural duty. arpita-manah-buddhih–Offering mind and intelligence; mayi–unto Me; eva–certainly; esyasi–you will reach; mam–Me. asamsayah–There is no doubt; (atra)–in this. [7]

7 Therefore always remembering Me, fight, as it is your natural duty. Thus dedicating your mind and intelligence to Me, you will reach Me. Of this there is no doubt.

अभ्यासयोगयुक्तेन चेतसा नान्यगामिना ।
परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन् ॥८॥

abhyasa-yoga-yuktena chetasa nanya-gamina
paramam purusam divyam yati parthanuchintayan [8]

(he) partha–O son of Prtha; anuchintayan–thinking at every moment; divyam–of the effulgent; paramam purusam–Supreme Person; na anya-gamina chetasa–by an undeviating mind; abhyasa-yoga-yuktena–engaged in yoga practice; (yogi)–the yogi; yati–reaches; (tam eva)–that Supreme Person. [8]

8 O Partha, the yogi who practises meditation with an undeviating mind, always thinking of the effulgent Supreme Person, reaches Him.

कविं पुराणमनुशासितारम्
अणोरणीयांसमनुस्मरेद्यः ।
सर्व्वस्य धातारमचिन्त्यरूपम्
आदित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात् ॥९।

प्रयाणकाले मनसाचले
भक्त्या युक्तो योगबलेन चैव ।
भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्
स तं परं पुरुषमुपैति दिव्यम् ॥१०॥

kavim puranam anusasitaram
anor aniyamsam anusmared yah
sarvasya dhataram achintya-rupam
aditya-varnam tamasah parastat [9]

prayana-kale manasachalena
bhaktya yukto yoga-balena chaiva
bhruvor madhye pranam avesya samyak
sa tam param purusam upaiti divyam [10]

yah–One who; prayana-kale–at the time of death; achalena manasa–with an unflickering mind; yoga-balena–by strength of yoga practice; bhaktya yuktah–being constantly engaged in smaranam, devotional remembrance; samyak avesya cha–and fully concentrating; pranam–the life-force; bhruvoh madhye–between the eyebrows; anusmaret–meditates on; (param purusam)–the Supreme Person; kavim–the all-knowing; puranam–beginningless; anusasitaram–merciful teacher of devotion unto Himself; anoh aniyamsam–who is more subtle than the atom; sarvasya dhataram–(yet) the support of all existence; achintya-rupam–and of aprakrta or supramundane form—medium-sized—of human feature; aditya-varnam–possessing a radiant form, which, like the sun, illuminates both Himself and others; tamasah parastat–and is transcendental to material nature; eva–certainly; sah–that person; upaiti–reaches; tam–that; divyam–effulgent; param–Supreme; purusam–Person. [9–10]

9–10 He, the Supreme Person, is the all-knowing, beginingless, merciful teacher of devotion unto Himself. Although more subtle that the atom, He is the infinite support of all existence. His form is supramundane, that is, of a humanlike feature, yet He is self-illuminating and all-illuminating like the sun. He is transcendental to illusion. One whose mind is fully focused by strength of yoga practice, who continuously remembers Him with devotion, and who at the time of death establishes the life-force between the eyebrows (at the ajna-chakra) with full concentration, thinking of Him, reaches the effulgent Supreme Person.

यदक्षरं वेदविदो वदन्ति
विशन्ति यद्यतयो वीतरागाः ।
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्य्यं चरन्ति
तत्ते पदं सङ्ग्रहेण प्रवक्ष्ये ॥११॥

yad aksaram veda-vido vadanti
visanti yad yatayo vita-ragah
yad ichchhanto brahmacharyam charanti
tat te padam sangrahena pravaksye [11]

sangrahena–Along with the method of attaining it; (aham)–I; pravaksye–shall describe; te–to you; tat padam–that objective; yat–which; veda-vidah–the learned knowers of the Vedas; vadanti–call; aksaram–the imperishable, Omkar, denoting Brahma; yat–which; vita-ragah–the desireless; yatayah–ascetics; visanti–enter; ichchhantah–and aspiring to reach; yat–which; (brahmacharinah)–the brahmacharis, celibate seekers of the Absolute; charanti–maintain; brahmacharyam–the vow of celibacy. [11]

11 Along with the method of attaining it, I shall describe to you that objective which the learned knowers of the Vedas call Om, the Imperishable, within which the desireless ascetics enter, and which the devout seekers aspire to reach by practising the vow of celibacy.

सर्व्वद्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य च ।
मूर्ध्न्यधायात्मनः प्राणमास्थितो योगधारणाम् [१२]

ओमित्येकाक्षरं ब्रह्म व्याहरन्मामनुस्मरन् ।
यः प्रयाति त्यजन्देहं स याति परमां गतिम् ॥१३॥

sarva-dvarani samyamya mano hrdi nirudhya cha
murdhny adhayatmanah pranam asthito yoga-dharanam [12]

om ity ekaksaram brahma vyaharan mam anusmaran
yah prayati tyajan deham sa yati paramam gatim [13]

samyamya–Controlling; sarva-dvarani–all the gateways of the senses—stopping them from accepting the objects of the senses; nirudhya–steadying; manah–the mind; hrdi–within the heart; adhaya cha–and establishing; pranam–the vital life-air; murdhni–between the eyebrows; asthitah–remaining; yoga-dharanam–in samadhi through the practice of dharana, yogic concentration; atmanah–on the spiritual self; vyaharan–and uttering; om iti–thus, Om; eka-aksaram–the monosyllable; brahma–sound vibration of Brahma; anusmaran mam–in full remembrance of Me; sah yah–he who; deham tyajan–leaving the body; prayati–thus departs; yati–attains; paramam gatim–the supreme goal—the spiritual plane or salokya-mukti. [12, 13]

12 , 13 Controlling all the gateways of the senses, holding the mind steady within the heart, establishing the life-force between the eyebrows, and fully absorbing the thoughts in the spiritual self, one who at the time of leaving the body vibrates the monosyllable Om and departs the world in consciousness of Me, reaches the transcendental world.

अनन्यचेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः ।
तस्याहं सुलभः पार्थ नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनः ॥१४॥

ananya-chetah satatam yo mam smarati nityasah
tasyaham sulabhah partha nitya-yuktasya yoginah [14]

(he) partha–O Partha; yah–one who; ananya-chetah–one-pointedly (without the practices of karma, jnan, etc., or without desiring their objectives of heaven, liberation, etc.); satatam–in all circumstances; nityasah–always; smarati–remembers; mam–Me; tasya yoginah–for such a person in a relationship of dasya, sakhya, etc.; nitya-yuktasya–who constantly aspires for My divine association; aham–I; sulabhah–am easily reached. [14]

14 O Partha, a person who one-pointedly remembers Me always, in all circumstances, and who, in his relationship with Me (in servitude, friendship, etc.) constantly aspires for My divine association—I am easily reached by such a devotee.

मामुपेत्य पुनर्जन्म दुःखालयमशाश्वतम् ।
नाप्नुवन्ति महात्मानः संसिद्धिं परमां गताः ॥१५॥

mam upetya punar janma duhkhalayam asasvatam
napnuvanti mahatmanah samsiddhim paramam gatah [15]

mahatmanah–The great souls; gatah–who have attained; paramam samsiddhim–the highest perfection, My association in My Pastimes; upetya–having reached; mam–Me; na apnuvanti–do not take; punah–again; janma–a birth; asasvatam–of impermanence; duhkhalayam–which is the abode of suffering. [15]

15 The great souls who become My associates in My divine Pastimes, having reached Me, are never again born into transitory existence, which is the abode of suffering.

आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्त्तिनोऽर्ज्जुन ।
मामुपेत्य तु कौन्तेय पुनर्जन्म न विद्यते ॥१६॥

abrahma-bhuvanal lokah punar avartino ’rjuna
mam upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate [16]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; abrahma-bhuvanat–from Brahmaloka, the highest plane in the universe, downwards; lokah–all planes or their residents; punah avartinah–by nature repeatedly return; tu–but; (he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; mam upetya–reaching Me, atttaing My shelter; na vidyate–there is no; punah janma–rebirth. [16]

16 O Arjuna, from the plane of Lord Brahma downwards, all planes or their residents are subject to return. But, O Kaunteya, there is no rebirth after reaching Me.

सहस्रयुगपर्य्यन्तमहर्यद्ब्रह्मणो विदुः ।
रात्रिं युगसहस्रान्तां तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः ॥१७॥

sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmano viduh
ratrim yuga-sahasrantam te ’ho-ratra-vido janah [17]

te janah (ye)–Those who; viduh–know; brahmanah–Lord Brahma’s; ahah–day; yat–which; sahasra-yuga-paryantam–comprises the duration of one thousand chatur-yugas; ratrim–and (his) night; yuga-sahasra-antam–of the duration of one thousand chatur-yugas; ahah-ratra-vidah–are knowers of day and night. [17]

17 A day of Lord Brahma lasts for one thousand chatur-yugas*, and his night is of the same duration. Persons who know this have the true conception of day and night.

* One yuga (age) in the time calculation of the demigods equals the four yugas or one chatur-yuga in the time calculation of man, or 4,320,000 years.

अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्व्वाः प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे ।
रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके ॥१८॥

avyaktad vyaktayah sarvah prabhavanty ahar-agame
ratry-agame praliyante tatraivavyakta-samjnake [18]

ahah-agame–With the coming of (Lord Brahma’s) day; sarvah vyaktayah–universal progeny with their bodies, senses, enjoyable objects, and abodes; prabhavanti–are born; avyaktat–of Lord Brahma in his waking state; (punah)–and again; ratri-agame–with the coming of night; praliyante–they are absorbed; tatra eva–within Lord Brahma; avyakta-samjnake–who is known as avyakta, ‘the unmanifest.’ [18]

18 With the coming of day, the universal progeny with their bodies, senses, enjoyable objects, and abodes are born of Lord Brahma in his waking state; and at nightfall, they are again absorbed into Lord Brahma, who is known as ‘the unmanifest.’

भूतग्रामः स एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते ।
रात्र्यागमेऽवशः पार्थ प्रभवत्यहरागमे ॥१९।

bhuta-gramah sa evayam bhutva bhutva praliyate
ratry-agame ’vasah partha prabhavaty ahar-agame [19]

(he) partha–O Partha; avasah (san)–helplessly; being subject to the law of karma; ayam sah eva bhuta-gramah–the multitude of beings; bhutva bhutva–being repeatedly born; ahah-agame–with the coming of the day of Lord Brahma; praliyate–disappear; ratri-agame–at nightfall; prabhavati–and are born; (punah ahah-agame)–with a new day. [19]

19 O Partha, the multitude of beings are helplessly (subject to the law of karma) born again and again. With the coming of Lord Brahma’s night they are absorbed, and with the coming of his day they are again born.

परस्तस्मात्तु भावोऽन्योऽव्यक्तोऽव्यक्तात्सनातनः ।
यः स सर्व्वेषु भूतेषु नश्यत्सु न विनश्यति ॥२०॥

paras tasmat tu bhavo ’nyo ’vyakto ’vyaktat sanatanah
yah sa sarvesu bhutesu nasyatsu na vinasyati [20]

tu–But; parah–beyond, superior; tasmat avyaktat–to this unmanifest Hiranyagarbha (‘born within the golden egg, the universe’), Lord Brahma; (asti)–is; anyah–another; avyaktah–unmanifest, imperceptible, transcendental; sanatanah–beginningless; bhavah–existence: sah yah–He who; na vinasyati–is not destroyed; sarvesu bhutesu nasyatsu–when all beings are destroyed. [20]

20 But superior to this unmanifest (Lord Brahma) there is another unmanifest, and that existence is beginningless and transcendental to the perception of the living beings. He is not destroyed when all beings are destroyed.

अव्यक्तोऽक्षर इत्युक्तस्तमाहुः परमां गतिम् ।
यं प्राप्य न निवर्त्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥२१॥

avyakto ’ksara ity uktas tam ahuh paramam gatim
yam prapya na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama [21]

(sah)–He; uktah iti–is said to be; avyaktah aksarah (cha)–the Unmanifest and the Invincible. (vedantah)–The Upanisads; ahuh–proclaim; tam–Him; paramam gatim–the supreme destination; yam prapya–reaching whom; (jivah)–the living beings; na nivartate–do not return. (viddhi)–Know; tat–that as; mama–My; paramam dhama–supreme abode. [21]

21 He is said to be the Unmanifest and the Invincible, proclaimed (by the Upanisads) to be the supreme goal, reaching whom one does not return to this world. Know that destination to be My supreme abode.

पुरुषः स परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यस्त्वनन्यया ।
यस्यान्तःस्थानि भूतानि येन सर्व्वमिदं ततम् ॥२२॥

purusah sa parah partha bhaktya labhyas tv ananyaya
yasyantahsthani bhutani yena sarvam idam tatam [22]

(he) partha–O Partha; (aham)–I; sah parah purusah–the Supreme Person; antah–within; yasya–whom; bhutani–all beings; sthani–are situated; yena–and by whom; idam–this; sarvam–whole universe; tatam–is pervaded; labhyah (bhavami)–am attainable; ananyaya bhaktya tu–only by exclusive devotion. [22]

22 O Partha, I, the Supreme Person, within whom all beings are situated and by whom this whole universe is pervaded, am attainable only by exclusive devotion.

यत्र काले त्वनावृत्तिमावृत्तिञ्चैव योगिनः ।
प्रयाता यान्ति तं कालं वक्ष्यामि भरतर्षभ ॥२३॥

yatra kale tv anavrttim avrttin chaiva yoginah
prayata yanti tam kalam vaksyami bharatarsabha [23]

(he) bharatarsabha–O Arjuna, best of the Bharatas; (aham)–I; vaksyami–shall now describe; tam kalam eva–that moment; yatra kale tu–when; prayatah–death occurs; yoginah–the yogis; yanti–attain; anavrttim–liberation; avrttim cha–or rebirth. [23]

23 O Bharatarsabha, now I shall describe to you the circumstances in which the yogis attain either liberation or rebirth at the moment of death.

अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् ।
तत्र प्रयाता गच्छन्ति ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविदो जनाः ॥२४॥

agnir jyotir ahah suklah san-masa uttarayanam
tatra prayata gachchhanti brahma brahma-vido janah [24]

(yatra)–The path on which; agnih jyotih–the deities of fire and light; ahah–the deity of day; suklah–the deity of the waxing moon; uttarayanam sat-masah–and the deity of the sun’s six-monthly northern ascent; (avasthitah)–preside; brahma-vidah janah–the knowers of Brahma; prayatah–going, i.e. leaving the body; tatra–on that path; gachchhanti–attain; brahma–Brahma. [24]

24 Upon leaving the body, the knowers of Brahma attain Brahma via the path of fire, light, day, the waxing moon, and the sun’s northern ascent.

धूमो रात्रिस्तथा कृष्णः षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम् ।
तत्र चान्द्रमसं ज्योतिर्योगी प्राप्य निवर्त्तते ॥२५॥

dhumo ratris tatha krsnah san-masa daksinayanam
tatra chandramasam jyotir yogi prapya nivartate [25]

(yatra)–The path on which; dhumah–the deity of smoke; ratrih–the deity of night; krsnah–the deity of the waning moon; tatha sat-masah daksinayanam–and the deity of the sun’s six-monthly southern ascent; (avasthitah)–preside; yogi–the (karma-) yogi; (prayatah)–who goes; tatra–on that path; prapya–reaching; chandramasam jyotih–Svarga-loka, the heavenly plane; nivartatereturns–undergoes rebirth. [25]

25 Upon leaving the body, the karma-yogi reaches the heavenly plane via the path of smoke, night, the waning moon, and the sun’s southern ascent, but returns to undergo rebirth.

शुक्लकृष्णे गती ह्येते जगतः शाश्वते मते ।
एकया यात्यनावृत्तिमन्ययावर्त्तते पुनः ॥२६॥

sukla-krsne gati hy ete jagatah sasvate mate
ekaya yaty anavrttim anyayavartate punah [26]

ete–These; gati sukla-krsne–two paths, bright and dark; jagatah–of the world (where persons are apt to follow the paths of jnan and karma); mate–are considered; sasvate hi–perpetual. ekaya–By one; anavrttim–liberation; yati–is attained; anyaya–by the other; punah avartate–one returns, is reborn. [26]

26 These two paths of the world, the bright and the dark, are accepted as being perpetual. By the bright path liberation is attained, and by the dark path one is reborn.

नैते सृती पार्थ जानन्योगी मुह्यति कश्चन ।
तस्मात्सर्व्वेषु कालेषु योगयुक्तो भवार्ज्जुन ॥२७॥

naite srti partha janan yogi muhyati kaschana
tasmat sarvesu kalesu yoga-yukto bhavarjuna [27]

(he) partha–O Partha (Arjuna); janan–knowing; ete–this; srti–pair of paths; kaschana yogi–any (bhakti-) yogi (one engaged in the devotional service of the Lord); na muhyati–is not deluded. tasmat–Therefore; (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; sarvesu kalesu–always; bhava–be; yoga-yuktah–engaged in yoga. [27]

27 O Partha, the devotee (bhakti-yogi) who knows these bright and dark paths is not deluded. Therefore, O Arjuna, be ever fixed in transcendental, exclusive devotion.

वेदेषु यज्ञेषु तपःसु चैव
दानेषु यत्पुण्यफलं प्रदिष्टम् ।
अत्येति तत्सर्व्वमिदं विदित्वा
योगी परं स्थानमुपैति चाद्यम् ॥२८॥

vedesu yajnesu tapahsu chaiva
danesu yat punya-phalam pradistam
atyeti tat sarvam idam viditva
yogi param sthanam upaiti chadyam [28]

viditva–Knowing; idam–this—My supremacy and the supremacy of My devotion; yogi–the yogi, the devoted soul; atyeti–transcends; tat sarvam punya-phalam–all those fruits of piety; vedesu–achieved by chanting the Vedas; yajnesu–performing sacrifice; tapahsu–performing austerity; danesu eva cha–and performing charity; yat–which; pradistam–have been mentioned in the scriptures; cha–and; upaiti–attains; param–the supreme; adyam–original; sthanam–place. [28]

28 Thus knowing of My glories and the glories of devotion to Me, the devoted soul, surpassing the scripturally cited fruits of piety achieved by chanting the Vedas and performing sacrifice, austerity, and charity, attains My supreme, holy abode.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे तारकब्रह्मयोगो नामाष्टमोऽध्यायः ॥८॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade taraka-
brahma-yogo namastamo ’dhyayah [8]

End of Chapter Eight
The Merciful Absolute
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

नवमोऽध्यायः
Chapter Nine

Raja-guhya-yoga: The Hidden Treasure of Devotion

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

इदं तु ते गुह्यतमं प्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे ।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानसहितं यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

idam tu te guhyatamam pravaksyamy anasuyave
jnanam vijnana-sahitam yaj jnatva moksyase ’subhat [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (aham) pravaksyami–I now tell; te–you; anasuyave–who are without envy; idam–this; guhyatamam–most hidden; jnanam–knowledge of pure devotion for Me (singing My glories which expands into unlimited services); vijnana-sahitam tu–up to direct realisation of Me; jnatva–knowing; yat–which; (tvam)–you; moksyase–will be liberated; asubhat–from inauspiciousness, or, from all that is opposed to devotion. [1]

1 The Supreme Lord said: I now reveal to you, who are without envy, this most hidden treasure of knowledge of pure devotion, with direct realisation of Me, knowing which you will be liberated from inauspiciousness—from all that is opposed to devotion.

राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् ।
प्रत्यक्षावगमं धर्म्म्यं सुसुखं कर्त्तुमव्ययम् ॥२॥

raja-vidya raja-guhyam pavitram idam uttamam
pratyaksavagamam dharmyam susukham kartum avyayam [2]

(viddhi)–Know; idam–this; raja-vidya–as the king of knowledge; raja-guhyam–the most secret of secrets; uttamam–supreme; pavitram–pure; pratyaksa-avagamam–attained by direct realisation; dharmyam–the perfection of religion; kartum susukham–very easy to practise; avyayam (cha)–and imperishable. [2]

2 Know this to be the king of secrets, the king of knowledge, supreme, pure, and imperishable. It is known by direct realisation (by one eager to serve Me), it is the perfection of religion, and very easy to practise.

अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषा धर्म्मस्यास्य परन्तप ।
अप्राप्य मां निवर्त्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्त्मनि ॥३॥

asraddadhanah purusa dharmasyasya parantapa
aprapya mam nivartante mrtyu-samsara-vartmani [3]

(he) parantapa–O conqueror of the enemy; purusah–persons; asraddadhanah–lacking faith; asya dharmasya–in this pure life of devotion for Me; aprapya–unable to reach; mam–Me; nivartante–ever revolve; mrtyu-samsara-vartmani–on the path of death in the material world. [3]

3 O conqueror of the enemy, men who have no faith in this hidden treasure of devotion to Me are unable to reach Me, and so they remain wandering on the path of death in the material world.

मया ततमिदं सर्व्वं जगदव्यक्तमूर्त्तिना ।
मत्स्थानि सर्व्वभूतानि न चाहं तेष्ववस्थितः ॥४॥

maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta-murtina
mat-sthani sarva-bhutani na chaham tesv avasthitah [4]

idam–This; sarvam jagat–whole world; tatam–is pervaded; maya–by Me; avyakta-murtina–by My unmanifest form. sarva-bhutani–All beings; mat-sthani–are situated in Me, the infinite; aham cha–but I; na avasthitah–am not situated; tesu–in them. [4]

4 This entire universe is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest form, and all beings are situated in Me; yet I am not in them.

न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ।
भूतभृन्न च भूतस्थो ममात्मा भूतभावनः ॥५॥

na cha mat-sthani bhutani pasya me yogam aisvaram
bhuta-bhrn na cha bhuta-stho mamatma bhuta-bhavanah [5]

bhutani na cha mat-sthani–Yet all beings are not situated in Me. pasya–Behold; me–My; aisvaram yogam–supreme mystical power. mama–My; atma–self; bhuta-bhrt–is the mainstay; bhuta-bhavanah cha–and origin of all beings; (kintu)–yet; na bhuta-sthah–is not in them. [5]

5 Again, they are not in Me. Behold My supreme mystical power of inconceivable oneness and difference (achintya-bhedabheda). I, Myself, am the mainstay and origin of all beings, but I am not in them.

यथाकाशस्थितो नित्यं वायुः सर्व्वत्रगो महान्
तथा सर्व्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानीत्युपधारय ॥६॥

yathakasa-sthito nityam vayuh sarvatra-go mahan
tatha sarvani bhutani mat-sthanity upadharaya [6]

upadharaya–Conceive; iti–in this way: yatha–as; mahan–the mighty; vayuh–air or wind; sarvatra-gah–going everywhere; nityam–always; akasa-sthitah–rests in the sky; tatha–similarly; sarvani bhutani–all beings; mat-sthani–rest in Me. [6]

6 Know that as the mighty wind blowing everywhere rests always in the sky, similarly, all beings rest in Me.

सर्व्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम् ।
कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजाम्यहम् ॥७॥

sarva-bhutani kaunteya prakrtim yanti mamikam
kalpa-ksaye punas tani kalpadau visrjamy aham [7]

(he) kaunteya–O Kaunteya; kalpa-ksaye–at the millenium’s end; sarva-bhutani–all beings; yanti–merge; mamikam prakrtim–in My trimodal material nature. kalpa-adau–With a new day of Brahma; aham–I; visrjami–manifest; tani–them; punah–again. [7]

7 O son of Kunti, at the end of the millenium, all beings are merged in the material nature of three modes, which is My external potency; and at the beginning of a new millennium, I make them manifest again.

प्रकृतिं स्वामवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।
भूतग्राममिमं कृत्स्नमवशं प्रकृतेर्वशात् ॥८॥

prakrtim svam avastabhya visrjami punah punah
bhuta-gramam imam krtsnam avasam prakrter vasat [8]

avastabhya–Controlling; svam prakrtim–My trimodal nature; (aham)–I; punah punah–repeatedly; visrjami–manifest; imam–this; krtsnam–entire; bhuta-gramam–multitude of beings; avasam–who are helplessly; prakrteh vasat–controlled by their natures acquired through their previous actions. [8]

8 I control My potency of material nature, to repeatedly manifest the multitude of beings, who are helplessly controlled by their natures.

न च मां तानि कर्म्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्जय ।
उदासीनवदासीनमसक्तं तेषु कर्म्मसु ॥९॥

na cha mam tani karmani nibadhnanti dhananjaya
udasinavad asinam asaktam tesu karmasu [9]

(he) dhananjaya–O Dhananjaya; tani karmani–those actions of manifestation, sustenance, and withdrawal; na nibadhnanti–cannot bind; mam–Me; asaktam–who am detached; udasinavat asinam cha–remaining as neutral; tesu karmasu–in those actions. [9]

9 O conqueror of wealth, I remain detached and situated as neutral in the cosmic manifestation, sustenance, and withdrawal, and these functions cannot bind Me.

मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् ।
हेतुनानेन कौन्तेय जगद्विपरिवर्त्तते ॥१०॥

mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-characharam
hetunanena kaunteya jagad viparivartate [10]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna; maya adhyaksena–ordained by Me; prakrtih–My maya potency; suyate–produces; (jagat)–the universe; sa-chara-acharam–with moving and stationary beings. anena hetuna–By this cause; jagat–the universe; viparivartate–is repeatedly manifest. [10]

10 O Kaunteya, ordained by Me, My illusory potency produces this universe of moving and stationary beings. Thus it is manifest over and over again.

अवजानन्ति मां मूढा मानुषीं तनुमाश्रितम् ।
परं भावमजानन्तो मम भूतमहेश्वरम् ॥११॥

avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam
param bhavam ajananto mama bhuta-mahesvaram [11]

ajanantah–Not knowing; param–the transcendental; bhavam–nature, reality; mama asritam manusim tanum–of My form of human features; mudhah–ignorant persons; avajananti–considering Me a mere mortal, blaspheme; mam–Me; bhuta-maha-isvaram–the Supreme Lord of all beings. [11]

11 Not knowing the transcendental nature of My form of human features, ignorant persons blaspheme Me, the Supreme Lord of all beings, considering Me a mere mortal.

मोघाशा मोघकर्म्माणो मोघज्ञाना विचेतसः ।
राक्षसीमासुरीञ्चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः ॥१२॥

moghasa mogha-karmano mogha-jnana vichetasah
raksasim asurin chaiva prakrtim mohinim sritah [12]

(te)–They; (bhavanti)–remain; mogha-asah–with vain hopes; mogha-karmanah–vain actions; mogha-jnanah–vain knowledge; (cha)–and; vichetasah–vain thoughts; sritah–adopting; raksasim–the ignorant; asurim cha–and passionate, demoniac; prakrtim eva–nature; mohinim–causing their delusion, their downfall. [12]

12 Their hopes, acts, knowledge, and thoughts all in vain, such persons acquire the ignorant and demoniac nature, which leads to their downfall.

महात्मानस्तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिमाश्रिताः ।
भजन्त्यनन्यमनसो ज्ञात्वा भूतादिमव्ययम् ॥१३॥

mahatmanas tu mam partha daivim prakrtim asritah
bhajanty ananya-manaso jnatva bhutadim avyayam [13]

tu–But; (he) partha–O son of Prtha, Arjuna; asritah–taking refuge in; daivim prakrtim–the godly nature; maha-atmanah–the great-hearted, the devoted souls; jnatva–knowing; mam–Me; bhuta-adim–as the origin of all that be; (cha)–and; avyayam–imperishable; bhajanti–worship, adore; (mam)–Me; ananya-manasah–whole-heartedly. [13]

13 But, O Partha, the great-hearted souls take refuge in the divine nature, and they whole-heartedly worship and adore Me, knowing Me as the eternal origin of all.

सततं कीर्त्तयन्तो मां यतन्तश्च दृढव्रताः ।
नमस्यन्तश्च मां भक्त्या नित्ययुक्ता उपासते ॥१४॥

satatam kirtayanto mam yatantas cha drdha-vratah
namasyantas cha mam bhaktya nitya-yukta upasate [14]

satatam–At all times, in all places and circumstances; mam kirtayantah–singing the glories of My divine Name, form, etc.; yatantah–striving to learn spiritual truths of My transcendental nature, personality, etc.; drdha-vratah cha–and unfailingly following the devotional observances such as Ekadasi and regular chanting of the Holy Name; namasyantah cha–offering obeisances unto Me and following all the practices of devotion; (te)–they; upasate–worship; mam–Me; bhaktya–with devotion; nitya-yuktah–earnestly aspiring for their eternal relationship with Me. [14]

14 They continually chant My glories, strive to learn spiritual truths about Me, and faithfully follow the devotional practices. Bowing to Me and worshipping Me with devotion, they aspire for their eternal relationship with Me.

ज्ञानयज्ञेन चाप्यन्ये यजन्तो मामुपासते ।
एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् ॥१५॥

jnana-yajnena chapy anye yajanto mam upasate
ekatvena prthaktvena bahudha visvato-mukham [15]

api cha–Also; jnana-yajnena–by performing the ‘knowledge-sacrifice’; anye–others, self-worshippers; yajantah–who offer oblations; mam upasate–worship Me; ekatvena–conscious of oneness; (anye cha)–and others, external form-worshippers; (mam upasate)–worship Me; prthaktvena–Visnu, but in the form of demigods, conscious of differentiation; (anye cha)–and yet others; (mam upasate)–worship Me; bahudha–in many ways; visvatah-mukham–as the cosmic or universal form. [15]

15 Others perform the ‘knowledge-sacrifice’ and worship Me in oneness, others worship Me in differentiation, and yet others worship Me in a multitude of ways as the universal form.

अहं क्रतुरहं यज्ञः स्वधाहमहमौषधम् ।
मन्त्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहं हुतम् ॥१६॥

aham kratur aham yajnah svadhaham aham ausadham
mantro ’ham aham evajyam aham agnir aham hutam [16]

aham kratuh–I am the fire sacrifices Agnistoma, Atyagnistoma, Uktha, Sodasi, Atiratra, Aptoryama and Vajapeya, collectively known as Jyotistoma; aham yajnah–I am the five types of sacrifices to demigod deities such as the Visvadevas and others according to the smrti scriptures; aham svadha–I am the obsequial oblation offered to the ancestors; aham ausadham–I am the food; aham mantrah–I am the sacred incantation; aham ajyam–I am the ghee (clarified butter) and other sacrificial ingredients; aham agnih–I am the fire; aham hutam eva–I am the act of offering. [16]

16 I am the Vedic Jyotistoma sacrifice and the five sacrifices to the Visvadeva demigods and others as enjoined in the smrti scriptures. I am the oblation to the ancestors, the food, and the mantra. I am the sacrificial ingredients such as ghee, I am the consecrated fire, and I am the act of offering.

पिताहमस्य जगतो माता धाता पितामहः ।
वेद्यं पवित्रमोंकार ऋक्साम यजुरेव च ॥१७॥

pitaham asya jagato mata dhata pitamahah
vedyam pavitram omkara rk sama yajur eva cha [17]

aham pita–I am the father; asya jagatah–of this universe; mata–the mother; dhata–the ordainer of the living beings’ fruits of actions; pitamahah–the grandfather; vedyam–the object of all knowledge; pavitram omkarah–the purifying pranava monosyllable; rk–the Rg-veda; samaSama-veda; yajuh eva cha–and Yajur-veda. [17]

17 I am the father and the mother of the universe, the ordainer of the living beings’ fruits of actions, the forefather, and the object of all knowledge. I am the purifying Om, the Rg-, Sama-, and Yajur-vedas.

गतिर्भर्त्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणं सुहृत् ।
प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानं निधानं बीजमव्ययम् ॥१८॥

gatir bharta prabhuh saksi nivasah saranam suhrt
prabhavah pralayah sthanam nidhanam bijam avyayam [18]

(aham) gatih–I am the fruit of action; bharta–the maintainer; prabhuh–the Lord; saksi–the witness; nivasah–the refuge; saranam–the guardian; suhrt–the true friend; prabhavah–the universal manifestation; pralayah–withdrawal; sthanam–and sustenance; nidhanam–the reservoir; avyayam bijam–the imperishable seed. [18]

18 And I am the goal, the maintainer, master, witness, refuge, guardian, and true friend. I am the universal manifestation, sustenance, and withdrawal. I am the reservoir, I am the original seed, I am the imperishable Supreme Lord.

तपाम्यहमहं वर्षं निगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामि च ।
अमृतञ्चैव मृत्युश्च सदसच्चाहमर्ज्जुन ॥१९॥

tapamy aham aham varsam nigrhnamy utsrjami cha
amrtan chaiva mrtyus cha sad asach chaham arjuna [19]

cha–And; (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; aham tapami–I give heat; aham utsrjami–I bring forth; varsam–rain; nigrhnami cha–and I withdraw it. aham eva amrtam–I am immortality; mrtyuh cha–and death; sat–truth; asat cha–and untruth. [19]

19 O Arjuna, I give heat, and the rain comes and goes by My will. I am immortality and death. I am truth and untruth.

त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा
यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते ।
ते पुण्यमासाद्य सुरेन्द्रलोकम्
अश्नन्ति दिव्यान्दिवि देवभोगान् ॥२०॥

trai-vidya mam soma-pah puta-papa
yajnair istva svar-gatim prarthayante
te punyam asadya surendra-lokam
asnanti divyan divi deva-bhogan [20]

trai-vidyah–Performers of the fruitive rituals of the Rg-, Yajur- and Sama-vedas; soma-pah–who take the remnants of soma-rasa, a beverage made from the soma creeper, dear to the demigods; puta-papah–and are purified of sin; istva–having worshipped; mam–Me; yajnaih–by sacrifice, but indirectly through the demigods; prarthayante–pray; svar-gatim–to attain the heavenly plane, the abode of the demigods. asadya–Reaching; punyam–in reward for their piety; sura-indra-lokam–the plane of Indra, heaven; te asnanti–they enjoy; divyan–the exalted; deva-bhogan–happiness of the demigods; divi–in heaven. [20]

20 Persons who perform the fruitive ritualistic sacrifices prescribed in three of the Vedas worship Indra and other demigods. In fact, they worship Me, but in an indirect way. They drink the sacrificial remnants of the soma beverage, purify themselves of sin, and pray to attain the heavenly plane. As the result of their piety, they reach heaven and enjoy celestial pleasures.

ते तं भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकं विशालं
क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्त्यलोकं विशन्ति ।
एवं त्रयीधर्म्ममनुप्रपन्न
गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते ॥२१॥

te tam bhuktva svarga-lokam visalam
ksine punye martya-lokam visanti
evam trayi-dharmam anuprapanna
gatagatam kama-kama labhante [21]

bhuktva–After enjoying; tam–that; visalam–vast; svarga-lokam–heavenly plane; punye ksine–with the exhaustion of their peity; te–they; visanti–enter; martya-lokam–the human plane. evam–In this way; kama-kamah–those desiring enjoyment; anuprapannah–given to; trayi-dharmam–the worship prescribed in three of the Vedas; labhante–attain; gata-agatam–coming and going in this world. [21]

21 After enjoying the vast heavenly plane, upon the exhaustion of their pious merits they return to the human plane. In this way, persons desiring enjoyment who follow the Vedic rituals for demigod worship come and go—they undergo repeated birth and death in this material world.

अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जनाः पर्य्युपासते ।
तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम् ॥२२॥

ananyas chintayanto mam ye janah paryupasate
tesam nityabhiyuktanam yoga-ksemam vahamy aham [22]

aham–I; vahami–bear; yoga-ksemam–the responsibility of providing and protecting the necessities; tesam–of those; nitya-abhiyuktanam–who are exclusively devoted to Me; ye janah–and who; ananyah–exclusively; mam chintyantah–always think of Me; pari-upasate–and worship Me in all respects, every relationship. [22]

22 I bear the responsibility of acquiring and protecting the necessities of My fully dependent devotees who are always absorbed in thought of Me, and who worship Me in every way.

येऽप्यन्यदेवताभक्ता यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेऽपि मामेव कौन्तेय यजन्त्यविधिपूर्व्वकम् ॥२३॥

ye ’py anya-devata-bhakta yajante sraddhayanvitah
te ’pi mam eva kaunteya yajanty avidhi-purvakam [23]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; ye–those persons who; anya-devata-bhaktah api–although devotees of ‘other gods’; yajante–worship the demigods; sraddhaya-anvitah–with faith; te api–they too; yajanti–worship; mam eva–Me; avidhi-purvakam–but not in a way appropriate to attaining Me. [23]

23 O Kaunteya, the devotees of the demigods who have faith in worshipping them, are actually worshipping Me, but incorrectly.

अहं हि सर्व्वयज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुरेव च ।
न तु मामभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्ति ते ॥२४॥

aham hi sarva-yajnanam bhokta cha prabhur eva cha
na tu mam abhijananti tattvenatas chyavanti te [24]

aham hi–I alone am; bhokta eva cha–the enjoyer; prabhuh cha–and the rewarder; sarva-yajnanam–of all sacrifices; tu–but; na abhijananti–being ignorant; mam–of Me; tattvena–in truth; te–they; atah–therefore; chyavanti–fall to take birth; (punah)–again. [24]

24 I alone am the enjoyer and rewarder of all sacrifices, but being ignorant of My position, the demigod worshippers fall to take birth again.

यान्ति देवव्रता देवान्पितॄन्यान्ति पितृव्रताः ।
भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्या यान्ति मद्याजिनोऽपि माम् ॥२५॥

yanti deva-vrata devan pitrn yanti pitr-vratah
bhutani yanti bhutejya yanti mad-yajino ’pi mam [25]

deva-vratah–The demigod worshippers; yanti–reach; devan–the demigods; pitr-vratah–the ancestral worshippers; yanti–reach; pitrn–their ancestors; bhuta-ijyah–the spirit worshippers; yanti–reach; bhutani–the spirits; mat-yajinah–My worshippers; yanti–reach; mam api–Me. [25]

25 The demigod worshippers reach the demigods, the forefather worshippers go to the plane of their ancestors, and the worshippers of the spirits go to the spirits. But those who worship Me come to Me.

पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।
तदहं भक्त्युपहृतमश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः ॥२६॥

patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayachchhati
tad aham bhakty-upahrtam asnami prayatatmanah [26]

yah–For one who; bhaktya–with devotion; prayachchhati–offers; me–Me; patram–a leaf; puspam–a flower; phalam–fruit; toyam–water; aham–I; asnami–partake of that—I affectionately accept; tat–that; bhakti-upahrtam–devotional offering; (tasya)–of that person; prayata-atmanah–of clean heart. [26]

26 If one offers Me with devotion a leaf, flower, fruit, or water, I affectionately accept that offering of the clean hearted devotee.

यत्करोषि यदश्नासि यज्जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।
यत्तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत्कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥२७॥

yat karosi yad asnasi yaj juhosi dadasi yat
yat tapasyasi kaunteya tat kurusva mad-arpanam [27]

(he) kaunteya–O Arjuna, son of Kunti; yat (tvam) karosi–whatever you do, general or scripturally prescribed actions; yat asnasi–whatever you eat; yat juhosi–whatever you offer in sacrifice; yat dadasi–whatever you give in charity; yat tapasyasi–and whichever austerity you perform or vow you keep; tat kurusva–do that; mat-arpanam–as an offering unto Me. [27]

27 O Kaunteya, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer in sacrifice, whatever you give, and whatever vow you may keep—do everything as an offering unto Me.

शुभाशुभफलैरेवं मोक्ष्यसे कर्म्मबन्धनैः ।
सन्न्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तो मामुपैष्यसि ॥२८॥

subhasubha-phalair evam moksyase karma-bandhanaih
sannyasa-yoga-yuktatma vimukto mam upaisyasi [28]

(karma-kurvan)–Acting; evam–in this way; moksyase–you will be liberated; karma-bandhanaih–from bondage to action; subha-asubha-phalaih–and its auspicious or inauspicious results. sannyasa-yoga-yukta-atma–With mind linked to Me by renouncing the fruits of your actions; vimuktah (san)–being perfectly liberated; mam upaisyasi–you will reach Me. [28]

28 Acting thus, you will be freed from bondage to action and its auspicious or inauspicious results. With mind selflessly linked to Me, you will be perfectly liberated, and you will come to Me.

समोऽहं सर्व्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्योऽस्ति न प्रियः ।
ये भजन्ति तु मां भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु चाप्यहम् ॥२९॥

samo ’ham sarva-bhutesu na me dvesyo ’sti na priyah
ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya mayi te tesu chapy aham [29]

aham samah–I am equal; sarva-bhutesu–to all beings; na asti–there is neither; dvesyah–an enemy; priyah (cha) na–nor a friend; me–for Me;. tu–but; ye bhajanti–whoever serves; mam–Me; bhaktya–with love; (yatha)–as; te–they; (asaktah)–are attached; mayi–to Me; aham api cha–I, too; (tatha asaktih)–am similarly attached; tesu–to them. [29]

29 I am equal to all, so no one is My enemy or My friend. Yet, for those who serve Me with love, as they are bound by affection for Me, I am similarly bound by the tie of affection for them.

अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् ।
साधुरेव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग्व्यवसितो हि सः ॥३०॥

api chet suduracharo bhajate mam ananya-bhak
sadhur eva sa mantavyah samyag vyavasito hi sah [30]

chet–If; api–even; suduracharah–a person of sinful practices; bhajate–serves; mam–Me; ananya-bhak–with exclusive devotion (giving up all other endeavours such as karma and jnan); eva–certainly; sah mantavyah–he should be regarded; sadhuh–as a saintly person; hi–because; sah samyak vyavasitah–his resolve is perfect. [30]

30 If even a very sinful person serves Me exclusively with devotion, he should be regarded as saintly, for his resolve is perfect.

क्षिप्रं भवति धर्म्मात्मा शश्वच्छान्तिं निगच्छति ।
कौन्तेय प्रतिजानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति ॥३१॥

ksipram bhavati dharmatma sasvach-chhantim nigachchhati
kaunteya pratijanihi na me bhaktah pranasyati [31]

[1] (sah)–He (who dedicates himself to Me); ksipram–swiftly; bhavati–becomes; dharma-atma–a person of virtuous practices; nigachchhati–and attains; sasvat–constant; santim–peace, relief from obstacles. (he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; pratijanihi–declare; (iti)–thus; me–My; bhaktah–devotee; na pranasyati–is never vanquished. [31][2] (he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; pratijanihi–promise and declare it; (iti)–that; me bhaktah–My devotee; na pranasyati–is never vanquished. (sah)–That person who proclaims this; ksipram–swiftly; bhavati–becomes; dharma-atma–virtuous, religious; nigachchhati–and attains; sasvat–constant; santim–peace, joy. [31]

31 He swiftly becomes a person of virtuous practices and attains constant peace. O son of Kunti, declare to the world that My devotee is never vanquished!

or

31 O son of Kunti, declare to the world that My devotee is never vanquished. One who declares this swiftly becomes virtuous and attains eternal joy.

Commentary

The second interpretation of this verse was revealed to Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur in a dream.

In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.11.32) Lord Sri Krishna says:

आज्ञायैवं गुणान्दोषान्मयादिष्टानपि स्वकान् ।
धर्म्मान्सन्त्यज्य यः सर्व्वान्मां भजेत्स च सत्तमः ॥

ajnayaivam gunan dosan mayadistan api svakan
dharman santyajya yah sarvan mam bhajet sa cha sattamah

“The best of the saintly persons are those who have surpassed the forms of duties that I, Myself, have recommended in the scriptures for the people in general. Although it is My directive, they cross it and render loving service to Me.”

In society, one must obey the law, but there is also the situation of crossing the law to show fidelity to the king. If one risks his life and reputation, and crossing the general law enters the royal chamber to combat an assassin, then he will be considered the most loyal servitor. Similarly, the Lord is saying, “I have already given some direction for the people in general. Do this, don’t do that, don’t cross these laws, etc. But if for My interest anyone takes the risk of committing sin, then he should be considered the best of My devotees.

“So, Arjuna, go and declare it, promise to the public that the ananya-bhak (verse 30), the exclusively devoted persons, will never come to ruin. Then you will get the benefit. You will become dharmatma, religious, and attain eternal divine happiness. The ananya-bhak, the exclusive devotees, have already crossed the threshold of dharma, the standard of dutifulness, and taken the risk to throw themselves fully into My service. Sarva dharman parityajya Mam ekam saranam vraja (18.66). There is no question of them ‘becoming’ virtuous or religious as they long before surpassed dharma and took the risk and entered into prema-dharma, My loving service, transcending both piety and sinfulness.”

मां हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य येऽपि स्युः पापयोनयः ।
स्त्रियो वैश्यास्तथा शूद्रास्तेऽपि यान्ति परां गतिम् ॥३२॥

mam hi partha vyapasritya ye ’pi syuh papa-yonayah
striyo vaisyas tatha sudras te ’pi yanti param gatim [32]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; ye api–even those who; syuh–may be considered ; papa-yonayah–low-born persons; striyah–women; vaisyah–merchants; tatha sudrah–and labourers; vyapasritya hi–if they take full shelter; mam–in Me; te api yanti–they, too, attain; param gatim–the supreme destination. [32]

32 O son of Prtha, persons of low birth, women, merchants or labourers—they, too, attain the supreme destination by taking full refuge in Me.

किं पुनर्ब्राह्मणाः पुण्या भक्ता राजर्षयस्तथा ।
अनित्यमसुखं लोकमिमं प्राप्य भजस्व माम् ॥३३॥

kim punar brahmanah punya bhakta rajarsayas tatha
anityam asukham lokam imam prapya bhajasva mam [33]

kim punah–Not to mention that; bhaktah (santah)–having become devoted to Me; punyah–the pure; brahmanah–brahmans; tatha–and; rajarsayah–saintly kings; (param gatim yanti)–will surely attain the supreme destination. prapya–(Therefore) having achieved; imam–this; anityam–temporary; asukham–miserable; lokam–human body; bhajasva–serve; mam–Me. [33]

33 So can there be any doubt that those brahmans and saintly kings who are pure devotees will achieve the supreme goal? Therefore, worship Me, since although this human body is temporary and a place of suffering, it is attained only after many births and it affords the best opportunity to render devotional service to Me.

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।
मामेवैष्यसि युक्त्वैवमात्मानं मत्परायणः ॥३४॥

man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaisyasi yuktvaivam atmanam mat-parayanah [34]

bhava–Be; mat-manah–always conscious of Me; mat-bhaktah–My devoted servitor; mat-yaji (cha)–and My worshipper. namaskuru–Offer obeisances; mam–to Me. evam–In this way; yuktva atmanam–having dedicated yourself to Me; mat-parayanah–taking refuge in Me; esyasi–you will reach; mam eva–Me. [34]

34 Always think of Me, be my devotee, always worship Me and offer obeisances to Me. Thus offering yourself to Me and taking refuge in Me, you will come to Me.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे राजगुह्ययोगो नाम नवमोऽध्यायः ॥९॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade raja-
guhya-yogo nama navamo ’dhyayah [9]

End of Chapter Nine
The Hidden Treasure of Devotion
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

दशमोऽध्यायः
Chapter Ten

Vibhuti-yoga: The Divine Glories of the Lord

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः ।
यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

bhuya eva maha-baho srnu me paramam vachah
yat te ’ham priyamanaya vaksyami hita-kamyaya [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) maha-baho–O mighty-armed Arjuna; srnu–hear; bhuyah eva–once again; me–My; paramam–supreme; vachah–word; yat–since; aham–I; vaksyami–will speak; te priyamanaya–to you, who are very dear to Me; hita-kamyaya–desiring your welfare. [1]

1 The Supreme Lord said: O heroic Arjuna, listen to My supreme word once again. Desiring your welfare, I shall speak to you, who are very dear to Me.

न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः ।
अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणाञ्च सर्व्वशः ॥२॥

na me viduh sura-ganah prabhavam na maharsayah
aham adir hi devanam maharsinan cha sarvasah [2]

na–Neither; sura-ganah–the demigods; na–nor; maha-rsayah–the great sages; viduh–understand; me–My; prabhavam–transcendental birth; hi–because; sarvasah–in all respects; aham adih–I am the origin; devanam–of the demigods; maha-rsinam cha–and of the great sages, too. [2]

2 Neither the demigods nor the great sages can understand My transcendental appearance in this world, as I alone am the origin of those celestial beings and sages.

यो मामजमनादिञ्च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।
असम्मूढः स मर्त्त्येषु सर्व्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥३॥

yo mam ajam anadin cha vetti loka-mahesvaram
asammudhah sa martyesu sarva-papaih pramuchyate [3]

yah–One who; vetti–knows; mam–Me, the son of Devaki; ajam–as the birthless; anadim–the beginningless; loka-maha-isvaram cha–and the Supreme Lord of all beings; sah–he; asammudhah–undeluded; martyesu–among men; pramuchyate–is liberated; sarva-papaih–from all sins or obstacles to devotion. [3]

3 One who knows Me, the son of Devaki, as the birthless, beginningless, Supreme Lord of all beings, is undeluded among men and completely liberated from sin.

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसम्मोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः ।
सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयञ्चाभयमेव च ॥४॥

अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशोऽयशः ।
भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥५॥

buddhir jnanam asammohah ksama satyam damah samah
sukham duhkham bhavo ’bhavo bhayan chabhayam eva cha [4]

ahimsa samata tustis tapo danam yaso ’yasah
bhavanti bhava bhutanam matta eva prthag-vidhah [5]

(ete)–All these; prthak-vidhah bhavah–various qualities; bhutanam–of the living beings; bhavanti–are born; mattah eva–of Me alone: buddhih–ability to determine subtle meanings; jnanam–ability to discriminate between spirit and matter; asammohah–freedom from delusion; ksama–tolerance; satyam–truthfulness; damah–control of the external senses; samah–control of the internal senses; sukham–happiness; duhkham–unhappiness; bhavah–birth; abhavah–death; bhayam cha–fear; abhayam eva cha–and fearlessness; ahimsa–nonviolence; samata–equanimity, seeing the happiness and unhappiness of all beings as one’s own; tustih–satisfaction; tapah–austerity as directed in the Vedas; danam–charity; yasah–fame; ayasah (cha)–and infamy. [4–5]

4–5 Intelligence, knowledge, freedom from delusion, forbearance, truthfulness, mental control, sense control, happiness, unhappiness, birth, death, fear, courage, nonviolence, equanimity, satisfaction, austerity, charity, fame, and infamy—all these various attributes of the living beings are born of Me alone.

महर्षयः सप्त पूर्व्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा ।
मद्भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः ॥६॥

maharsayah sapta purve chatvaro manavas tatha
mad-bhava manasa jata yesam loka imah prajah [6]

(ete) mat-bhavah–All these personalities, empowered by Me; manasah jatah–are born of My mind, which is manifest as Hiranyagarbha, Lord Brahma: sapta maharsayah–the seven great sages—Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasistha; purve–and their predecessors; chatvarah–the four sages Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanat Kumar, and Sanatan, all known as brahmarsis; tatha manavah–and the fourteen Manus headed by Svayambhuva. imah prajah loke–Mankind—brahman, etc., and all progeny; yesam–descends from these patriarchs. [6]

6 The seven great sages headed by Marichi, and preceding them, the four brahman sages headed by Sanaka, and also the fourteen Manus or progenitors headed by Svayambhuva—all are empowered by Me and are born of Lord Brahma, who is a manifestation of My mind. Mankind and all progeny descends from these patriarchs.

एतां विभूतिं योगञ्च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।
सोऽविकल्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः ॥७॥

etam vibhutim yogan cha mama yo vetti tattvatah
so ’vikalpena yogena yujyate natra samsayah [7]

yah–One who; vetti–knows; tattvatah–in truth; etam–this; vibhutim–supremacy; cha–and; yogam–(bhakti-) yoga; mama–of Mine; sah–such a person; yujyate–is linked; avikalpena–by undeviating; yogena–knowledge of essential truth. atra–In this matter; na samsayah (asti)–there is no doubt. [7]

7 One who thus knows in truth My supremacy and devotional service serves Me in unwavering realisation. Of this there is no doubt.

अहं सर्व्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्व्वं प्रवर्त्तते ।
इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसमन्विताः ॥८॥

aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam budha bhava-samanvitah [8]

aham prabhavah–I am the Supreme Absolute Truth, Svayam Bhagavan or the original Supreme Lord, the cause; sarvasya–of all causes, including Brahma, Paramatma, and Bhagavan. sarvam–All activity in the universe of matter and spirit, and the Vedas and allied scriptures; pravartate–arise; mattah–from Me. matva–Realising; iti–this deep truth; budhah–persons of fine theistic intelligence; bhava-samanvitah–in their divine relationship of servitude, friendship, etc.; bhajante–worship, adore; mam–Me. [8]

8 I am Krishna, the Sweet Absolute, the origin of all. The entire universe of material and transcendental play, activity, purpose, and the Vedas and allied scriptures which give guidance—all evolve from Me alone. Realising this hidden treasure, persons of fine theistic intelligence surpass the mundane and embrace the path of love divine, raga-marg, and adore Me forever.

Commentary

Verses 8–11 are the four principal verses of Srimad Bhagavad-gita. The ontological substance of the book is contained within these four essential verses beginning, “Aham sarvasya prabhavo: everything evolves from Me.”

In the Srimad Bhagavatam (1.2.11), the three main conceptions of the Absolute are given as Brahma, Paramatma, and Bhagavan. Brahma is the all-comprehensive aspect of the Absolute, Paramatma is the all-permeating aspect of the Absolute, and Bhagavan is the personal conception of the Absolute. The word Bhagavan is generally defined as stated in the Visnu-purana (6.5.47):

ऐश्वर्य्यस्य समग्रस्य वीर्य्यस्य यशसः श्रियः
ज्ञानवैराग्ययोश्चैव षण्णां भग इतीङ्गना

aisvaryasya samagrasya viryasya yasasah sriyah
jnana-vairagyayos chaiva sannam bhaga itingana

“He who is full with all the six opulences of wealth, power, fame, beauty, knowledge, and renunciation is known as Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord.”

The characteristic of Bhagavan, as Lord Narayan, is that all kinds of potencies are personally controlled by Him. However, Srila Jiva Goswami has given a special and particularly fine interpretation: Bhagavan means bhajaniya guna-visista. His nature is such that whoever comes into contact with Him cannot resist serving Him. No one can resist feeling moved to worship and adore His charming personality. As Lord Krishna, He attracts the love of everyone.

Therefore, by the word sarvasya, Lord Krishna indicates, “I am Svayam Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord Himself. I am the origin of not only Brahma and Paramatma. I am also the origin of the Master of all potencies who commands the respect of everyone, Lord Narayan of Vaikuntha.

Mattah sarvam pravartate: every attempt and movement begins from Me, including the methods by which everyone worships and serves Me in devotion.”

नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो
न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन ।
यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्यस्
तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूं स्वाम् ॥
(कठोपनिषद् १.२.२३)

nayam atma pravachanena labhyo
na medhaya na bahuna srutena
yam evaisa vrnute tena labhyas
tasyaisa atma vivrnute tanum svam
(Kathopanisad: 1.2.23)

“The Lord cannot by known by logic, intelligence, or extensive study of the scriptures. But He reveals Himself to one who is eager to serve Him and prays to Him for His grace.”

In this way, “Mattah sarvam pravartate: I am the first to reveal to the people, ‘Worship Me in this way.’ I appear as Guru, and through him, I worship Myself.”

In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.17.27), the Guru is described by the Lord as His own direct manifestation:

आचार्य्यं मां विजानीयान्नावमन्येत कर्हिचित् ।
न मर्त्त्य बुद्ध्यासूयेत सर्व्व देवमयो गुरुः ॥

acharyam mam vijaniyan navamanyeta karhichit
na martya buddhyasuyeta sarva deva-mayo guruh

(Sri Krishna said to His devotee, Uddhava:) “You should know the bona fide spiritual master as My very Self. Gurudev is the embodiment of all the gods. Never dishonour him or find fault in him by ascribing any mundane conception of place, time, and circumstances to him.”

Furthermore, the Lord’s finest potency is Srimati Radharani. Of course, there are many other eternal associates, but the highest order of devotional service is represented in Srimati Radharani. The Lord is therefore saying, “My worship is shown by Me. I, as My finest potency, worship Myself. Iti matva bhajante Mam: understanding this conception, the devotee will come to worship Me, always under the direction of My best worshipper—My finest potency and representation—Radharani, or Gurudev. Crossing Her, the highest and most desirable form of service to Me is not possible.”

Radha-dasyam, the servitorship of Srimati Radharani, is indicated here. Only those who are blessed with divine intelligence will be able to appreciate this, and not persons with self-acquired intelligence from this mayika quarter, the world of misconception. In this verse, the word budhah refers to sumedhasah as described in the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.5.32), or persons of fine theistic intelligence arising from direct connection with the transcendental plane. The inner guidance and direction they receive is the outcome of sukrti, divine merit acquired by the association of pure devotees. Bhava-samanvitah means raga-samanvitah—anuraga—love and attraction which is affinity, not by strictly following scriptural rules or drawn from any plane of loss and gain, but from bhava, inner divine inspiration. Devotion of this high type is completely noncalculative (jnana-sunya-bhakti), as described by Srila Rupa Goswami in his Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11):

अन्याभिलाषिता शून्यं ज्ञानकर्म्माद्यनावृतम् ।
आनुकूल्येन कृष्णानुशीलनं भक्तिरुत्तमा ॥

anyabhilasita sunyam jnana-karmady anavrtam
anukulyena krsnanusilanam bhaktir uttama

“The highest devotion is that which satisfies Lord Krishna, free from the coverings of any pursuits such as action and knowledge.”

The most rare and elevated stage of devotion is in the line of spontaneous devotion, known as raga-marg. In that line, guided by the qualified Guru, an elevated pure devotee may attain service to a leader of one of the groups of Krishna’s personal associates who serve the Lord in His Pastimes in a relationship of friendship (sakhya-rasa), parenthood (vatsalya-rasa), or consorthood (madhura-rasa). In Vrndavan the Lord is served in spontaneous devotion by His friends headed by Subal Sakha, and by His parental devotees headed by Nanda Maharaj and mother Yasoda. The gopis headed by Lalita and Visakha serve Him in consorthood. But amongst all His associates, and amongst all the gopis, the highest order of divine loving service is rendered to the Lord by Srimati Radharani. Therefore, the acme of raga-marg is the service of Radharani (Radha-dasyam). This is the highest objective of the Rupanuga Gaudiya sampradaya, the followers of pure devotion as taught by Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupad, in the line of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

मच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।
कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥९॥

mach-chitta mad-gata-prana bodhayantah parasparam
kathayantas cha mam nityam tusyanti cha ramanti cha [9]

mat-gata-pranah–Those who have dedicated their lives to Me; mat-chittah–who always think of Me; mam kathayantah cha–and talk about Me; bodhayantah parasparam (santah)–enlightening one another with the nectar of their devotional realisations; nityam–are ever; tusyanti cha–satisfied; ramanti cha–and ecstatic. [9]

9 Always thinking of Me, those surrendered souls converse about Me, enlightening one another with the nectar of their devotional realisations, ever content and ecstatic in their divine natures.

Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna is speaking about His pure devotees. “I am in the heart of their hearts, in their every thought. Their entire energy—their whole life—is dedicated to My satisfaction. They converse with one another about Me and experience mutual enlightenment. They always love to talk about Me with whoever they meet, and nothing else. For every time, place, and circumstance, I am the only subject of their discussion. They find very much satisfaction in this (tusyanti cha).” Up to the divine relationship of parenthood, there is the feeling of satisfaction.

Furthermore, “Ramanti cha: just as a wife enjoys a conjugal relationship with her husband, the devotees similarly feel such ecstasy in My intimate company when speaking about Me.” This has also been mentioned by the previous Acharyas.

तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्व्वकम् ।
ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते ॥१०॥

tesam satata-yuktanam bhajatam priti-purvakam
dadami buddhi-yogam tam yena mam upayanti te [10]

tesam priti-purvakam bhajatam–To those loving devotees; satata-yuktanam–who are always engaged in My service; (aham)–I; dadami–give; tam–that; buddhi-yogam–inspiration; yena–by which; te–they; upayanti–can come; mam–to Me. [10]

10 To those devotees who are always lovingly engaged in My service, I give the divine inspiration by which they can come to Me.

Commentary

The Lord says, “The highest group of My servitors (whose devotion was described in the previous verse by the word ramanti) are those who are constantly engaged (satata-yukta) in My service in consorthood (madhura-rasa) with heartfelt love (bhajatam priti-purvakam).” Then He says that He will give them further inspiration or inner instruction ‘by which they can come to Him’ (yena Mam upayanti te). When already in this and the previous verse the devotees’ service to the Lord has been described as eternal (by the words nityam and satata-yukta), now the statement that He will give them further inspiration ‘by which they can come to Him’ may appear to be redundant. Therefore, in the expression Mam upayanti te (“They will come to Me”), the word upayanti must be defined as parakiya-bhavena—upapati. Pati means husband, and upapati means paramour.

In Vrndavan, Lord Krishna is not considered a lawful husband, but He is the Lord of the heart, transcendental to even the husband (parakiya-rasa). Deceiving their husbands, the gopis of Vrndavan unite with Krishna. they do not allow a second party to come between them and Krishna. They cannot allow the interception of social law or even scriptural regulation, because Krishna’s position is absolute, and such a relationship is more relishable to Him. This is Vrndavan-bhajan*, and this is the meaning of upapati.

* विक्रीडितं व्रजवधूभिरिदञ्च विष्णोः
श्रद्धान्वितोऽनुशृणुयादय वर्णयेद्यः ।
भक्तिं परां भगवति प्रतिलभ्य कामं
हृद्रोगमाश्वपहिनोत्यचिरेण धीरः ॥
(भाः १०/३३/३९)

vikriditam vraja-vadhubhir idan cha visnoh
sraddhanvito ’nusrnuyad atha varnayed yah
bhaktim param bhagavati pratilabhya kamam
hrd-rogam asv apahinoty achirena dhirah
(SB: 10.33.39)

“A self-controlled person who possesses sincere faith in the divine Pastimes transcendentally enjoyed by Lord Krishna with the gopis (Rasa-lila), and who, having heard those divine Pastimes from the lotus mouth of the bona fide Guru constantly sings or narrates their glories—such a person swiftly achieves the most elevated form of pure devotion for the Lord, and is promptly able to ward off the heart disease of lust.”

In his writings, Srila Jiva Goswami has laid stress on the word dhira, meaning ‘self-controlled.’ To hear these elevated subjects, one must enter into the culture of sense-control, otherwise he will be lost.

नैतत्समाचरेज्जातु मनसापि ह्यनीश्वरः ।
विनश्यत्याचरन्मौढ्याद्यथारुद्रोऽब्धिजं विषम् ॥
(भाः १०/३३/३०)

naitat samacharej jatu manasapi hy anisvarah
vinasyaty acharan maudhyad yatharudro ’bdhi-jam visam
(SB: 10.33.30)

“No one should ever even think of imitating this behaviour of the Supreme Lord and the gopis. If out of gross foolishness anyone tries to imitate the Pastimes of the Lord, he will be destroyed, as though imitating Lord Siva by drinking the poison which arose from the ocean.” (It is described in the Srimad Bhagavatam that once the demigods and the demons jointly engaged in churning the ocean to produce nectar. Both nectar and poison were produced, and Lord Siva, by his power, could hold the poison within his throat.)

“My relationship with them is independent of everything conceivable, including law, society, and the scriptures. It is most innate and natural, and it does not require any social or scriptural sanction. I say to them, ‘You may show formal respect to all these restrictions and live in the society. But from the heart of your heart, you are Mine.’ This is the special inspiration and insight I give those devotees (buddhi-yogam yena Mam upayanti te).

“Externally there are social and scriptural demands, but My position is over and above them. Veda is My instruction for the benefit of the masses who have deviated from Me, and society is also under the jurisdiction of those general instructions given to the people by Me. But My divine relationship with everything is intrinsic and independent. It does not require recognition from anyone. Such a relationship is the highest. It is the constant. It supercedes all law and society which are guided by the Vedas; rather, all the Vedas are searching for such a thing.”

Srutibhir vimrgyam (SB: 10.47.61): visesa-mrgya—the Vedas are searching after this ideal divine position. In the section of the Srimad Bhagavatam which deals with Rasa-lila, the Vedas are begging forgiveness.

“We are generally supposed to give tidings of You, but we could not describe You as we now experience You here. Now we understand that we have committed an offence, because we could not distribute this Rasa-lila to the world.”

Like signposts, all the revealed scriptures are only showing the direction; but where, how? “We don’t know.” Only, “He may be available in this direction.”

Anywhere and everywhere, everything belongs to Him. For one who knows this, all possibilities of sense pleasure and exploitation are uprooted. For example, an unmarried woman may have the possibility of being approached by many, but there is less possibility for those who are married, because they are possessed by someone. Similarly, when we are able to know that everything is only for the satisfaction of Krishna, then we shall realise that all our exploiting tendencies have vanished forever. Nothing will remain to be utilised for the pleasure of our sense-experience. It will be very deeply felt in our hearts that everything has its existence only for His satisfaction, and there is no room for any other exploitation.

We, too, are included there—our existence is also only for His satisfaction. Everything is meant for His divine Pastimes (lila), and there is no possibility for any others’ pastimes. All are included in that one lila. Encroachment will disappear when we learn the proper utility of everything. He is the owner, and His ownership is absolute. The scriptures, society, and law designate, “This is yours, that is another’s, or that belongs to a third party.” This is something like a temporary lease, but the permanent ownership is in all respects with Him. All others—possessor and property, master and servant—are relative, and only sanctioned by Him for the time being. He alone is the absolute owner, possessor, and enjoyer. Complete purification of our hearts is possible only when we arrive at such a conclusion. Everyone is thinking of themselves as many masters of many things, but this is all ‘heart disease’ (hrd-rogam). This is all conceived in a diseased state of consciousness. In a healthy state, when the heart is quite wholesome, we can see the Supreme Whole, and we can see that everything is meant only for His satisfaction.

तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजं तमः ।
नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थो ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥११॥

tesam evanukampartham aham ajnana-jam tamah
nasayamy atma-bhava-stho jnana-dipena bhasvata [11]

anukampa-artham–Out of compassion; tesam eva–for them; aham–I; atma-bhava-sthah–appearing within their hearts; nasayami–destroy; bhasvata jnana-dipena–with the shining lamp of knowledge; tamah–the darkness; ajnana-jam–born of ignorance. [11]

11 Out of compassion for them, I, situated within the hearts of all living beings, dispel the darkness of ignorance with the radiance of knowledge.

or

11 Being conquered by the love of those devotees who in their unalloyed loving devotion become afflicted by the all-devouring darkness born of their pangs of separation from Me, I illuminate their hearts with My presence, destroying the darkness of their pain of separation.

Commentary

Of the two translations given above, the first is the most general interpretation of this verse. But if we appreciate pure, noncalculative devotion (jnana-sunya-bhakti), the Lord’s statement here may again appear redundant and inconsistent.

When those high devotees are already admitted to be performing continuous and unadulterated service, and even above that, they are situated in the plane of pure love, spontaneous and automatic (raga-marg), how can it be harmonised that the Lord will now in the last stage destroy their ignorance (tamah) born of misunderstanding (ajnana-jam), by giving them knowledge (jnana)? Jnan is only a cover—a futile, finite conception of the infinite Absolute (jnana-karmady anavrtam … bhaktir uttama). When they have achieved devotion devoid of the covering of knowledge (jnana-sunya-bhakti), how will they again have to return to that knowledge (jnana)? In his commentary, Srila Visvanath Chakravarti Thakur has mentioned that this knowledge is extraordinary (vilaksanam), though he did not enter into specific detail. To clarify this point, we have given the following explanation:

Lamentation and delusion are generally known to be symptoms of the mode of ignorance (tamo-guna). In jnana-sunya-bhakti, the elevated devotees who take Krishna not as the Supreme God, but as a friend, son, husband, or lover, will come to experience lamentation and delusion, but this is only an outward appearance of ignorance. In fact, it is the pain of divine separation. They lament. “Where have You gone?”

In this verse, the Lord’s statement, tesam evanukampartham generally means “Fortunately for them,” or, “To favour them (I dispel their darkness, etc.).” But it may also be interpreted, “I want their favour. I aspire for the favour of those devotees of the highest order.”

The Lord also says to the Gopis in the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.82.44):

मयि भक्तिर्हि भूतानाममृतत्वाय कल्पते ।
दिष्ट्या यदासीन्मत्स्नेहो भवतीनां मदापनः ॥

mayi bhaktir hi bhutanam amrtatvaya kalpate
distya yad asin mat-sneho bhavatinam mad-apanah

“In general, people want devotion to Me to achieve eternal life. To cross the limit of mortality and to have eternal life, they come to Me and worship Me. For these reasons they want My service, but fortunately for you, O gopis, you have some natural affection towards Me. That will ultimately bring you to Me.”

This is the general meaning. However, in Sri Chaitanya-charitamrta, Srila Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami has drawn out the inner meaning of what Krishna is saying to the gopis, which is just the opposite:

“Through devotion, everyone wants Me to help them attain the highest position of eternal benefit, and if they have a connection with Me, they consider themselves fortunate. But I consider Myself fortunate because I have come in touch with the valuable affection that I found in your hearts. By My fortune, I have got your association.”

Therefore, here in Sri Gita, the Lord is saying, “Tesam evanukampartham: being conquered by the love of those unalloyed devotees, when I cannot tolerate their pain of separation, I at once come running to satisfy them, and I reveal to them with special light, special consciousness, ‘I have returned to you—see Me now.’ With powerful brilliance (jnana-dipena) I show them My presence when they are very much in need of Me, and I relieve their pain of separation.”

Atma-bhava-sthah: He reveals Himself according to His devotee’s divine relationship with Him (rasa): to a friend, as a friend; to a mother, as a child; to a wife, as a husband; and to the sweethearts, as a paramour.

After Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu left home and accepted the renounced order of life, sannyas, Mother Sachi could not tolerate the deep separation, and she began to cry. Sachi Devi was preparing excellent dishes, offering them to the Deity, and weeping. “Where is my Nimai? He’s very fond of these curries—His favourite dishes, and Nimai is not here.” Suddenly, Lord Chaitanya came and began to eat. Sachi Devi exclaimed, “Oh, Nimai is eating!” and for the time being her separation was relieved. Moments later, she reconsidered, “Did I see Nimai eating? But He is now a sannyasi in Jagannath Puri, so how could He have come here? Did I serve Him? There must be a mistake.” Then she examined the pots again to see if there was food there. Finding them empty, she began to conjecture whether even a dog or some other animal had come and eaten it. But during that moment, Nimai had actually come, and Mother Sachi saw Him in broad daylight. That illumination is transcendental, and not the ‘knowledge’ (jnan) that is generally known in our vocabulary.

The acme of theism is parakiya-rasa. Parakiya means ‘another’s.’ In every divine relationship, the Lord captures all. In the whole of Vrndavan where everyone follows the path of love (raga-marg), this parakiya-rasa is infused. The friends of Krishna sometimes say, “Some people say that Krishna is a resident of Mathura. They say He’s the son of Vasudev, and He will soon go to Mathura. They say He is not our friend! Will we really lose His company? Then how will we be able to live in this jungle and herd the cows?” They experience this apprehension—“We may lose Him at any time.” This intensifies their friendly service to Him.

Similarly, Mother Yasoda thinks, “Some say that Krishna is not my son, He’s Devaki’s son. What is this? I won’t admit this. He’s my child!” This idea enhances Yasoda’s affection for Krishna: “I may lose Him? Then how shall I live?” Therefore, the parakiya-rasa stresses the rarity of Krishna’s relationship, because the possibility of losing His company is always in the background. But the highest intensity of service is to be found in the madhura-rasa (consorthood) group. In the other rasas, there is the idea of suspense that He may ‘go away,’ but in the consorthood relationship in the divine abode of Vrndavan, the consorts cross the direction of the scriptures and the society, which guide everyone to remain as husband and wife (svakiya). Parakiya (‘another’s’) has been accepted in the science of devotion as the highest conception, above the socially and scripturally sanctioned svakiya (‘one’s own’).

Parakiya or paramour relationship nourishes the Pastimes of Krishna by deceiving one who claims ownership over another, such as a husband over a wife, or a parent over a child. The normally accepted relationship of svakiya is commonplace, but to cross the jurisdiction of the scriptures and society, as a paramour, means a greater risk as if to commit sin. Thus, this relationship is very rare, and rarity enhances its intensity and value. The idea of deceiving the ‘possessor’ to favour the ‘non-possessor’ (in the spiritual sense) is a beautiful, ornamental conception. Actually, in Krishna’s case there cannot be any state of paramourship, because in truth He is the owner of everything. However, the divine arrangement is fashioned in this way to enhance the devotee’s internal devotion for the Lord, just as food appears more tasteful when hunger is present.

In Vaikuntha, the nature of the worship of Lord Visnu is gorgeous, majestic, reverential, and awe-inspiring. But above that, in the highest conception, Godhead is humanlike in form and nature. It is stated in Sri Chaitanya-charitamrta in the teachings to Sanatana Goswami:

কৃষ্ণের যতেক খেলা, সর্ব্বোত্তম নরলীলা
নরবপু তাহার স্বরূপ ।
গোপবেশ, বেণুকর, নবকিশোর, নটবর
নরলীলা হয় অনুরূপ॥

কৃষ্ণের মধুর রূপ শুন সনাতন ।
যে রূপের এক কণ, ডুবায় সব ত্রিভুবন
সর্ব্বপ্রাণী করে আকর্ষণ ॥

krsnera yateka khela sarvvottama nara-lila
nara-vapu tahara svarupa
gopa-vesa, venu-kara nava-kisora, natavara
nara-lila haya anurupa

krsnera madhura-rupa suna sanatana
ye rupera eka kana dubaya saba tribhuvana
sarvva-prani kare akarsana

“The highest form of Godhead is Krishna, who plays in His eternal divine Pastimes like a human being. An ever-youthful cowherd boy of Vrndavan, the best of dancers, He enjoys His Pastimes, always playing His flute. His beauty is so charming and sweet that the whole universe is flooded by even the tiniest atom of it, and all beings are attracted irresistibly to Him.”

He is approachable by all. We can find God nearest of all—in a human feature. It has been explained how Krishna’s form of human feature is the highest form of the Absolute, according to the calculation of ecstasy (rasa), which is the common standard of measurement of the whole scope of the Infinite. By the development of santa-, dasya-, sakhya-, vatsalya-, and madhura-, and then parakiya-rasa (tranquillity, servitude, friendship, parenthood, consorthood, and then paramour relationship), this is scientifically proven, without whimsical or blind faith. If we follow the line of Rupanuga-bhajan (devotion following the line of Srila Rupa Goswami) which originates from Sri Chaitanyadev, this scientific basis can be appreciated. The previous Acharyas have left comprehensive teachings for us on how to follow, conceive, and attain all these things.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान् ।
पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम् ॥१२॥

आहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्व्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा ।
असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयञ्चैव ब्रवीषि मे ॥१३॥

arjuna uvacha

param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan
purusam sasvatam divyam adi-devam ajam vibhum [12]

ahus tvam rsayah sarve devarsir naradas tatha
asito devalo vyasah svayan chaiva bravisi me [13]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (aham manye)–I accept; bhavan–Your grace; param brahma–as the Supreme Brahma, directly the Supreme Lord; param dhama–the supreme Syamasundar form, the supreme refuge; paramam–the supreme; pavitram–sanctifier, saviour. sarve–All; rsayah–the sages; deva-rsih naradah–Narad Muni, the saint among the gods; asitah–Asita; devalah–Devala; tatha vyasah–and the great sage Vyas; ahuh–call; tvam–You; sasvatam purusam–the eternal personality; divyam–the self-manifest; adi-devam–the original Lord; ajam–the birthless; vibhum–the all-pervading Lord, the fountain-head of all opulences; cha svayam eva–and You, Yourself; bravisi me–are now declaring this to me. [12–13]

12–13 Arjuna said: O Lord, You are the supreme Brahma, the supreme shelter, and the supreme saviour. All the prominent sages such as Devarsi Narad, Asita, Devala, and Vyas have described You as the self-manifest, eternal Supreme Person, the fountainhead of all opulences and the root of all existence from whose divine play everything emanates. And now You are personally declaring this to be the truth.

सर्व्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव ।
न हि ते भगवन्व्यक्तिं विदुर्देवा न दानवाः ॥१४॥

sarvam etad rtam manye yan mam vadasi kesava
na hi te bhagavan vyaktim vidur deva na danavah [14]

(he) kesava–O Kesava; (aham) manye–I accept; rtam–as factual; sarvam etat–all; yat vadasi–You have told; mam–me. (he) bhagavan–O Lord; hi–indeed; na devah na danavah–neither the demigods nor the demons; viduh–know; te–Your; vyaktim–personality in full. [14]

14 O Kesava, I fully accept all that You have said. O Lord, indeed neither demigods nor demons know Your personality in full.

स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम ।
भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥१५॥

svayam evatmanatmanam vettha tvam purusottama
bhuta-bhavana bhutesa deva-deva jagat-pate [15]

(he) purusottama–O Supreme Person; (he) bhuta-bhavana–O universal father; (he) bhuta-isa–O Lord of all beings; (he) deva-deva–O God of the gods; (he) jagat-pate–O Jagannath, Lord of the universe; eva–only; tvam–You; svayam–Yourself; vettha–know; atmanam–Yourself; atmana–by Yourself—by Your own potency. [15]

15 O Supreme Person, universal father, Lord of all beings, God of the gods, Lord of the universe! Only You can know Yourself, by Your own divine potency.

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेण दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।
याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि ॥१६॥

vaktum arhasy asesena divya hy atma-vibhutayah
yabhir vibhutibhir lokan imams tvam vyapya tisthasi [16]

hi (tvam) vaktum arhasi–You may kindly describe; asesena–elaborately; (tah)–those; divyah–divine; atma-vibhutayah–personal opulences; yabhih vibhutibhih–by which opulences; tvam–You; tisthasi–are present; vyapya–pervading; iman lokan–all these worlds. [16]

16 Please describe to me in full Your personal opulences by which You pervade all these worlds.

कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन् ।
केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया ॥१७॥

katham vidyam aham yogims tvam sada parichintayan
kesu kesu cha bhavesu chintyo ’si bhagavan maya [17]

(he) yogin–O Lord of yogamaya, Lord of divine potency; (he) bhagavan–O Supreme Lord; katham–how can; aham–I; sada–be constantly; parichintayan–absorbed in thought; tvam–of You; vidyam–know; (tvam)–You; cha–and; kesu kesu bhavesu–in which forms; asi–are; (tvam)–You; chintyah–to be thought of; maya–by me? [17]

17 O Lord of divine potency, how can I be constantly absorbed in thought of You, how can I know You, and in which forms should I think of You?

विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिञ्च जनार्द्दन ।
भूयः कथय तृप्तिर्हि शृण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम् ॥१८॥

vistarenatmano yogam vibhutin cha janardana
bhuyah kathaya trptir hi srnvato nasti me ’mrtam [18]

(he) janardana–O Janardan; kathaya–please describe; bhuyah–again; vistarena–in detail; atmanah yogam–the process of devotional union with You (bhakti-yoga); vibhutim cha–and Your opulences; hi–since; srnvatah–hearing; amrtam–Your ambrosial words; me–my; trptih–satiation; na asti–does not occur. [18]

18 O Janardan, please again describe in detail Your opulences and the path of devotion to You, for I never tire of hearing Your ambrosial words.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।
प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ नास्त्यन्तो विस्तरस्य मे ॥१९॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

hanta te kathayisyami divya hy atma-vibhutayah
pradhanyatah kuru-srestha nasty anto vistarasya me [19]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: hanta kuru-srestha–O best of the Kurus; kathayisyami–I will tell; te–you; pradhanyatah–the principal; divyah–transcendental; atma-vibhutayah–personal opulences, manifest by My divine potency; hi–since; na asti–there is no; antah–end; vistarasya me–to the expanse of My glories. [19]

19 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, best of the Kurus, My glories are unlimited, so I shall tell you of My principal transcendental opulences, manifest in this world by My divine potency.

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्व्वभूताशयस्थितः ।
अहमादिश्च मध्यञ्च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥२०॥

aham atma gudakesa sarva-bhutasaya-sthitah
aham adis cha madhyan cha bhutanam anta eva cha [20]

(he) gudakesa–O Arjuna; aham atma–I am the Supersoul; sarva-bhuta-asaya-sthitah–situated within the heart of all beings; cha eva–and; aham adih–I am the beginning; madhyam cha–middle; antah cha–and end; bhutanam–of all beings. [20]

20 O conqueror of sleep, I am the Supersoul within the hearts of all beings, and I am their beginning, middle, and end.

आदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् ।
मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मि नक्षत्राणामहं शशी ॥२१॥

adityanam aham visnur jyotisam ravir amsuman
marichir marutam asmi naksatranam aham sasi [21]

adityanam–Of the twelve Adityas; aham asmi visnuh–I am the Aditya known as Visnu. jyotisam–Of the luminaries; aham (asmi)–I am; amsuman–the blazing; ravih–sun; marutam–Of the Vayu demigods; marichih–(I am) the Vayu known as Marichi; naksatranam–and of the stars; sasi–(I am) the moon. [21]

21 Of the twelve Adityas I am Visnu; of the luminaries I am the radiant sun; of the Vayus I am Marichi, of stars I am the moon.

वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः ।
इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना ॥२२॥

vedanam sama-vedo ’smi devanam asmi vasavah
indriyanam manas chasmi bhutanam asmi chetana [22]

vedanam–Of the Vedas; (aham) asmi–I am; sama-vedah–the Sama-veda. devanam–Of the demigods; (aham) asmi–I am; vasavah–Indra. indriyanam–Of the senses; (aham) asmi–I am; manah–the mind; cha–and; (aham) asmi–I am; chetana–the life; bhutanam–of all that lives. [22]

22 Of the Vedas, I am Sama-veda; of the demigods I am Indra; of the senses I am the mind, and I am the life of all that lives.

रुद्राणां शंकरश्चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्षरक्षसाम् ।
वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणामहम् ॥२३॥

rudranam sankaras chasmi vitteso yaksa-raksasam
vasunam pavakas chasmi meruh sikharinam aham [23]

rudranam–Of the eleven Rudras; aham asmi–I am; sankarah–Siva; cha–and; yaksa-raksasam–of the Yaksas and Raksasas; (aham) asmi–I am; vitta-isah–Kubera. vasunam–Of the eight Vasus; pavakah–(I am) Agni; cha–and; sikharinam–of the mountains; meruh–(I am) Sumeru. [23]

23 Of the eleven Rudras I am Sankar, and of the Yaksas and Raksasas I am Kubera. Of the eight Vasus I am Agni, and of mountains I am Sumeru.

पुरोधसाञ्च मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम् ।
सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः ॥२४॥

purodhasan cha mukhyam mam viddhi partha brhaspatim
senaninam aham skandah sarasam asmi sagarah [24]

(he) partha–O Partha; viddhi–know; mam–Me; brhaspatim–as Brhaspati; mukhyam purodhasam–the chief among priests engaged in sacrifice. senaninam–Of generals; aham asmi–I am; skandah–Kartikeya; cha–and; sarasam–among reservoirs; sagarah–(I am) the ocean. [24]

24 O Partha, you should know Me as the chief of priests, Brhaspati; of generals I am Kartikeya, and of reservoirs I am the ocean.

महर्षीणां भृगुरहं गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम् ।
यज्ञानां जपयज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः ॥२५॥

maharsinam bhrgur aham giram asmy ekam aksaram
yajnanam japa-yajno ’smi sthavaranam himalayah [25]

maha-rsinam–Of great sages; aham asmi–I am; bhrguh–Bhrgu. giram–Of sound vibrations; (aham) asmi–I am; ekam aksaram–the pranava monosyllable, Omkar. yajnanam–Of all types of sacrifices; (aham) asmi–I am; japa-yajnah–sacrifice in the form of meditative chanting of the holy names; (cha)–and; sthavaranam–of the immovable; himalayah–(I am) the Himalayas. [25]

25 Of great sages, I am Bhrgu; of sound vibrations, I am Om; of all sacrifices, I am the chanting of the Holy Names; and of the immovable, I am the Himalayas.

अश्वत्थः सर्व्ववृक्षाणां देवर्षीणाञ्च नारदः ।
गन्धर्व्वाणां चित्ररथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः ॥२६॥

asvatthah sarva-vrksanam devarsinan cha naradah
gandharvanam chitrarathah siddhanam kapilo munih [26]

sarva-vrksanam–Of all trees; asvatthah–(I am) the Asvattha tree; deva-rsinam–of godly sages; naradah–(I am) Narad Muni. gandharvanam–Of Gandharvas; chitrarathah–(I am) Chitraratha; cha–and; siddhanam–of perfected beings; kapilah munih–(I am) the sage Kapila. [26]

26 I am the Asvattha among trees, Narad of godly sages, Chitraratha of heavenly singers, and Kapila Muni of perfected beings.

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम् ।
ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणाञ्च नराधिपम् ॥२७॥

uchchaihsravasam asvanam viddhi mam amrtodbhavam
airavatam gajendranam naranan cha naradhipam [27]

asvanam–Of horses; viddhi–know; mam uchchaih-sravasam–Me as Uchchaihsrava; amrta-udbhavam–who was born of the churning of nectar; gaja-indranam–Of elephants; airavatam–(I am) Airavata; cha–and; naranam–among men; nara-adhipam–(I am) the king. [27]

27 Among horses know Me as Uchchaihsrava, who was born of nectar; know Me as Airavata among elephants, and king among men.

आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् ।
प्रजनश्चास्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणामस्मि वासुकिः ॥२८॥

ayudhanam aham vajram dhenunam asmi kamadhuk
prajanas chasmi kandarpah sarpanam asmi vasukih [28]

ayudhanam–Of weapons; aham asmi–I am; vajram–the thunderbolt, the weapon of Lord Indra. dhenunam–Of cows; (aham) asmi–I am; kama-dhuk–the desire-fulfilling cow. (kandarpanam)–Of cupids; (aham) asmi–I am; prajanah–the progenitor; kandarpah–Cupid; cha–and; sarpanam–of single-headed venomous snakes; vasukih–(I am) Vasuki, the king of snakes. [28]

28 Of weapons I am the thunderbolt, and of cows I am the heavenly desire-fulfilling cow. Of cupids I am the progenitor, and of one-headed venomous snakes I am Vasuki, the king of snakes.

अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसामहम् ।
पितॄणामर्य्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमतामहम् ॥२९॥

anantas chasmi naganam varuno yadasam aham
pitrnam aryama chasmi yamah samyamatam aham [29]

naganam–Of the multi-headed non-poisonous serpents; aham asmi–I am; anantah–the divine serpent Ananta; cha–and; yadasam–of aquatics; aham asmi–I am; varunah–Varunadev. pitrnam–Of the deified ancestors; aryama–(I am) Aryama; cha–and; samyamatam–among chastisers; yamah–Yamaraja. [29]

29 Of the multi-headed non-poisonous serpents I am the Ananta Naga, and of aquatics I am Varunadev. Of the deified ancestors I am Aryama, and of ministers I am Yamaraj, the lord of punishment.

प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम् ।
मृगाणाञ्च मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम् ॥३०॥

prahladas chasmi daityanam kalah kalayatam aham
mrganan cha mrgendro ’ham vainateyas cha paksinam [30]

daityanam–Of the descendents of Diti; aham asmi–I am; prahladah–Prahlad; kalayatam cha–and of subduers; aham (asmi)–I am; kalah–time; cha–and; mrganam–of animals; mrga-indrah–the lion; cha–and; paksinam–of birds; vainateyah–Garuda. [30]

30 Of the Daityas I am Prahlad, and of subjugators I am time. Of animals I am the lion, and of birds I am Garuda.

पवनः पवतामस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम् ।
झषाणां मकरश्चास्मि स्रोतसामस्मि जाह्नवी ॥३१॥

pavanah pavatam asmi ramah sastra-bhrtam aham
jhasanam makaras chasmi srotasam asmi jahnavi [31]

pavatam–Of sanctifiers or of the rapid; aham asmi–I am; pavanah–wind. sastra-bhrtam–Of weapon-wielding heroes; (aham) asmi–I am; ramah–Lord Parasuram. jhasanam–Among fish; (aham) asmi–I am; makarah–the shark; cha–and; srotasam–of rivers; jahnavi–(I am) the Jahnavi, the Ganges. [31]

31 Of sanctifiers I am the wind; of weapon-wielding heros I am Lord Parasuram; among fish I am the shark, and of rivers I am the Ganges.

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यञ्चैवाहमर्ज्जुन ।
अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् ॥३२॥

sarganam adir antas cha madhyan chaivaham arjuna
adhyatma-vidya vidyanam vadah pravadatam aham [32]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; sarganam–of the manifest; aham eva adih–I am the beginning; antah–end; madhyam cha–and middle. vidyanam–Of knowledge; adhyatma-vidya–(I am) self-knowledge; cha–and; aham vadah–I am the philosophy; pravadatam–of philosophers. [32]

32 O Arjuna, of all that is manifest I am the beginning, middle, and end. Of all wisdom I am self-knowledge, and I am the philosophy of philosophers.

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च ।
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतोमुखः ॥३३॥

aksaranam akaro ’smi dvandvah samasikasya cha
aham evaksayah kalo dhataham visvato-mukhah [33]

aksaranam–Of letters; aham asmi–I am; a-karah–the letter ‘a’; cha–and; samasikasya–of compound words; dvandvah–(I am) the dual compound word. aham eva aksayah kalah–I alone am the eternal time flow; (srastram cha)–and of creators; visvatah mukhah–four-headed; dhata–Lord Brahma. [33]

33 Of the primary letters of the alphabet I am the letter ‘a’, and of compound words I am the dual. I alone am the endless flow of time, and of universal creators I am the four-headed Lord Brahma.

मृत्युः सर्व्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम् ।
कीर्त्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा ॥३४॥

mrtyuh sarva-haras chaham udbhavas cha bhavisyatam
kirtih srir vak cha narinam smrtir medha dhrtih ksama [34]

(harana-karinam)–Of plunderers; aham mrtyuh–I am death; sarva-harah–the vanquisher of all; cha–and; bhavisyatam–of the predestined six transformations of the living beings; udbhavah–(I am) the first, as birth; cha–and; narinam–of feminine qualities; kirtih–fame; srih–beauty; vak–perfect speech; smrtih–rememberance; medha–intelligence (regarding scriptural wisdom); dhrtih–patience; cha–and; ksama–forgiveness (or the seven wives of Dharma). [34]

34 Of plunderers I am all-devouring death, and of the predestined six transformations I am birth, the foremost. Of the feminine qualities I am fame, beauty, perfect speech, remembrance, intelligence, patience, and forgiveness—the seven wives of Dharma.

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् ।
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः ॥३५॥

brhat-sama tatha samnam gayatri chhandasam aham
masanam marga-sirso ’ham rtunam kusumakarah [35]

samnam–Of all the mantras in the Sama-veda; brhat-sama–(I am) the mantra prayer to Lord Indra; tatha–and; chhandasam–of metrical mantras; aham gayatri–I am the gayatri mantra. masanam–Of the months; aham marga-sirsah–I am the month Agrahayan, the month of harvest (mid-November to mid-December). (cha)–And; rtunam–of the seasons; kusuma-akarah–(I am) spring. [35]

35 Of all the mantras in the Sama-veda I am the Brhatsama prayer to Lord Indra, and of metrical mantras I am the holy gayatri mantra. Of the months I am the foremost, Agrahayan, and of the seasons I am flowerbearing spring.

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ।
जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम् ॥३६॥

dyutam chhalayatam asmi tejas tejasvinam aham
jayo ’smi vyavasayo ’smi sattvam sattvavatam aham [36]

chhalayatam–Of cheats; aham asmi–I am; dyutam–gambling. tejasvinam–Of the splendid; aham asmi–I am; tejah–splendour. asmi–(I) am; jayah–victory; vyavasayah–perseverance; (cha)–and; sattvam–the power of truth; sattva-vatam–of the truthful. [36]

36 I am the gambling of cheats, and the glory of the glorious. I am victory, I am perseverance, and I am the power of truth of the honest.

वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनञ्जयः ।
मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशनाः कविः ॥३७॥

vrsninam vasudevo ’smi pandavanam dhananjayah
muninam apy aham vyasah kavinam usanah kavih [37]

vrsninam–Of the Yadavas; aham asmi–I am; vasudevah–Vasudev; pandavanam–of the Pandavas; dhananjayah–Arjuna; muninam–of the sages; vyasah–Vyasadev; api–and; kavinam–of knowers of the scriptures; usanah kavih–Pandit Sukracharya. [37]

37 Of the Yadavas I am Vasudev, of the Pandavas I am Arjuna, of the sages I am Vyasadev, and of knowers of the scriptures I am Sukracharya.

दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् ।
मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम् ॥३८॥

dando damayatam asmi nitir asmi jigisatam
maunam chaivasmi guhyanam jnanam jnanavatam aham [38]

damayatam–Of law enforcers; aham asmi–I am; dandah–punishment. jigisatam–Of those desiring to conquer; (aham) asmi–I am; nitih–political wisdom. guhyanam–Of all secrets; (aham) asmi–I am; maunam–silence; cha–and; jnana-vatam–of the learned; jnanam eva–(I am) knowledge. [38]

38 I am the punishment meted out by the enforcers of the law, I am the political wisdom of those desiring to conquer. I am the silence of all secrets, I am the wisdom of the wise.

यच्चापि सर्व्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्ज्जुन ।
न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम् ॥३९॥

yach chapi sarva-bhutanam bijam tad aham arjuna
na tad asti vina yat syan maya bhutam characharam [39]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; cha–and; yat–whatever is; bijam–the seed; sarva-bhutanam–of all beings; aham tat api–I am that. yat tat syat–Whatever may exist; chara-acharam–moving and stationary; na asti–there is no; bhutam–existence; maya vina–without Me. [39]

39 O Arjuna, whatever is considered the origin of all beings, I am that. Nothing, whether stationary or moving, can exist without Me.

नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परन्तप ।
एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया ॥४०॥

nanto ’sti mama divyanam vibhutinam parantapa
esa tuddesatah prokto vibhuter vistaro maya [40]

(he) parantapa–O chastiser of the enemy; na asti–there is no; antah–end; mama divyanam vibhutinam–of My divine opulences; esah tu–so; uddesatah–an indication; vistarah–of the expanse; vibhuteh–of these opulences; proktah–has been mentioned; maya–by Me. [40]

40 O conqueror of the enemy, My divine glories have no end. I have given you but an indication of them.

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्ज्जितमेव वा ।
तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसम्भवम् ॥४१॥

yad yad vibhutimat sattvam srimad urjitam eva va
tat tad evavagachchha tvam mama tejo ’msa-sambhavam [41]

yat yat eva–Of each and every; vibhutimat–magnificent; srimat–beautiful; va–or; urjitam–glorious; sattvam–existence; tvam–you; ava-gachchha eva–should know; tat tat–each of them; amsa-sambhavam–as born of a portion; mama tejah–of My power. [41]

41 Know for certain that whatever is magnificent, beautiful or glorious is born of but a fraction of My power.

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्ज्जुन ।
विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत् ॥४२॥

athava bahunaitena kim jnatena tavarjuna
vistabhyaham idam krtsnam ekamsena sthito jagat [42]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; athava–however; tava kim–what is your need; jnatena–of knowing; etena–this; bahuna–elaborately? vistabhya–Supporting; idam–this; krtsnam–entire; jagat–universe; aham sthitah–I am situated; eka-amsena–in My fractional expansion as the Supersoul of material nature—Mahavisnu or Karanarnavasayi Visnu. [42]

42 But, O Arjuna, what is the need of elaborating further on My opulences? I support this entire universe in My fractional expansion as the Supersoul of material nature.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे विभूतियोगो नाम दशमोऽध्यायः ॥१०॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade
vibhuti-yogo nama dasamo ’dhyayah [10]

End of Chapter Ten
The Divine Glories of the Lord
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

एकादशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Eleven

Visva-rupa-darsana-yoga: The Vision of the Universal Form

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

मदनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यमध्यात्मसंज्ञितम् ।
यत्त्वयोक्तं वचस्तेन मोहोऽयं विगतो मम ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

mad-anugrahaya paramam guhyam adhyatma-samjnitam
yat tvayoktam vachas tena moho ’yam vigato mama [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: ayam–this; mama mohah–ignorance of mine, about You; vigatah–has been dispelled; tena–by that; paramam–most; guhyam–secret; vachah–revelation; adhyatma-samjnitam–pertaining to the divine glories of Your Supreme Self; yat–as; uktam–described; tvaya–by You; mat-anugrahaya–out of Your mercy for me.[1]

1 Arjuna said: By Your grace, You have revealed Your hidden treasure to me, and my ignorance of Your Supreme Self has been dispelled.

भवाप्ययौ हि भूतानां श्रुतौ विस्तरशो मया ।
त्वत्तः कमलपत्राक्ष माहात्म्यमपि चाव्ययम् ॥२॥

bhavapyayau hi bhutanam srutau vistaraso maya
tvattah kamala-patraksa mahatmyam api chavyayam [2]

(he) kamala-patra-aksa–O Lord Krishna, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotus flower; hi–certainly; vistarasah–elaborately; bhava-apyayau–the manifestation and withdrawal; bhutanam–of all beings; srutau–has been heard; maya–by me; tvattah–from You; cha–and; (tava)–Your; avyayam–inexhaustible; mahatmyam–glories; api–too; (srutam)–have been heard. [2]

2 O beautiful lotus-eyed Lord, I have heard Your elaborate description of the manifestation and dissolution of the living beings, and I have also heard Your description of Your inexhaustible glories.

एवमेतद्यथात्थ त्वमात्मानं परमेश्वर ।
द्रष्टुमिच्छामि ते रूपमैश्वरं पुरुषोत्तम ॥३॥

evam etad yathattha tvam atmanam paramesvara
drastum ichchhami te rupam aisvaram purusottama [3]

(he) parama-isvara–O Supreme Lord; yatha–as; tvam–You; attha–have spoken; atmanam–of the glories pertaining to Yourself; evam–such; etat–is so; (tathapi)–yet; (he) purusa-uttama–O Supreme Person; (aham) ichchhami–I wish; drastum–to see; te–Your; aisvaram–glorious; rupam–form. [3]

3 O Lord, You have perfectly described Your Supreme Self. Yet, O Purusottam, I wish to see this glorious form of Yours.

मन्यसे यदि तच्छक्यं मया द्रष्टुमिति प्रभो ।
योगेश्वर ततो मे त्वं दर्शयात्मानमव्ययम् ॥४॥

manyase yadi tach chhakyam maya drastum iti prabho
yogesvara tato me tvam darsayatmanam avyayam [4]

(he) prabho–O Lord; yadi–if; manyase iti–You consider; tat–that; sakyam drastum–is possible to be seen; maya–by me; tatah–then; (he) yoga-isvara–O all-powerful one; tvam–You; darsaya–please reveal; avyayam atmanam–Your imperishable Self; me–to me. [4]

4 O Yogesvar, I implore Thee, if You consider it possible for me to see it, please reveal Your imperishable form to me.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

पश्य मे पार्थ रूपाणि शतशोऽथ सहस्रशः ।
नानाविधानि दिव्यानि नानावर्णाकृतीनि च ॥५॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

pasya me partha rupani sataso ’tha sahasrasah
nana-vidhani divyani nana-varnakrtini cha [5]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) partha–O Partha; pasya–see; me–My; satasah–hundreds; atha sahasrasah–of thousands of; divyani–divine; rupani–forms; nana-vidhani–of many kinds; nana-varna-akrtini cha–and many colours and shapes. [5]

5 The Supreme Lord said: O Partha, behold My innumerable divine forms of many kinds, colours, and shapes.

पश्यादित्यान्वसून् रुद्रानश्विनौ मरुतस्तथा ।
बहून्यदृष्टपूर्व्वाणि पश्याश्चर्य्याणि भारत ॥६॥

pasyadityan vasun rudran asvinau marutas tatha
bahuny adrsta-purvani pasyascharyani bharata [6]

(he) bharata–O descendant of Bharat; pasya–see; adityan–the twelve Adityas; vasun–the eight Vasus; rudran–the eleven Rudras; asvinau–the Asvini twins; tatha marutah–and the forty-nine Vayus. pasya–See; bahuni–many; ascharyani–wondrous forms; adrsta-purvani–hitherto unseen. [6]

6 O Bharat, behold the gods—Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Asvini Kumaras, and Vayus. Behold many wondrous forms, hitherto unseen.

इहैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं पश्याद्य सचराचरम् ।
मम देहे गुडाकेश यच्चान्यद्द्रष्टुमिच्छसि ॥७॥

ihaikastham jagat krtsnam pasyadya sa-characharam
mama dehe gudakesa yach chanyad drastum ichchhasi [7]

(he) gudakesa–O conqueror of sleep; krtsnam–the whole; jagat–universe; sa-chara-acharam–including moving and stationary beings; eka-stham–is situated in one place; iha dehe–in this form; mama–of Mine; cha–and; yat–whatever; anyat–else; (tvam)–you; ichchhasi–wish; drastum–to see; pasya–see; (tadapi)–that too; adya–today. [7]

7 O vigilant Arjuna, behold in one place, in this form of Mine, the whole universe of moving and stationary beings, or anything else you desire to see.

न तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुषा ।
दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुः पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ॥८॥

na tu mam sakyase drastum anenaiva svachaksusa
divyam dadami te chaksuh pasya me yogam aisvaram [8]

tu–But; anena–with these; svachaksusa eva–present eyes of yours; (tvam)–you; na sakyase–cannot; drastum–see; mam–Me. dadami–(So) I give; te–you; divyam–divine; chaksuh–eyes. pasya–Behold; me–My; aisvaram–opulences; yogam–of divine potency. [8]

8 But you cannot see Me with these eyes, so I give you divine vision. Behold My divine opulences.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

एवमुक्त्वा ततो राजन्महायोगेश्वरो हरिः ।
दर्शयामास पार्थाय परमं रूपमैश्वरम् ॥९॥

sanjaya uvacha

evam uktva tato rajan maha-yogesvaro harih
darsayamasa parthaya paramam rupam aisvaram [9]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: (he) rajan–O King Dhrtarastra; uktva–speaking; evam–in this way; maha-yoga-isvarah–the omnipotent Supreme Lord; harih–Sri Krishna; tatah–then; darsayamasa–revealed; paramam–His almighty; aisvaram–magnificent; rupam–form; parthaya–to Arjuna. [9]

9 Sanjaya said: O King Dhrtarastra, speaking thus to Arjuna, the omnipotent Supreme Lord Sri Hari revealed His magnificent, almighty form.

अनेकवक्त्रनयनमनेकाद्भुतदर्शनम् ।
अनेकदिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम् ॥१०॥

दिव्यमाल्याम्बरधरं दिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम् ।
सर्व्वाश्चर्य्यमयं देवमनन्तं विश्वतोमुखम् ॥११॥

aneka-vaktra-nayanam anekadbhuta-darsanam
aneka-divyabharanam divyanekodyatayudham [10]

divya-malyambara-dharam divya-gandhanulepanam
sarvascharyamayam devam anantam visvato-mukham [11]

(harih)–The Supreme Lord; (rupam darsayamasa)–revealed His form; aneka-vaktra-nayanam–of many mouths and eyes; aneka-adbhuta-darsanam–many wonders; aneka-divya-abharanam–many effulgent ornaments; divya-aneka-udyata-ayudham–and many raised gleaming weapons; divya-malya-ambara-dharam–resplendently garlanded and dressed; divya-gandha-anulepanam–anointed with celestial fragrances; sarva-ascharya-mayam–all-wonderful; anantam–unlimited; devam–effulgent; visvatah-mukham–and facing all directions of the universe. [10–11]

10–11 The Lord revealed His effulgent, omnipresent, all-wonderful universal form of many mouths and eyes, many marvels, effulgent dress and garlands, anointed with celestial fragrances, many dazzling ornaments, and gleaming upraised weapons.

दिवि सूर्य्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता ।
यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥१२॥

divi surya-sahasrasya bhaved yugapad utthita
yadi bhah sadrsi sa syad bhasas tasya mahatmanah [12]

yadi–If; yugapat–simultaneously; bhah–the effulgence; surya-sahasrasya–of a thousand suns; utthita bhavet–appeared; divi–in the sky; (tarhi)–then; syat–perhaps; sa–that; sadrsi–might resemble; bhasah–the effulgence; tasya maha-atmanah–of this supreme universal form. [12]

12 The brilliance of a thousand suns appearing simultaneously in the sky might resemble the effulgence of this great universal form of the Lord.

तत्रैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं प्रविभक्तमनेकधा ।
अपश्यद्देवदेवस्य शरीरे पाण्डवस्तदा ॥१३॥

tatraika-stham jagat krtsnam pravibhaktam anekadha
apasyad deva-devasya sarire pandavas tada [13]

tada–Then; tatra–there on the battlefield; pandavah–Arjuna; apasyat–saw; sarire–in the body; deva-devasya–of the God of gods; krtsnam–the entire; jagat–universe; eka-stham–situated in one; aneka-dha–variously; pravibhaktam–divided. [13]

13 In that moment, there on the battlefield, Arjuna saw the entire multi-faceted universe in one, within the body of Lord Sri Krishna, the Supreme God of gods.

ततः स विस्मयाविष्टो हृष्टरोमा धनञ्जयः ।
प्रणम्य शिरसा देवं कृताञ्जलिरभाषत ॥१४॥

tatah sa vismayavisto hrsta-roma dhananjayah
pranamya sirasa devam krtanjalir abhasata [14]

tatah–After that; (san)–being; vismaya-avistah–astonished; hrsta-romah–with body hairs standing on end; sah dhananjayah–Arjuna; pranamya–offering obeisances; sirasa–with bowed head; devam–unto Lord Krishna; abhasata–spoke; krta-anjalih–placing his palms together in prayer. [14]

14 Astonished, the hairs of his body standing on end, Arjuna bowed his head in obeisance to Lord Krishna. Placing his palms together, he prayed.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

पश्यामि देवांस्तव देव देहे
सर्व्वांस्तथा भूतविशेषसङ्घान् ।
ब्रह्माणमीशं कमलासनस्थम्
ऋषींश्च सर्व्वानुरगांश्च दिव्यान् ॥१५॥

arjuna uvacha

pasyami devams tava deva dehe
sarvams tatha bhuta-visesa-sanghan
brahmanam isam kamalasana-stham
rsims cha sarvan uragams cha divyan [15]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) deva–O Lord; (aham) pasyami–I see; tava dehe–within Your body; sarvan–all; devan–the demigods; tatha–and; bhuta-visesa-sanghan–all species of life; sarvan–all; divyan rsin–the celestial sages; uragan–and serpents; isam cha–and Mahadev, Lord Siva; brahmanam cha–and Lord Brahma, too; kamala-asana-stham–seated on the lotus flower. [15]

15 Arjuna said: O Lord, I see within Your body the demigods, all species of life, the celestial sages and serpents, Mahadev, and Lord Brahma seated on the lotus flower.

अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रं
पश्यामि त्वां सर्व्वतोऽनन्तरूपम् ।
नान्तं न मध्यं न पुनस्तवादिं
पश्यामि विश्वेश्वर विश्वरूप ॥१॥

aneka-bahudara-vaktra-netram
pasyami tvam sarvato ’nanta-rupam
nantam na madhyam na punas tavadim
pasyami visvesvara visva-rupa [16]

(he) visva-isvara–O Lord of the universe; (he) visva-rupa–O universal form; (aham) pasyami–I see; tvam–You; ananta-rupam–of infinite form; sarvatah–in all directions; aneka-bahu-udara-vaktra-netram–with Your many arms, bellies, mouths, and eyes. punah–Yet; (aham) pasyami–I see; na adim–no beginning; na madhyam–no middle; na antam–and no end; tava–of You. [16]

16 O Lord of the universe, O universal form, in all directions I see Your infinite form of many arms, bellies, mouths and eyes. I see no beginning, middle, or end of You.

किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रिणञ्च
तेजोराशिं सर्व्वतो दीप्तिमन्तम् ।
पश्यामि त्वां दुर्निरीक्ष्यं समन्ताद्
दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिमप्रमेयम् ॥१७॥

kiritinam gadinam chakrinan cha
tejorasim sarvato diptimantam
pasyami tvam durniriksyam samantad
diptanalarka-dyutim aprameyam [17]

(aham) pasyami–I see; tvam–You; samantat–everywhere; kiritinam–with crown; gadinam–club; cha–and; chakrinam–disc; tejah-rasim–a mass of effulgence; sarvatah diptimantam–illuminating all; dipta-anala-arka-dyutim–like the blazing fire of the sun; durniriksyam–difficult to behold; aprameyam–and incomprehensible. [17]

17 I see You everywhere with crown, club, and disc, a mass of effulgence illuminating all like the blazing light of the sun, difficult to behold and incomprehensible.

त्वमक्षरं परमं वेदितव्यं
त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम् ।
त्वमव्ययः शाश्वतधर्म्मगोप्त
सनातनस्त्वं पुरुषो मतो मे ॥१८॥

tvam aksaram paramam veditavyam
tvam asya visvasya param nidhanam
tvam avyayah sasvata-dharma-gopta
sanatanas tvam puruso mato me [18]

tvam paramam aksaram–You are Parabrahma; veditavyam–knowable by the Vedas. tvam param–You are the supreme; nidhanam–reservoir; asya visvasya–of this universe. tvam avyayah–You are the imperishable; sasvata-dharma-gopta–preserver of Vedic sanatan-dharma, the eternal religion. tvam sanatanah–You are the eternal; purusah–Supreme Personality; (iti)–this is; me–my; matah–understanding. [18]

18 You are the Supreme Absolute Truth knowable by the Vedas. You are the supreme reservoir of the universe and the imperishable preserver of the eternal religion described in the Vedas. I now understand You to be the eternal Supreme Personality.

अनादिमध्यान्तमनन्तवीर्य्यम्
अन्तबाहुं शशिसूर्य्यनेत्रम् ।
पश्यामि त्वां दीप्तहुताशवक्त्र
स्वतेजसा विश्वमिदं तपन्तम् ॥१९॥

anadi-madhyantam ananta-viryam
ananta-bahum sasi-surya-netram
pasyami tvam dipta-hutasa-vaktram
svatejasa visvam idam tapantam [19]

(aham) pasyami–I see; tvam–You; anadi-madhya-antam–without beginning, middle, and end; ananta-viryam–infinitely powerful; ananta-bahum–with infinite arms; sasi-surya-netram–and Your eyes are the sun and moon; dipta-hutasa-vaktram–Your mouth of blazing fire; idam visvam–this universe; tapantam–is seared; svatejasa–by Your radiance. [19]

19 I see You without beginning, middle, or end, infinitely powerful with countless arms. Your eyes are the sun and the moon, Your mouth is blazing fire, and the entire universe is seared by Your radiance.

द्यावापृथिव्योरिदमन्तरं हि
व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन दिशश्च सर्व्वाः ।
दृष्ट्वाद्भुतं रूपमिदं तवोग्रं
लोकत्रयं प्रव्यथितं महात्मन् ॥२०॥

dyav aprthivyor idam antaram hi
vyaptam tvayaikena disas cha sarvah
drstvadbhutam rupam idam tavogram
loka-trayam pravyathitam mahatman [20]

hi–Certainly; idam–this; antaram–space between; dyau aprthivyoh–heaven and earth; sarvah disah cha–and all directions; vyaptam–are pervaded; tvaya–by You; ekena–alone. (he) maha-atman–O gracious one; drstva–seeing; idam–this; adbhutam–wondrous; ugram–fearsome; rupam–form; tava–of Yours; loka-trayam–all the three worlds; pravyathitam–are terrified. [20]

20 You alone pervade all directions and all space between heaven and earth. O gracious one, seeing this wondrous and fearsome form of Yours, all the inhabitants of the three worlds are terrified.

अमी हि त्वां सुरसङ्घा विशन्ति
केचिद्भीताः प्राञ्जलयो गृणन्ति ।
स्वस्तीत्युक्त्वा महर्षिसिद्धसङ्घाः
स्तुवन्ति त्वां स्तुतिभिः पुष्कलाभिः ॥२१॥

ami hi tvam sura-sangha visanti
kechid bhitah pranjalayo grnanti
svastity uktva maharsi-siddha-sanghah
stuvanti tvam stutibhih puskalabhih [21]

ami–All these; sura-sanghah–demigods; visanti–are entering; tvam hi–into You; kechit–some; bhitah–fearfully; grnanti–offering prayers; pranjalayah–with cupped hands. su-asti iti uktva–“May auspiciousness come to the world”saying this; maha-rsi-siddha-sanghah–the great sages and perfected beings; stuvanti–are offering prayers; tvam–to You; puskalabhih–by excellent; stutibhih–verses singing Your glories. [21]

21 All the demigods are entering into You, some fearfully offering You prayers with cupped hands. The great sages and perfected beings are singing Your glories in beautiful verses, saying, “May all auspiciousness come to the world.”

रुद्रादित्या वसवो ये च साध्या
विश्वेऽश्विनौ मरुतश्चोष्मपाश्च ।
गन्धर्व्वयक्षासुरसिद्धसङ्घा
वीक्षन्ते त्वां विस्मिताश्चैव सर्व्वे ॥२२॥

rudraditya vasavo ye cha sadhya
visve ’svinau marutas chosmapas cha
gandharva-yaksasura-siddha-sangha
viksante tvam vismitas chaiva sarve [22]

rudra-adityah–The Rudras and the Adityas; vasavah–the Vasus; ye cha (nama)–and those called; sadhyah–the Sadhyas; visve–the Visvadevas; asvinau–the Asvini Kumaras; marutah cha–and the Vayus; usma-pah cha–and the forefather-demigods; gandharva-yaksa-asura-siddha-sanghah cha–and also the Gandharvas, Yaksas, Asuras, and perfected beings; (te) sarve eva–indeed, they all; vismitah–marvel; viksante tvam–to behold You. [22]

22 The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sadhyas, Visvadevas, Asvini Kumaras, Vayus, deities of the forefathers, the Gandharvas, Yaksas, Asuras, and Siddhas—indeed, they all marvel to behold You.

रूपं महत्ते बहुवक्त्रनेत्रं
महाबाहो बहुबाहूरुपादम् ।
बहूदरं बहुदंष्ट्राकरालं
दृष्ट्वा लोकाः प्रव्यथितास्तथाहम् ॥२३॥

rupam mahat te bahu-vaktra-netram
maha-baho bahu-bahuru-padam
bahudaram bahu-damstra-karalam
drstva lokah pravyathitas tathaham [23]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty-armed Krishna; lokah–all; tatha aham–including myself; pravyathitah–are afflicted with fear; drstva–seeing; te–Your; mahat–vast; rupam–form; bahu-vaktra-netram–of many mouths and eyes; bahu-bahu-uru-padam–many arms, thighs, and feet; bahu-udaram–many bellies; bahu-damstra-karalam–and fearful with many teeth. [23]

23 O mighty-armed one, seeing Your vast form of many mouths, eyes, arms, legs, feet, and bellies, fearful with its many teeth, all beings, including myself, are afflicted with fear.

नभःस्पृशं दीप्तमनेकवर्णं
व्यात्ताननं दीप्तविशालनेत्रम् ।
दृष्ट्वा हि त्वां प्रव्यथितान्तरात्मा
धृतिं न विन्दामि शमञ्च विष्णो ॥२४॥

nabhah-sprsam diptam aneka-varnam
vyattananam dipta-visala-netram
drstva hi tvam pravyathitantar-atma
dhrtim na vindami saman cha visno [24]

(he) visno–O pervader of the universe; drstva–seeing; tvam–You; nabhah-sprsam–sky-touching; diptam–dazzling; aneka-varnam–multi-coloured; vyatta-ananam–of gaping mouth; dipta-visala-netram–and huge fiery eye; (aham)–I; pravyathita-antah-atma–with extremely fearful heart; na hi vindami dhrtim samam cha––cannot find equilibrium or peace. [24]

24 O Visnu, seeing Your sky-touching, dazzling form of myriad colours, with gaping mouth and huge fiery eye, my heart trembles with fear, and I cannot find equilibrium or peace.

दंष्ट्राकरालानि च ते मुखानि
दृष्ट्वैव कालानलसन्निभानि ।
दिशो न जाने न लभे च शर्म्म
प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥२५॥

damstra-karalani cha te mukhani
drstvaiva kalanala-sannibhani
diso na jane na labhe cha sarma
prasida devesa jagan-nivasa [25]

drstva eva–Seeing; te–Your; mukhani–mouths; damstra-karalani–ghastly with their teeth; kala-anala sannibhani cha–and resembling the fire of the universal annihilation; (aham)–I; na jane–cannot know; disah–the directions; na labhe–nor can I find; sarma cha–composure. (he) deva-isa–O God of gods; (he) jagat-nivasa–O abode of the universe; (tvam) prasida–be gracious. [25]

25 Seeing Your mouths resembling the fire of the universal annihilation, ghastly with their terrible teeth, I am distraught and have lost my bearings. Be gracious, O Lord of the gods, O abode of the universe.

अमी च त्वां धृतराष्ट्रस्य पुत्राः
सर्व्वे सहैवावनिपालसङ्घैः ।
भीष्मो द्रोणः सूतपुत्रस्तथासौ
सहास्मदीयैरपि योधमुख्यैः ॥२६॥

वक्त्राणि ते त्वरमाणा विशन्त
दंष्ट्राकरालानि भयानकानि ।
केचिद्विलग्ना दशनान्तरेषु
सन्दृश्यन्ते चूर्णितैरुत्तमाङ्गैः ॥२७॥

ami cha tvam dhrtarastrasya putrah
sarve sahaivavanipala-sanghaih
bhismo dronah suta-putras tathasau
sahasmadiyair api yodha-mukhyaih [26]

vaktrani te tvaramana visanti
damstra-karalani bhayanakani
kechid vilagna dasanantaresu
sandrsyante churnitair uttamangaih [27]

ami cha sarve–All these; putrah–sons; dhrtarastrasya–of Dhrtarastra; avani-pala-sanghaih saha eva–along with their allied kings; tatha–as well as; bhismah–Bhisma; dronah–Drona; asau suta-putrah–and that Karna; saha api–along with; yodha-mukhyaih–the chief warriors; asmadiyaih–of our party; tvaramanah–are swiftly; (visanti)–entering; tvam–You; visanti–entering; te–Your; bhayanakani–terrible; vaktrani–mouths; damstra-karalani–of terrible teeth. kechit–Some; samdrsyante–are seen; churnitaih-uttama-angaih–with crushed heads; vilagnah–caught; dasana-antaresu–between the teeth. [26–27]

26–27 The sons of Dhrtarastra, their allied kings, and Bhisma, Drona, and Karna, along with our chief warriors, are all rushing into Your dreadful mouths of terrible teeth. Some can be seen with their heads caught and crushed by Your teeth.

यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः
समुद्रमेवाभिमुखा द्रवन्ति ।
तथा तवामी नरलोकवीरा
विशन्ति वक्त्राण्यभितो ज्वलन्ति ॥२८॥

yatha nadinam bahavo ’mbu-vegah
samudram evabhimukha dravanti
tatha tavami nara-loka-vira
visanti vaktrany abhito jvalanti [28]

yatha–As; bahavah–many; ambu-vegah–currents of water; nadinam–of rivers; abhimukhah (santah)–flowing towards the ocean; dravanti eva–enter; samudram–the ocean; tatha–similarly; ami–all these; nara-loka-virah–heroic men; visanti–are entering; tava–Your; vaktrani–mouths; jvalanti–which are fiery, illuminating; abhitah–all around. [28]

28 As many rivers flow towards the ocean to finally enter into it, so these heroes of the world are entering Your flaming mouths that illuminate all around.

यथा प्रदीप्तं ज्वलनं पतङ्ग
विशन्ति नाशाय समृद्धवेगाः ।
तथैव नाशाय विशन्ति लोकास्
तवापि वक्त्राणि समृद्धवेगाः ॥२९॥

yatha pradiptam jvalanam patanga
visanti nasaya samrddha-vegah
tathaiva nasaya visanti lokas
tavapi vaktrani samrddha-vegah [29]

yatha–As; patangah–insects; samrddha-vegah–are impelled; nasaya–to their destruction; visanti–entering into; pradiptam–blazing; jvalanam–fire; tatha–similarly; lokah api–all the worlds; samrddha-vegah (santah)–are helplessly rushing; visanti–entering into; tava vaktrani–Your mouths; nasaya eva–to certain death. [29]

29 As moths are impelled to their death in blazing fire, similarly, all the worlds are helplessly rushing to certain death, entering into Your mouths.

लेलिह्यसे ग्रसमानः समन्ताल्
लोकान्समग्रान्वदनैर्ज्वलद्भिः ।
तेजोभिरापूर्य्य जगत्समग्रं
भासस्तवोग्राः प्रतपन्ति विष्णो ॥३०॥

lelihyase grasamanah samantal
lokan samagran vadanair jvaladbhih
tejobhir apurya jagat samagram
bhasas tavograh pratapanti visno [30]

(he) visno–O pervader of the universe; (tvam)–You; lelihyase–are relishing; grasamanah–devouring; samagran–all these; lokan–persons, worlds; samantat–in all directions; jvaladbhih vadanaih–with Your flaming mouths. apurya–Filled; tava tejobhih–with Your effulgence; ugrah–of severe; bhasah–glare; samagram jagat–the whole universe; pratapanti–is being seared. [30]

30 O Visnu, with Your flaming mouths, You are relishing devouring all the worlds, Your all-pervading, glaring effulgence searing the entire universe.

आख्याहि मे को भवानुग्ररूपो
नमोऽस्तु ते देववर प्रसीद ।
विज्ञातुमिच्छामि भवन्तमाद्यं
न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम् ॥३१॥

akhyahi me ko bhavan ugra-rupo
namo ’stu te deva-vara prasida
vijnatum ichchhami bhavantam adyam
na hi prajanami tava pravrttim [31]

akhyahi me–Please tell me; kah bhavan–who are You; ugra-rupah–of fearsome form. namah astu–I offer obeisance; te–unto You. (he) deva-vara–O Lord of lords; (tvam) prasida–be gracious. (aham) ichchhami–I wish; vijnatum–to fully know; bhavantam–You; adyam–the Origin; hi–as; (aham)–I; na prajanami–cannot understand; tava–Your; pravrttim–intention. [31]

31 O fearsome one, please tell me who You are. O Lord of the gods, I offer obeisance unto You; please be gracious. I wish to fully know You, the Origin, as I cannot understand your actions.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो
लोकान्समाहर्त्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः ।
ऋतेऽपि त्वां न भविष्यन्ति सर्व्वे
येऽवस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः ॥३२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

kalo ’smi loka-ksaya-krt pravrddho
lokan samahartum iha pravrttah
rte ’pi tvam na bhavisyanti sarve
ye ’vasthitah pratyanikesu yodhah [32]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (aham) asmi–I am; pravrddhah–mighty; kalah–time; loka-ksaya-krt–the destroyer of all beings; pravrttah–engaged; samahartum–to annihilate; lokan–all beings; iha–in this plane. ye yodhah–Of those warriors; avasthitah–present; pratyanikesu–in the enemy army; (te) sarve na bhavisyanti–none will be spared; tvam rte api–despite you. [32]

32 The Supreme Lord said: I am the time, the mighty vanquisher of all, and I am engaged in destroying the worlds. Even if you do not slay them, not one of the warriors in the enemy party will be spared.

तस्मात्त्वमुत्तिष्ठ यशो लभस्व
जित्वा शत्रून्भुङ्क्ष्व राज्यं समृद्धम् ।
मयैवैते निहताः पूर्व्वमेव
निमित्तमात्रं भव सव्यसाचिन् ॥३३॥

tasmat tvam uttistha yaso labhasva
jitva satrun bhunksva rajyam samrddham
mayaivaite nihatah purvam eva
nimitta-matram bhava savyasachin [33]

tasmat–Therefore; tvam–you; uttistha–arise for battle; labhasva–take; yasah–the credit; jitva–and conquering; satrun–the enemies; bhunksva–enjoy; samrddham rajyam–a flourishing kingdom. ete–All these warriors; nihatah–have been slain; maya eva–by Me; purvam eva–long before. (he) savyasachin–O Arjuna, who can skilfully shoot arrows even with his left hand; (tvam)–you; bhava–be; nimitta-matram–but an instrument. [33]

33 So arise! Be glorious! Conquer the enemies and enjoy a flourishing kingdom. All these warriors have already been killed by Me. O Savyasachin, you be but an instrument.

द्रोणञ्च भीष्मञ्च जयद्रथञ्च
कर्णं तथान्यानपि योधवीरान् ।
मया हतांस्त्वं जहि मा व्यथिष्ठा
युध्यस्व जेतासि रणे सपत्नान् ॥३४॥

dronan cha bhisman cha jayadrathan cha
karnam tathanyan api yodha-viran
maya hatams tvam jahi ma vyathistha
yudhyasva jetasi rane sapatnan [34]

tvam–You; jahi–slay; dronam cha–Drona; bhismam cha–Bhisma; jayadratham–Jayadratha; karnam cha–and Karna; tatha–as; anyan api–any other; yodha-viran–warriors desiring battle; hatan–(but already) killed; maya–by Me. ma vyathisthah–Fear not; yudhyasva–fight! jeta asi–You shall conquer; sapatnan–the enemy; rane–in battle. [34]

34 Slay Drona, Bhisma, Jayadratha, Karna, and the many warriors who are as good as slain by Me. Fear not, fight! You will be victorious over the enemy.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

एतच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं केशवस्य
कृताञ्जलिर्वेपमानः किरीटी ।
नमस्कृत्वा भूय एवाह कृष्णं
सगद्गदं भीतभीतः प्रणम्य ॥३५॥

sanjaya uvacha

etach chhrutva vachanam kesavasya
krtanjalir vepamanah kiriti
namaskrtva bhuya evaha krsnam
sagadgadam bhita-bhitah pranamya [35]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: srutva–Hearing; etat vachanam–these words; kesavasya–of Lord Krishna; kiriti–Arjuna; vepamanah–trembling; krta-anjalih (san)–placing the palms of his hands together in prayer; namah-krtva–bowing; bhita-bhitah eva–with a very fearful heart; bhuyah–again; pranamya–offering obeisances; aha–spoke; krsnam–to Lord Krishna; sa-gad-gadam–falteringly. [35]

35 Sanjaya said: Hearing these words of the Lord, the trembling Arjuna bowed his head, placing the palms of his hands together in prayer. With a fearful heart, bowing again, he spoke falteringly.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

स्थाने हृषीकेश तव प्रकीर्त्त्या
जगत्प्रहृष्यत्यनुरज्यते च ।
रक्षांसि भीतानि दिशो द्रवन्ति
सर्व्वे नमस्यन्ति च सिद्धसङ्घाः ॥३६॥

arjuna uvacha

sthane hrsikesa tava prakirtya
jagat prahrsyaty anurajyate cha
raksamsi bhitani diso dravanti
sarve namasyanti cha siddha-sanghah [36]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) hrsikesa–O Lord of the senses of all beings; sthane–rightfully; jagat–the whole world; prahrsyati–is joyful; tava prakirtya–by singing Your glories; cha anurajyate–with love; raksamsi–the demons; bhitani (santah)–being afraid; dravanti–run; disah–in all four directions; cha–and; sarve–all; siddha-sanghah–the perfected beings; namasyanti–offer respects, obeisance. [36]

36 Arjuna said: O Hrsikes, it is fitting that the whole world joyfully sings Your glories with love, the demons flee, scattering in all directions, and the perfected beings offer obeisance to You.

कस्माच्च ते न नमेरन्महात्मन्
गरीयसे ब्रह्मणोऽप्यादिकर्त्त्रे ।
अनन्त देवेश जगन्निवास
त्वमक्षरं सदसत्तत्परं यत् ॥३७॥

kasmach cha te na nameran mahatman
gariyase brahmano ’py adi-kartre
ananta devesa jagan-nivasa
tvam aksaram sad-asat tat param yat [37]

(he) maha-atman–O gracious personality; (he) ananta–O infinite, embodiment of all; (he) deva-isa–O God of gods; (he) jagat-nivasa–O abode of the universe; gariyase–the worshippable; adi-kartre cha–and the creator; brahmanah api–of even Lord Brahma; kasmat (sarve) na nameran–how would they all not bow; te–to You? tvam sat asat–You are the manifest and the unmanifest, the material effect and cause; aksaram–the Imperishable, Brahma; tat param yat–that which is transcendental, the Supreme. [37]

37 And, O gracious one, how would they not bow to You, the worshippable creator of even the creator Lord Brahma? O infinite God of gods, O abode of the universe, You are the manifest, the unmanifest, the Supreme Imperishable.

त्वमादिदेवः पुरुषः पुराणस्
त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम् ।
वेत्तासि वेद्यञ्च परञ्च धाम
त्वया ततं विश्वमनन्तरूप ॥३८॥

tvam adi-devah purusah puranas
tvam asya visvasya param nidhanam
vettasi vedyan cha paran cha dhama
tvaya tatam visvam ananta-rupa [38]

tvam (asi)–You are; adi-devah–the original Lord; puranah purusah–the eternal personality; tvam asi–You are; param–the only; nidhanam–refuge, resting place; asya visvasya–of this universe; vetta–the knower; vedyam cha–and the knowable; param dhama cha–and the supreme abode. (he) ananta-rupa–O Lord of infinite forms; visvam–the universe; tatam–is pervaded; tvaya–by You. [38]

38 You are the eternal origin of all the demigods, and the only refuge of this universe. You alone are the knower and the knowable, and the supreme abode. O Lord of infinite forms, the entire universe is pervaded by You.

वायुर्यमोऽग्निर्वरुणः शशाङ्कः
प्रजापतिस्त्वं प्रपितामहश्च ।
नमो नमस्तेऽस्तु सहस्रकृत्वः
पुनश्च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस्ते ॥३९॥

vayur yamo ’gnir varunah sasankah
prajapatis tvam prapitamahas cha
namo namas te ’stu sahasra-krtvah
punas cha bhuyo ’pi namo namas te [39]

tvam vayuh–You are the god of air; yamah–the god of death; agnih–the god of fire; varunah–the god of the ocean; sasankah–the god of the moon; prajapatih–the universal father, Lord Brahma; prapitamahah cha–and the grandfather, too. namah astu–My obeisances; te–unto You; sahasra-krtvah–thousands of times; punah cha namah–and again obeisances; bhuyah api–and yet again; namah namah–obeisances, obeisances; te–unto You. [39]

39 You are the father and grandfather of all beings, You are air, death, fire, the ocean, and the moon. Obeisances unto You thousands of times, again and yet again.

नमः पुरस्तादथ पृष्ठतस्ते
नमोऽस्तु ते सर्व्वत एव सर्व्व ।
अनन्तवीर्य्यामितविक्रमस्त्वं
सर्व्वं समाप्नोषि ततोऽसि सर्व्वः ॥४०॥

namah purastad atha prsthatas te
namo ’stu te sarvata eva sarva
ananta-viryamita-vikramas tvam
sarvam samapnosi tato ’si sarvah [40]

(he) sarva–O embodiment of all existences; namah–my obeisances; te–unto You; purastat–from the front; atha–and; prsthatah–from the rear. namah astu–I offer obeisances; te–unto You; eva–indeed; sarvatah–from all directions. (he) ananta-virya–O Lord of infinite potency; amita-vikramah–of immeasurable prowess; tvam–You; samapnosi–pervade; sarvam–all; tatah–therefore; asi–You are; sarvah–all. [40]

40 O embodiment of all existences, my obeisances unto You from the front, behind, and all directions. O Lord of unlimited potency and immeasurable prowess, You pervade all, therefore You are all.

सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तं
हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति ।
अजानता महिमानं तवेदं
मया प्रमादात्प्रणयेन वापि ॥४१॥

यच्चावहासार्थमसत्कृतोऽसि
विहारशय्यासनभोजनेषु ।
एकोऽथवाप्यच्युत तत्समक्षं
तत्क्षामये त्वामहमप्रमेयम् ॥४२॥

sakheti matva prasabham yad uktam
he krsna he yadava he sakheti
ajanata mahimanam tavedam
maya pramadat pranayena vapi [41]

yach chavahasartham asatkrto ’si
vihara-sayyasana-bhojanesu
eko ’thavapy achyuta tat-samaksam
tat ksamaye tvam aham aprameyam [42]

ajanata–Not knowing; tava–Your; mahimanam–greatness; idam cha–and this (universal form); pramadat–inadvertantly; pranayena va api–and due to intimacy; sakha iti matva–thinking of You as a friend; yat uktam–whatever has been said; prasabham–rashly; maya–by me; iti–thus: he krsna–“O Krishna; he yadava–Yadava; he sakhe–my friend”; (he) achyuta–O infallible one; yat asat-krtah asi–whatever disrespect I have shown You; avahasa-artham–in jest; vihara-sayya-asana-bhojanesu–in recreation, resting, sitting, eating; ekah–alone; athava–or; api–even; tat-samaksam–in the presence of others; tat–for all this; aham–I; tvam aprameyam ksamaye–beg You, the inconceivable, to please forgive me. [41–42]

41–42 Due to the familarity of affection I have rashly addressed You, “Krishna,” “Yadava,” or “my friend,” ignorant of this Your greatness. O infallible Lord, whatever disrespect I have shown You—in jest, while relaxing, resting, sitting or eating, either alone with You or in company—I beg You, the inconceivable, to please forgive me for that.

पितासि लोकस्य चराचरस्य
त्वमस्य पूज्यश्च गुरुर्गरीयान् ।
न त्वत्समोऽस्त्यभ्यधिकः कुतोऽन्यो
लोकत्रयेऽप्यप्रतिमप्रभाव ॥४३॥

pitasi lokasya characharasya
tvam asya pujyas cha gurur gariyan
na tvat-samo ’sty abhyadhikah kuto ’nyo
loka-traye ’py apratima-prabhava [43]

tvam asi–You are; pita–the father; asya lokasya–of this universe; chara-acharasya–of moving and stationary beings; pujyah–the worshippable; gariyan–most glorious; guruh–teacher; cha–and; api–indeed; na asti–there is no one; tvat-samah–equal to You; loka-traye–within the three worlds; kutah–so how can; anyah–another; abhyadhikah–be superior; (he) apratima-prabhava–O Lord of unrivalled power! [43]

43 You are the father of all living beings, the worshippable and most glorious teacher. You have no equal within these three worlds. How can there be anyone greater than You, O Lord of unrivalled power!

तस्मात्प्रणम्य प्रणिधाय कायं
प्रसादये त्वामहमीशमीड्यम् ।
पितेव पुत्रस्य सखेव सख्युः
प्रियः प्रियायार्हसि देव सोढुम् ॥४४॥

tasmat pranamya pranidhaya kayam
prasadaye tvam aham isam idyam
piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyuh
priyah priyayarhasi deva sodhum [44]

(he) deva–O Lord; tasmat–therefore; kayam pranidhaya–prostrating my body; pranamya–in obeisance; aham prasadaye–I am propitiating; tvam–You; idyam–the worshippable; isam–Lord. iva–As; pita sakha priyah–a father, friend or lover (forgive); putrasya sakhyuh priyayah–(the mistakes) of a son, friend or beloved; (tvam)–You; (tatha) iva–similarly; arhasi–please; sodhum–forgive (me). [44]

44 So I offer my prostrate obeisance unto You, my Lord and worshippable master, praying for Your mercy. Please excuse me as a father, friend, or lover overlooks the mistakes of his son, companion, or beloved.

अदृष्टपूर्व्वं हृषितोऽस्मि दृष्ट्वा
भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे ।
तदेव मे दर्शय देव रूपं
प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥४५॥

adrsta-purvam hrsito ’smi drstva
bhayena cha pravyathitam mano me
tad eva me darsaya deva rupam
prasida devesa jagan-nivasa [45]

(he) deva–O Lord; drstva–seeing; (idam) adrsta-purvam–this previously unseen universal form of Yours; hrsitah asmi–I am joyful; cha–and then again; me–my; manah–mind; bhayena pravyathitam–is distraught with fear. (he) deva-isa–O God of gods; (he) jagat-nivasa–O refuge of the universe; prasida–may You be gracious; darsaya–to show; me–me; tat eva rupam–that form You showed before. [45]

45 O Lord, my heart is joyful to see Your hitherto unseen universal form. Yet, I am afraid. O God of gods, shelter of the universe, be gracious upon me and appear in the form I saw before.

किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तम्
इच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव ।
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन
सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्त्ते ॥४६॥

kiritinam gadinam chakra-hastam
ichchhami tvam drastum aham tathaiva
tenaiva rupena chatur-bhujena
sahasra-baho bhava visva-murte [46]

aham–I; ichchhami–wish; drastum–to see; tvam–You; tatha eva–as previously; kiritinam–with crown; gadinam–club; chakra-hastam–and holding the disc. (he) sahasra-baho–O Lord with a thousand arms; (he) visva-murte–O universal form; bhava–may You appear; tena chatuh-bhujena rupena eva–in that form of four arms. [46]

46 I wish to see You again wearing a crown and holding a club and disc. O thousand-armed Lord, O universal form, please appear in that four-armed form.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

मया प्रसन्नेन तवार्ज्जुनेदं
रूपं परं दर्शितमात्मयोगात् ।
तेजोमयं विश्वमनन्तमाद्यं
यन्मे त्वदन्येन न दृष्टपूर्व्वम् ॥४७॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

maya prasannena tavarjunedam
rupam param darsitam atma-yogat
tejomayam visvam anantam adyam
yan me tvad-anyena na drsta-purvam [47]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; prasannena–being satisfied; idam–this; tejah-mayam–effulgent; anantam–infinite; adyam–and primeval; param–supreme; visvam–universal; rupam–form; me–of Mine; yat–which; na drsta-purvam–was not seen previously; tvat-anyena–by anyone else; darsitam–has been shown; tava–to you; maya–by Me; atma-yogat–by My divine potency, yogamaya. [47]

47 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, to grant you My special favour I have today revealed this effulgent, universal, infinite, and primeval form, by My divine potency. This supreme universal form has never been seen by anyone before.

न वेदयज्ञाध्ययनैर्न दानैर्
न च क्रियाभिर्न तपोभिरुग्रैः ।
एवंरूपः शक्य अहं नृलोके
द्रष्टुं त्वदन्येन कुरुप्रवीर ॥४८॥

na veda-yajnadhyayanair na danair
na cha kriyabhir na tapobhir ugraih
evam-rupah sakya aham nrloke
drastum tvad-anyena kuru-pravira [48]

(he) kuru-pravira–O most valiant of the Kauravas; nr-loke–in this human plane; na veda-yajna-adhyayanaih–neither by study of the Vedas or Vedic sacrifices; na danaih–nor by giving land, etc. in charity; na kriyabhih–nor by rituals; na cha tapobhih ugraih–nor by severe austerity; sakyah–can; aham–I; drastum–be seen; evam-rupah–in such a (universal) form; tvat-anyena–by persons other than you. [48]

48 O Arjuna, most valiant of the Kauravas, no one in this human plane can see this form of Mine that you have seen, neither by study of the Vedas, nor Vedic sacrifices, nor charity, nor rituals, nor severe austerity.

मा ते व्यथा मा च विमूढभावो
दृष्ट्वा रूपं घोरमीदृङ्ममेदम् ।
व्यपेतभीः प्रीतमनाः पुनस्त्वं
तदेव मे रूपमिदं प्रपश्य ॥४९॥

ma te vyatha ma cha vimudha-bhavo
drstva rupam ghoram idrn mamedam
vyapeta-bhih prita-manah punas tvam
tad eva me rupam idam prapasya [49]

te vyatha ma (astu)–Be not bewildered; drstva–seeing; mama rupam–My form; idrk idam ghoram–of such terrible feature; cha–and; ma (astu)–be not; vimudha-bhavah–bewildered. vyapeta-bhih (san)–Being free of fear; prita-manah–and contented; tvam prapasya–behold; idam–this; tat rupam eva–four-armed form; me–of Mine; punah–again. [49]

49 Be not bewildered by seeing this terrible aspect of Mine. Do not fear. Now, with a peaceful heart, behold My four-armed form once again.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

इत्यर्ज्जुनं वासुदेवस्तथोक्त्वा
स्वकं रूपं दर्शयामास भूयः।
आश्वासयामास च भीतमेनं
भूत्वा पुनः सौम्यवपुर्महात्मा ॥५०॥

sanjaya uvacha

ity arjunam vasudevas tathoktva
svakam rupam darsayamasa bhuyah
asvasayamasa cha bhitam enam
bhutva punah saumya-vapur mahatma [50]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: uktva–speaking; iti–thus; arjunam–to Arjuna; vasudevah–Sri Krishna; bhuyah–again; darsayamasa–revealed; tatha svakam rupam–His own form; punah cha–and once again; bhutva–appearing; maha-atma–as the most merciful Sri Krishna; saumya-vapuh–of charming (human) feature, dressed in yellow as familiar to Arjuna; asvasayamasa–He pacified; enam bhitam–the fearful Arjuna. [50]

50 Sanjaya said: Speaking thus to Arjuna, Krishna again revealed His own form. And once again, He revealed His charming personality—the most merciful Sri Krishna (of human feature, adorned with yellow cloth, Kaustubha jewel, and Vaijayanti garland), thus reassuring the fearful Arjuna.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

दृष्ट्वेदं मानुषं रूपं तव सौम्यं जनार्द्दन
इदानीमस्मि संवृत्तः सचेताः प्रकृतिं गतः ॥५१॥

arjuna uvacha

drstvedam manusam rupam tava saumyam janardana
idanim asmi samvrttah sa-chetah prakrtim gatah [51]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) janardana–O Krishna; drstva–seeing; idam–this; saumyam–charming; manusam–human-featured; rupam–form; tava–of Yours; idanim–now; sa-chetah samvrttah–I am pacified; prakrtim gatah asmi–and composed again. [51]

51 Arjuna said: O Janardan, seeing Your beautiful form of human feature I am calm and composed once again.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

सुदुर्द्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मम ।
देवा अप्यस्य रूपस्य नित्यं दर्शनकाङ्क्षिणः ॥५२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

sudurdarsam idam rupam drstavan asi yan mama
deva apy asya rupasya nityam darsana-kanksinah [52]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: idam rupam–this sach-chid-ananda form; mama–of Mine; yat–which; (tvam)–you; drstavan asi–are seeing before you; sudurdarsam–is very rarely seen. devah api–Even the demigods; nityam darsana-kanksinah–ever aspire for a glimpse; asya rupasya–of this form. [52]

52 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, it is very rare that anyone sees this My form which you now behold. Even the gods constantly aspire for a glimpse of this humanlike divine form.

नाहं वेदैर्न तपसा न दानेन न चेज्यया ।
शक्य एवंविधो द्रष्टुं दृष्टवानसि यन्मम ॥५३॥

naham vedair na tapasa na danena na chejyaya
sakya evam-vidho drastum drstavan asi yan mama [53]

na vedaih–Neither by study of the Vedas; na tapasa–nor by severe austerities such as the Chandrayan vow; na danena–nor by giving land, etc. in charity; na ijyaya cha–nor by great sacrifices such as Agnistoma; (kaschit) sakyah–is anyone able; drastum aham–to see Me; evam-vidhah mama–in this eternal form of Mine, of human features; yat–which; (tvam)–you; drstavan asi–are seeing. [53]

53 Neither by study of the Vedas, nor by austerity, charity, and sacrifice can anyone see My eternal humanlike form of the Sweet Absolute as you see Me.

भक्त्या त्वनन्यया शक्य अहमेवंविधोऽर्ज्जुन ।
ज्ञातुं द्रष्टुञ्च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुञ्च परन्तप ॥५४॥

bhaktya tv ananyaya sakya aham evam-vidho ’rjuna
jnatum drastun cha tattvena pravestun cha parantapa [54]

(he) parantapa–O conqueror of the enemy; (he) arjuna–O Arjuna; tu–yet; evam-vidhah–in this form; aham sakyah (asmi)–can I; jnatum–be known; tattvena–in truth; drastum cha–and be seen; pravestum cha–and My Pastimes be entered into; ananyaya–by exclusive; bhaktya–devotion; (bhaktena)–by the pure devotee. [54]

54 O Arjuna, conqueror of the enemy, only by pure devotion is it possible to know Me, see Me, and enter My divine Pastimes.

मत्कर्म्मकृन्मत्परमो मद्भक्तः सङ्गवर्ज्जितः ।
निर्व्वैरः सर्व्वभूतेषु यः स मामेति पाण्डव ॥५५॥

mat-karma-krn mat-paramo mad-bhaktah sanga-varjitah
nirvairah sarva-bhutesu yah sa mam eti pandava [55]

(he) pandava–O son of Pandu; mat-bhaktah–My devotee; yah–who; mat-karma-krt–serves Me; mat-paramah–knowing Me as the supreme; (yah) sanga-varjitah–giving up all attachment to material objects; nirvairah–and free from enmity; sarva-bhutesu–towards all beings; sah–such a person; eti–attains; mam–Me. [55]

55 O Arjuna, My devotee who gives up all attachments and whose heart is totally free from enmity to all beings, who serves Me wholeheartedly, knowing Me as the Supreme, reaches Me.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे विश्वरूपदर्शनयोगो नामैकादशोऽध्यायः ॥११॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade visva-rupa
darsana-yogo namaikadaso ’dhyayah [11]

End of Chapter Eleven
The Vision of the Universal Form
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

द्वादशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Twelve

Bhakti-yoga: The Path of Devotion

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्य्युपासते ।
ये चाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

evam satata-yukta ye bhaktas tvam paryupasate
ye chapy aksaram avyaktam tesam ke yoga-vittamah [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: ye bhaktah–Those devotees who; evam–thus; satata-yuktah–constantly with exclusive devotion; paryupasate–worship; tvam–You, Syamasundar; cha api–or; ye–those who; (paryupasate)–worship; avyaktam–the unmanifest, impersonal; aksaram–imperishable, Brahma; tesam–of these two types of yogis (jnana-yogi and bhakti-yogi); ke–who; yoga-vittamah–is the best knower of yoga? [1]

1 Arjuna inquired: Of those devotees who are constantly engaged in worshipping You (as Syamasundar, Your original humanlike form) with exclusive devotion, and those who worship the impersonal Brahma, who is the best knower of yoga?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते ।
श्रद्धया परयोपेतास्ते मे युक्ततमा मताः ॥२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

mayy avesya mano ye mam nitya-yukta upasate
sraddhaya parayopetas te me yuktatama matah [2]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: ye–Those who; sraddhaya upetah–with faith; paraya–transcendental to the mundane; avesya–have absorbed; manah–the mind; mayi–in thought of Me, Syamasundar; nitya-yuktah–always engaged in exclusive devotion; (iti)–thus; upasate–worship; mam–Me; te–they; yuktatamah–are the best knowers of yoga. (iti)–This is; me–My; matah–opinion. [2]

2 The Supreme Lord said: In My opinion, those who with faith in the divine are absorbed in thought of Me, Syamasundar, and worship Me constantly with exclusive devotion, are the superior knowers of yoga.

ये त्वक्षरमनिर्द्देश्यमव्यक्तं पर्य्युपासते ।
सर्व्वत्रगमचिन्त्यञ्च कूटस्थमचलं ध्रुवम् ॥३॥

सन्नियम्येन्द्रियग्रामं सर्व्वत्र समबुद्धयः ।
ते प्राप्नुवन्ति मामेव सर्व्वभूतहिते रताः ॥४॥

ye tv aksaram anirdesyam avyaktam paryupasate
sarvatra-gam achintyan cha kutastham achalam dhruvam [3]

sanniyamyendriya-gramam sarvatra sama-buddhayah
te prapnuvanti mam eva sarva-bhuta-hite ratah [4]

ye tu–But those who; sanniyamya–fully control; indriya-gramam–all the senses; sama-buddhayah–with equanimity; sarvatra–for everything; ratah–(who are) dedicated; sarva-bhuta-hite–to the welfare of all beings; (iti)–and thus; paryupasate–worship; (me)–My; anirdesyam–indefinable; avyaktam–unmanifest, impersonal; sarvatra-gam–all-pervading; achintyam–inconceivable; kuta-stham–unchanging; achalam–immovable; dhruvam–eternal; aksaram cha–attributeless aspect of Brahma; te eva–they, too; prapnuvanti–attain; mam–Me (as My Brahma effulgence). [3–4]

3–4 However, those who fully control their senses, who are equal-minded towards everything, who are dedicated to the welfare of all beings and thus worship My indefinable, impersonal, all-pervading, inconceivable, unchanging, immovable, eternal, attributeless aspect of Brahma—they, too, attain Me (as Brahma).

Commentary

The Lord’s statement, “The worshippers of Brahma also reach Me,” should not be misconstrued to mean that the impersonalists are on an equal footing with the devotees. The clue as to how the impersonalists can also reach Krishna has been given in the writings of Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur.

A person may progress on the path of selfless action up to the stage of meditation, as described in the first six chapters of the Gita. Then he may undergo great difficulty in searching for the Lord on the path of impersonalism. But when he progresses to the stage of dedicating himself to perform welfare work for others (sarva-bhuta-hite ratah), he may get the chance to render service to a pure devotee.

For example, if one engages in the general public welfare work of opening or running a hospital, if some service is even unknowingly rendered to a devotee of the Lord, a Vaisnava, one’s devotional merit begins (ajnata-sukrti). By association with a devotee (sadhu-sanga), one develops faith in the divine personal form of the Lord, and automatically abandons the attempt of attaining to the impersonal Brahma.

With such faith, one takes shelter of a bona fide Guru, engages in the devotional practices based on hearing and chanting the Holy Name and glories of the Lord, and progresses on the path back to home, back to Godhead. Thus Lord Krishna indicates: “I am the ultimate goal, and Brahma is only a relative position. It is not the final absolute, because the absolute position is Mine. Only if the impersonalists serve others they may thereby come to Me—because the only way to come to Me is through a Vaisnava.”

रहूगणैतत्तपसा न याति
न चेज्यया निर्व्वपणाद्गृहाद्वा ।
न च्छन्दसा नैव जलाग्निसूर्य्यैर्
विना महत्पादरजोऽभिषेकम् ॥

(भा: ५/१२/१२)

rahuganaitat tapasa na yati
na chejyaya nirvapanad grhad va
na chchhandasa naiva jalagni-suryair
vina mahat-pada-rajo ’bhisekam

(SB: 5.12.12)

(The sage Jad Bharat said to King Rahugan:) “O Rahugan, without bathing in the dust of the holy feet (service) of the pure devotees (Mahabhagavat Vaisnavas), one cannot know the Supreme Lord by adopting the religious life of brahmacharya, grhastha, vanaprastha, or sannyas, or by worshipping the gods of water, fire, and sun, etc.”

नैषां मतिस्तावदुरुक्रमाङ्घ्रिं
स्पृशत्यनर्थापगमो यदर्थः ।
महीयसां पादरजोऽभिषेकं
निष्किञ्चनानां न वृणीत यावत्

(भा: ७/५/३२)

naisam matis tavad urukramanghrim
sprsaty anarthapagamo yad arthah
mahiyasam pada-rajo ’bhisekam
niskinchananam na vrnita yavat

(SB: 7.5.32)

(Prahlad Maharaj said:) “As long as persons of mundane mentality have not been bathed by the dust of the feet of Lord Krishna’s surrendered devotees who are free from mundane attachment, they cannot have a touch of Krishna’s lotus feet, which are the destroyer of all obstacles.”

To consider that the Lord has taken the personal and impersonal aspects to be equal is a very commonly committed mistake. In reply to Arjuna’s doubt in this respect, the Lord has clearly stated that the personalists are superior to the impersonalists—yet, the impersonalists are also given a chance to reach Him, because without Him, no ultimate goal exists. Without coming to the path of devotion, the worshippers of impersonal Brahma will reach Brahma, the dazzling effulgence of the divine form of Lord Sri Krishna.

क्लेशोऽधिकतरस्तेषामव्यक्तासक्तचेतसाम् ।
अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते ॥५॥

kleso ’dhikataras tesam avyaktasakta-chetasam
avyakta hi gatir duhkham dehavadbhir avapyate [5]

tesam–For those; avyakta-asakta-chetasam–of minds attached to the unmanifest; (bhavati)–there is; adhikatarah–greater; klesah–struggle; hi–as; avyakta gatih–the way of attaining the unmanifest, the impersonal Brahma; avapyate–is attained; duhkham–with difficulty; dehavadbhih–by the embodied soul. [5]

5 Persons whose minds are attached to the impersonal Brahma must undergo a greater struggle, as the path of attaining the impersonal Brahma is difficult for the embodied soul.

ये तु सर्व्वाणि कर्म्माणि मयि सन्न्यस्य मत्पराः ।
अनन्येनैव योगेन मां ध्यायन्त उपासते ॥६॥

तेषामहं समुद्धर्त्ता मृत्युसंसारसागरात् ।
भवामि नचिरात्पार्थ मय्यावेशितचेतसाम् ॥७॥

ye tu sarvani karmani mayi sannyasya mat-parah
ananyenaiva yogena mam dhyayanta upasate [6]

tesam aham samuddharta mrtyu-samsara-sagarat
bhavami na chirat partha mayy avesita-chetasam [7]

ye tu–But those who; sannyasya–offering; sarvani–all; karmani–actions; mayi–to Me; mat-parah–taking refuge in Me; mam dhyayantah–meditating on Me; ananyena yogena eva–with exclusive devotion; upasate–thus worship (Me); (he) partha–O Arjuna; aham–I; na chirat–without delay; bhavami–become; samuddharta–the deliverer; mrtyu-samsara-sagarat–from the deathly ocean of material suffering; tesam–of those persons; avesita-chetasam–whose hearts are absorbed in thought; mayi–of Me. [6–7]

6–7 But those who offer all their actions to Me, take refuge in Me, their hearts absorbed in thought of Me in pure devotion and who thus worship and adore Me—O Partha, I swiftly deliver such dedicated souls from the deathly ocean of material suffering.

मय्येव मन आधत्स्व मयि बुद्धिं निवेशय ।
निवसिष्यसि मय्येव अत ऊर्ध्वं न संशयः ॥८॥

mayy eva mana adhatsva mayi buddhim nivesaya
nivasisyasi mayy eva ata urdhvam na samsayah [8]

adhatsva–Steady; manah–your mind; mayi eva–in Me alone. nivesaya–Repose; buddhim–your intelligence; mayi (eva)–in Me alone. nivasisyasi–You will abide; mayi eva–in Me; atah urdhvam–hereafter; na samsayah–there is no doubt. [8]

8 So fix your mind in Me always and repose your intelligence in Me, Syamasundar, and you will ultimately abide in Me. Of this there is no doubt.

अथ चित्तं समाधातुं न शक्नोषि मयि स्थिरम् ।
अभ्यासयोगेन ततो मामिच्छाप्तुं धनञ्जय ॥९॥

atha chittam samadhatum na saknosi mayi sthiram
abhyasa-yogena tato mam ichchhaptum dhananjaya [9]

(he) dhananjaya–O Arjuna; atha–if; na saknosi–you are unable; samadhatum–to establish; chittam–your mind; sthiram–resolutely; mayi–in Me; tatah–then; ichchha–seek; aptum–to attain; mam–Me; abhyasa-yogena–by the yoga of constant practice. [9]

9 O Dhananjaya, and if you are unable to firmly fix your mind in Me, try to attain Me by the repeated practice of remembering Me.

अभ्यासेऽप्यसमर्थोऽसि मत्कर्म्मपरमो भव ।
मदर्थमपि कर्म्माणि कुर्व्वन्सिद्धिमवाप्स्यसि ॥१०॥

abhyase ’py asamartho ’si mat-karma-paramo bhava
mad-artham api karmani kurvan siddhim avapsyasi [10]

(yadi)–If; (tvam) asi–you are; asamarthah–unable; abhyase api–to practise remembering Me, too; (tarhi)–then; mat-karma-paramah bhava–concentrate on offering your actions to Me. kurvan api–Also by performing; karmani–actions; mat-artham–for Me; avapsyasi–you will attain; siddhim–perfection. [10]

10 If you cannot do that either, concentrate on offering your actions to Me. You will attain perfection through actions performed for Me.

अथैतदप्यशक्तोऽसि कर्त्तुं मद्योगमाश्रितः ।
सर्व्वकर्म्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान् ॥११॥

athaitad apy asakto ’si kartum mad-yogam asritah
sarva-karma-phala-tyagam tatah kuru yatatmavan [11]

atha–And if; etat api–this, too; asi–is; asaktah–not possible; kartum–to do; tatah–then; mat-yogam asritah (san)–taking shelter in My yoga; yata-atmavan (bhutva)–controlling your mind; sarva-karma-phala-tyagam kuru–give up, for Me, the fruits of all your actions. [11]

11 And if you cannot do that, then resolve to give up, for Me, the fruits of your actions.

श्रेयो हि ज्ञानमभ्यासाज्ज्ञानाद्ध्यानं विशिष्यते ।
ध्यानात्कर्म्मफलत्यागस्त्यागाच्छान्तिरनन्तरम् ॥१२॥

sreyo hi jnanam abhyasaj jnanad dhyanam visisyate
dhyanat karma-phala-tyagas tyagach chhantir anantaram [12]

hi–For; jnanam–Knowledge of Me; sreyah–is better; abhyasat–than practice; dhyanam–meditation on Me; jnanat visisyate–is better than knowledge. karma-phala-tyagah–Giving up, for Me, the fruits of action; dhyanat–comes from meditation. tyagat–From giving up, for Me, the fruits of action; santih–peace ensues; anantaram–thereafter. [12]

12 For knowledge of Me is superior to mere practice, and meditation on Me is superior to knowledge alone; from meditation comes the selflessness of giving up, for Me, the fruits of action, following which peace ensues.

अद्वेष्टा सर्व्वभूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च ।
निर्म्ममो निरहङ्कारः समदुःखसुखः क्षमी ॥१३॥

सन्तुष्टः सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढनिश्चयः ।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥१४॥

advesta sarva-bhutanam maitrah karuna eva cha
nirmamo nirahankarah sama-duhkha-sukhah ksami [13]

santustah satatam yogi yatatma drdha-nischayah
mayy-arpita-mano-buddhir yo mad-bhaktah sa me priyah [14]

yah–One who is; advesta–without hatred; maitrah–friendly; karunah eva cha–and compassionate; sarva-bhutanam–towards all beings; nirmamah–free from possessiveness; nirahankarah–free from ego; sama-duhkha-sukhah–equipoised in unhappy and happy circumstances; ksami–forgiving, tolerant; satatam santustah–ever content; yogi–a yogi; yata-atma–self-controlled; drdha-nischayah–of firm resolve; arpita-mano-buddhih–who has given his mind and intelligence; mayi–to Me; sah–such a person is; mat-bhaktah–My devotee; me priyah–dear to Me. [13–14]

13–14 One who is without hatred, who is friendly and compassionate towards all, free from possessiveness and ego, equipoised in unhappy and happy circumstances, forgiving, always content, a self-controlled yogi of firm resolve who has given his mind and intelligence to Me—such a person is My devotee, and he is dear to Me.

यस्मान्नोद्विजते लोको लोकान्नोद्विजते च यः ।
हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्तो यः स च मे प्रियः ॥१५॥

yasman nodvijate loko lokan nodvijate cha yah
harsamarsa-bhayodvegair mukto yah sa cha me priyah [15]

yasmat–He by whom; lokah–anyone; na udvijate–is not disturbed; yah cha–and he who; na udvijate–is not disturbed; lokat–by anyone; yah cha–and who; muktah–is free; harsa-amarsa-bhaya-udvegaih–from elation, anger, fear, and grief; sah–he is; priyah–dear; me–to Me. [15]

15 One who causes no disturbance to anyone and who is not disturbed by anyone, who is free from elation, anger, fear, and grief—he is dear to Me.

अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्ष उदासीनो गतव्यथः ।
सर्व्वारम्भपरित्यागी यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥१६॥

anapeksah suchir daksa udasino gata-vyathah
sarvarambha-parityagi yo mad-bhaktah sa me priyah [16]

yah–One who is; anapeksah–without expectation; suchih–clean hearted; daksah–able; udasinah–impartial; gata-vyathah–fearless; sarva-arambha-parityagi–and a renouncer of all selfish undertakings; sah–he is; mat-bhaktah–My devotee; me priyah–dear to Me. [16]

16 One who is without expectation, clean hearted, able, impartial, fearless, and a renouncer of all selfish undertakings—he is My devotee, he is dear to Me.

यो न हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।
शुभाशुभपरित्यागी भक्तिमान्यः स मे प्रियः ॥१७॥

yo na hrsyati na dvesti na sochati na kanksati
subhasubha-parityagi bhaktiman yah sa me priyah [17]

yah–One who is; na hrsyati–neither elated; na dvesti–nor resentful; na sochati–neither laments any loss; na kanksati–nor hankers for the unattained; subha-asubha-parityagi–a renouncer of both auspicious and inauspicious acts; yah bhaktiman–and who is endowed with devotion; sah me priyah–he is dear to Me. [17]

17 One who is neither elated nor resentful, who neither laments nor hankers as he has renounced both auspicious and inauspicious endeavours, and who is endowed with devotion—he is dear to Me.

समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः ।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः सङ्गविवर्ज्जितः ॥१८॥

तुल्यनिन्दास्तुतिर्मौनी सन्तुष्टो येन केनचित् ।
अनिकेतः स्थिरमतिर्भक्तिमान्मे प्रियो नरः ॥१९॥

samah satrau cha mitre cha tatha manapamanayoh
sitosna-sukha-duhkhesu samah sanga-vivarjitah [18]

tulya-ninda-stutir-mauni santusto yena kenachit
aniketah sthira-matir bhaktiman me priyo narah [19]

(yah) narah–A person who; samah–sees with equality; satrau cha–an enemy; mitre cha–and a friend; tatha–and similarly; samah–is equipoised; mana-apamanayoh–in honour and dishonour; sita-usna-sukha-duhkhesu–and in the presence of cold, heat, pleasure, and pain; sanga-vivarjitah–who has given up all attachment; tulya-ninda-stutih–and who considers abuse and praise equally; mauni–who is contemplative or of controlled speech; santustah–satisfied; yena kenachit–in any eventuality; aniketah–who has no attachment to hearth and home; sthira-matih–whose mind is peaceful; bhaktiman–and who is endowed with devotion; (sah) me priyah–he is dear to Me. [18–19]

18–19 A person who sees with equality an enemy and friend; who is equipoised in honour and dishonour, and in the presence of cold, heat, pleasure, and pain; who has given up all attachment; who considers abuse and praise equally; who is contemplative; who is satisfied in all circumstances; who has no attachment to hearth and home; whose mind is peaceful, and who is endowed with devotion—he is dear to Me.

ये तु धर्म्मामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्य्युपासते ।
श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः ॥२०॥

ye tu dharmamrtam idam yathoktam paryupasate
sraddadhana mat-parama bhaktas te ’tiva me priyah [20]

ye tu sraddadhanah–Those faithful persons who; paryupasate–adore and follow; idam–this; dharma-amrtam–neatarean path; yatha-uktam–as described; mat-paramah–knowing Me as the supreme goal; te bhaktah–such devotees; ativa–are very; priyah–dear; me–to Me. [20]

20 Those faithful devotees who, knowing Me as the supreme goal of life, wholeheartedly follow the neatarean path I have described, are very dear to Me.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे भक्तियोगो नाम द्वादशोऽध्यायः ॥१२॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade
bhakti-yogo nama dvadaso ’dhyayah [12]

End of Chapter Twelve
The Path of Devotion
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Thirteen

Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga: Distinction Between Matter and Spirit

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

प्रकृतिं पुरुषञ्चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञमेव च ।
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयञ्च केशव ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

prakrtim purusan chaiva ksetram ksetrajnam eva cha
etad veditum ichchhami jnanam jneyan cha kesava [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) kesava–O Kesava; (aham)–I; ichchhami–wish; veditum–to know; etat–about these subjects: prakrtim–material nature; purusam cha eva–and the person; ksetram–the field; ksetra-jnam eva cha–and the knower of the field; jnanam–knowledge; jneyam cha–and the object of knowledge. [1]

1 Arjuna said: O Kesava, I would like to know about material nature, the person, the field, the knower of the field, knowledge, and the object of knowledge.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते ।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ॥२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

idam sariram kaunteya ksetram ity abhidhiyate
etad yo vetti tam prahuh ksetrajna iti tad vidah [2]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; idam sariram–this body; abhidhiyate iti–is called; ksetram–ksetra, or the field. yah vetti–One who knows; etat–this field; tat vidah–the learned; prahuh–describe; tam–him; ksetra-jnah iti–as ksetrajna, the knower of the field. [2]

2 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, this body is known as the field. One who knows this field is described by the learned as the knower of the field.

क्षेत्रज्ञञ्चापि मां विद्धि सर्व्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥३॥

ksetrajnan chapi mam viddhi sarva-ksetresu bharata
ksetra-ksetrajnayor jnanam yat taj jnanam matam mama [3]

(he) bharata–O descendant of the Bharat dynasty; api–further; cha–also; viddhi–know; mam–Me; sarva-ksetresu–within all bodies; ksetra-jnam–as ksetrajna, the knower of the field. yat jnanam–This knowledge; ksetra-ksetrajnayoh–of the field and the knower of the field; tat jnanam–is actual knowledge; mama matam–in My opinion. [3]

3 O Bharat, you should also know Me as the knower of all fields. This knowledge, of the field and of the knower of the field, is true knowledge, in My opinion.

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् ।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु ॥४॥

tat ksetram yach cha yadrk cha yad vikari yatas cha yat
sa cha yo yat prabhavas cha tat samasena me srnu [4]

srnu–Hear; me–from Me; tat samasena–briefly; yat tat ksetram–what that field is; cha–and; yadrk–how is it constituted; cha–and; yat vikari–what its transformations are; cha–and; yatah–wherefrom; yat–it develops; cha–and; yah–who is; sah–that knower of the field; cha–and; yat prabhavah–what his potency is. [4]

4 Now hear from Me briefly what this field is, its constitution, transformations, causes and effects; and who the knower of the field is, and of his potency.

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥५॥

rsibhir bahudha gitam chhandobhir vividhaih prthak
brahma-sutra-padais chaiva hetumadbhir vinischitaih [5]

(tat)–That knowledge of ksetra and ksetrajna; gitam–is sung; vividhaih rsibhih–by many types of sages; bahudha eva–in many ways; prthak chhandobhih–by the different Vedas; brahma-sutra-padaih–and by the aphorisms of Vedanta; vinischitaih–with conclusive; hetumadbhih cha–logic. [5]

5 This has been taught in many ways by various sages, the different Vedas, and the aphorisms of the Brahma-sutra with its conclusive logic.

महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकञ्च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥६॥

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्घातश्चेतना धृतिः ।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥७॥

maha-bhutany ahankaro buddhir avyaktam eva cha
indriyani dasaikan cha pancha chendriya-gocharah [6]

ichchha dvesah sukham duhkham sanghatas chetana dhrtih
etat ksetram samasena sa-vikaram udahrtam [7]

maha-bhutani–The five primary elements; ahankarah–ego; buddhih–intelligence (mahat-tattva); avyaktam eva cha–the unmanifest material nature; dasa indriyani–the ten senses (the five senses of action—voice, hands, legs, anus, and genital; and the five senses of perception—eye, tongue, skin, nose, and ear); ekam cha–and the mind; pancha cha–and the five; indriya-gocharah–corresponding objects of the senses (form, taste, touch, smell, and sound); ichchha–likes; dvesah–dislikes; sukham–happiness; duhkham–unhappiness; sanghatah–the aggregate, the gross body; chetana–consciousness; dhrtih–determination; etat–all these; udahrtam–are described; samasena–in brief; ksetram–as the field; sa-vikaram–with its transformations. [6–7]

6–7 The five primary elements of ether, air, fire, water, and earth; ego, intelligence, and the unmanifest material nature; the ten senses, the mind, and the five objects of the senses; likes, dislikes, happiness, unhappiness, the aggregate, consciousness, and determination—all these are summarily known as the field and its transformations.

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्ज्जवम् ।
आचार्य्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्य्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥८॥

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्कार एव च ।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥९॥

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।
नित्यञ्च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥१०॥

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥११॥

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥१२॥

amanitvam adambhitvam ahimsa ksantir arjavam
acharyopasanam saucham sthairyam atma-vinigrahah [8]

indriyarthesu vairagyam anahankara eva cha
janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi-duhkha-dosanudarsanam [9]

asaktir anabhisv-angah putra-dara-grhadisu
nityan cha sama-chittatvam istanistopapattisu [10]

mayi chananya-yogena bhaktir avyabhicharini
vivikta-desa-sevitvam aratir jana-samsadi [11]

adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam tattva-jnanartha-darsanam
etaj jnanam iti proktam ajnanam yad ato ’nyatha [12]

etat jnanam–The following qualities denote knowledge: amanitvam–the quality of desirelessness for honour; adambhitvam–pridelessness; ahimsa–nonviolence; ksantih–forbearance; arjavam–straightforwardness and simplicity; acharya-upasanam–service to the spiritual master; saucham–purity; sthairyam–steadiness; atma-vinigrahah–self-control; indriya-arthesu vairagyam–detachment from the objects of the senses; anahankarah eva cha–absence of egoism; duhkha-dosa-anudarsanam–awareness of the miseries; janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi–of birth, death, infirmity, and disease; asaktih–worldly detachment; anabhisu-angah–not to dote on; putra-dara-grha-adisu–children, wife, home, etc.; nityam sama-chittatvam cha–constant equanimity; ista-anista-upapattisu–in desirable or undesirable circumstances; cha–and; ananya-yogena–singleminded; avyabhicharini–undeviating; bhaktih–devotion; mayi–to Me; vivikta-desa-sevitam–residing in a solitary place; aratih–indifference; jana-samsadi–to mundane association; adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam–constancy in self-knowledge; tattva-jnana-artha-darsanam–and the vision of the goal of true knowledge; iti–thus; proktam–has been proclaimed; (rsibhih)–by the sages. yat–Anything; anyatha–contrary; atah–to this; ajnanam–is nescience. [8–12]

8–12 Desirelessness for honour, pridelessness, nonviolence, forbearance, honesty, service to the spiritual master, purity, stability, self-control, detachment from the objects of the senses, absence of egoism, awareness of the miseries of birth, disease, old age, and death; worldly detachment, absence of doting on children, wife, home, etc., constant equanimity in desirable or undesirable circumstances, undeviating pure devotion to Me, residing in a solitary place, indifference to mundane association, constancy in self-knowledge, and the vision of the goal of true knowledge—all these qualities have been said to denote knowledge. Anything contrary to this is to be considered ignorance.

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते ।
अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥१३॥

jneyam yat tat pravaksyami yaj jnatvamrtam asnute
anadi mat-param brahma na sat tan nasad uchyate [13]

(aham) pravaksyami–I now describe; tat–that; yat–which; jneyam–is the object of knowledge; jnatva–realising; yat–which; amrtam–the nectar of life; asnute–is attained. tat brahma uchyate–That is known as Brahma; anadi–beginningless, eternal; mat-param–resting in Me; na sat–beyond being, beyond the material effect; na asat–and beyond non-being, beyond the material cause. [13]

13 Now I shall describe the object of knowledge, realising which one attains the nectar of life. Resting in Me, it is known as Brahma, eternal, neither being nor non-being.

सर्व्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्व्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् ।
सर्व्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्व्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥१४॥

sarvatah pani-padam tat sarvato ’ksi-siro-mukham
sarvatah srutimal loke sarvam avrtya tisthati [14]

sarvatah–Everywhere; pani-padam–hands and feet; sarvatah–everywhere; aksi-sirah-mukham–eyes, heads, and mouths; sarvatah–everywhere; srutimat–ears; tat–that object of knowledge; tisthati–exists; avrtya–pervading; sarvam–everything; loke–in the universe. [14]

14 Everywhere are His hands and feet, everywhere are His eyes, heads, mouths, and ears. He pervades the entire universe (as the Supersoul).

सर्व्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्व्वेन्द्रियविवर्ज्जितम् ।
असक्तं सर्व्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥१५॥

sarvendriya-gunabhasam sarvendriya-vivarjitam
asaktam sarva-bhrch chaiva nirgunam guna-bhoktr cha [15]

sarva-indriya-guna-abhasam–(He) illuminates all the senses and their functions; (tad api)–yet; sarva-indriya-vivarjitam–is without (material) senses. asaktam–(Although) aloof; sarva-bhrt cha–(He is) the maintainer of all. nirgunam cha–(Although) transcendental to the modes of nature; guna-bhoktr eva–(He is) the Lord of all qualities. [15]

15 He illuminates all the senses and their functions, yet He is without material senses; He is completely aloof to everything, yet He is the maintainer of all (Visnu); He is transcendental to the three modes of material nature, yet He is the Lord of all qualities.

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥१६॥

bahir antas cha bhutanam acharam charam eva cha
suksmatvat tad avijneyam durastham chantike cha tat [16]

tat–That knowable is; bahih cha–outside; antah–and inside; acharam–stationary; charam eva cha–and moving; bhutanam–beings. suksmatvat–Due to subtlety; tat–that; avijneyam–is difficult to comprehend; antike cha–near; dura-stham cha–yet far. [16]

16 He is situated within and without all moving and stationary beings, near yet far, subtle, and therefore most difficult to comprehend.

अविभक्तञ्च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।
भूतभर्त्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥१७॥

avibhaktan cha bhutesu vibhaktam iva cha sthitam
bhuta-bhartr cha taj jneyam grasisnu prabhavisnu cha [17]

tat avibhaktam–That indivisible; sthitam–appears; vibhaktam iva cha–as divided; bhutesu–in the living beings. (tat eva)–He; jneyam–is to be known; prabha-visnu cha–as the manifestor; bhuta-bhartr cha–the maintainer; grasisnu cha–and the devourer. [17]

17 Although indivisible, He appears as divided in all beings. He is to be known as the one who manifests, maintains, and devours all beings.

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्व्वस्य धिष्ठितम् ॥१८॥

jyotisam api taj jyotis tamasah param uchyate
jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam hrdi sarvasya dhisthitam [18]

tat–He; uchyate–is said to be; jyotih–the illuminator; jyotisam api–of the luminaries; param–beyond; tamasah–the darkness; (tat eva)–He is; jnanam–knowledge; jneyam–the object of knowledge; jnana-gamyam–reached by knowledge (verses 8–12); dhisthitam–situated as the Supersoul; hrdi–within the hearts; sarvasya–of all. [18]

18 He is known as the illuminator of the luminaries, beyond darkness. Situated in the hearts of all beings, He is knowledge, the object of knowledge, reached by knowledge.

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयञ्चोक्तुं समासतः ।
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥१९॥

iti ksetram tatha jnanam jneyan choktum samasatah
mad-bhakta etad vijnaya mad-bhavayopapadyate [19]

iti–Thus; ksetram–the field; jnanam–knowledge; jneyam cha–and the object of knowledge (the Lord in His aspects of Brahma, Paramatma, and Bhagavan); tatha uktam–are described; samasatah–in brief. etat vijnaya–Realising this; mat-bhaktah–My devotee; upapadyate–attains; mat-bhavaya–love for Me. [19]

19 The field, knowledge, and the object of knowledge have been briefly described by Me. Realising these truths, My devotee attains love for Me.

प्रकृतिं पुरुषञ्चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि ।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसम्भवान् ॥२०॥

prakrtim purusan chaiva viddhy anadi ubhav api
vikarams cha gunams chaiva viddhi prakrti-sambhavan [20]

viddhi–Know; ubhau api–both; prakrtim–nature—maya; purusam cha–and the jivatma, individual soul, described as ‘knower of the field’; anadi eva–to be beginningless. viddhi–Know; vikaran cha–the transformations—body, senses, and their functions; gunan eva cha–and the transformations of the modes of nature, as happiness, unhappiness, sorrow, and delusion, etc.; prakrti-sambhavan–as born of material nature. [20]

20 Know that both material nature (maya) and the person (individual soul) are beginningless, and know that the transformations (body, senses, and their functions) and the transformations of the modes of nature (such as pleasure, pain, sorrow, and delusion) are born of material nature.

कार्य्यकारणकर्त्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।
पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥२१॥

karya-karana-kartrtve hetuh prakrtir uchyate
purusah sukha-duhkhanam bhoktrtve hetur uchyate [21]

prakrtih–Material nature (with the presence of purus); uchyate–is said to be; hetuh–the cause; karya-karana-kartrtve–via the presiding demigods of the senses, of the production of the effect, as the body, and of the cause, as the senses. purusah–The person—jiva; uchyate–is said to be; hetuh–the cause; bhoktrtve–of the state of being an enjoyer or a sufferer; sukha-duhkhanam–of happiness and unhappiness. [21]

21 Material nature is said to be the cause of the production of effect (the body) and cause (the senses); the person (in material bondage) is said to be the cause of the condition of being an enjoyer or a sufferer of happiness and unhappiness.

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।
कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥२२॥

purusah prakrti-stho hi bhunkte prakrti-jan gunan
karanam guna-sango ’sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu [22]

prakrti-sthah–Situated within (the body which is an effect of) material nature; purusah hi–a person; bhunkte–enjoys; gunan–the modes; prakrti-jan–born of material nature. guna-sangah–Attachment to the modes (as body, senses, etc.); (bhavati)–is; karanam–the cause; asya–of that person’s; sat-asat-yoni-janmasu–births in higher and lower species. [22]

22 Being situated within material nature, a person enjoys the modes born of material nature. His attachment to these modes is the cause of his repeated births in higher and lower species.

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्त्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥२३॥

upadrastanumanta cha bharta bhokta mahesvarah
paramatmeti chapy ukto dehe ’smin purusah parah [23]

parah purusah–The Supreme Person; upadrasta–witness; anumanta–sanctioner; bharta–support; bhokta–maintainer; maha-isvarah cha–and Supreme Lord; asmin dehe–within this body; api uktah–is also described; iti cha–as; paramatma–Paramatma, the Supersoul. [23]

23 The Supreme Person—the witness, sanctioner, support, guardian, and almighty Lord within this body, is known as Paramatma, the Supersoul.

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिञ्च गुणैः सह ।
सर्व्वथा वर्त्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥२४॥

ya evam vetti purusam prakrtin cha gunaih saha
sarvatha vartamano ’pi na sa bhuyo ’bhijayate [24]

yah–One who; evam vetti–thus knows; purusam–the Supreme Person; prakrtim cha–and material nature; gunaih saha–with its modes; sah–he; vartamanah api–though present; sarvatha–in any situation; na abhijayate–is not born; bhuyah–again. [24]

24 Thus, one who truly knows the Supreme Person and material nature with its modes, will never in any circumstances have to take birth again.

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।
अन्ये साङ्ख्ये न योगेन कर्म्मयोगेन चापरे ॥२५॥

dhyanenatmani pasyanti kechid atmanam atmana
anye sankhyena yogena karma-yogena chapare [25]

kechit–Some; pasyanti–see; dhyanena–by meditation; atmana–by the pure consciousness; atmanam–the Supersoul; atmani–within the heart; anye–others; sankhyena yogena–by sankhya-yoga; apare cha–and yet others; karma-yogena–by karma-yoga. [25]

25 With their pure consciousness, some persons see the Supersoul within the heart, in their meditation. Others perceive Him through enlightenment, and yet others by the yoga of selfless action.

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते ।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥२६॥

anye tv evam ajanantah srutvanyebhya upasate
te ’pi chatitaranty eva mrtyum sruti-parayanah [26]

anye tu–Yet others; ajanantah–not knowing; evam–of all these methods; upasate–worship; srutva–by hearing; anyebhyah–from others. te api–They too; sruti-parayanah (santah)–when their faith is deepened by hearing; atitaranti eva–surpass; mrtyum cha–death. [26]

26 Further, there are those who, not knowing of these methods, engage in worship by hearing the scriptures. When their faith is deepened by such hearing, they, too, surpass the mortal plane.

यावत्सञ्जायते किञ्चित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥२७॥

yavat sanjayate kinchit sattvam sthavara-jangamam
ksetra-ksetrajna-samyogat tad viddhi bharatarsabha [27]

(he) bharatarsabha–O best of the Bharat dynasty; yavat kinchit–whatever; sthavara-jangamam–stationary or moving; sattvam–being; sanjayate–is born; viddhi–know; tat–that; ksetra-ksetrajna-samyogat–as born of the combination of the field and its knower. [27]

27 O Arjuna, best of the Bharatas, whatever is born in the world, whether moving or stationary, know it to be manifest from the combination of the field and its knower.

समं सर्व्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् ।
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥२८॥

samam sarvesu bhutesu tisthantam paramesvaram
vinasyatsv avinasyantam yah pasyati sa pasyati [28]

yah–One who; pasyati–sees; parama-isvaram–the Supreme Lord; tisthantam–situated; samam–equally; sarvesu bhutesu–in all beings; avinasyantam–as the imperishable; vinasyatsu–within the perishable; sah–such a person; pasyati–sees perfectly. [28]

28 One who sees the Supreme Lord situated equally within all beings as the imperishable within the perishable—such a person sees perfectly.

समं पश्यन्हि सर्व्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम् ।
न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥२९॥

samam pasyan hi sarvatra samavasthitam isvaram
na hinasty atmanatmanam tato yati param gatim [29]

(sah) hi–Such a person; pasyan–by seeing; samam–with equality; isvaram–the Lord; samavasthitam–dwelling alike; sarvatra–in every place; na hinasti–does not deceive, deprive; atmanam–himself; atmana–by himself; tatah–and therefore; yati–attains; param gatim–the supreme destination. [29]

29 Such a person with the vision of equality, seeing the Lord dwelling in every place alike, does not deceive himself, and thus he attains the supreme destination.

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्म्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्व्वशः ।
यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्त्तारं स पश्यति ॥३०॥

prakrtyaiva cha karmani kriyamanani sarvasah
yah pasyati tathatmanam akartaram sa pasyati [30]

cha–And; yah–he who; pasyati–sees; tatha–that; sarvasah–all; karmani–actions; kriyamanani–are brought about; eva–only; prakrtya–by material nature; sah–such a person; pasyati–sees; atmanam–himself; akartaram–as non-doer. [30]

30 He who sees that all actions are brought about only by material nature, sees himself as non-doer.

यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति ।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ॥३१॥

yada bhuta-prthag-bhavam eka-stham anupasyati
tata eva cha vistaram brahma sampadyate tada [31]

yada–When; (sah)–such a seer; anupasyati–can see; bhuta-prthak-bhavam–the different types of beings; eka-stham–situated in the one nature; cha–and; (bhutanam) vistaram–the projection of all beings; tatah eva–from that nature; tada–then; brahma sampadyate–the state of Brahma is reached. [31]

31 When such an enlightened person realises that the different types of beings are situated within the one nature and that all are made manifest from that nature, he attains realisation of Brahma.

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः ।
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥३२॥

anaditvan nirgunatvat paramatmayam avyayah
sarira-stho ’pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate [32]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; anaditvat–because of eternality; nirgunatvat–and being transcendental to the material modes; avyayah–and inexhaustible; ayam–the; paramatma–Supersoul; sarira-sthah api–although present within the field; na karoti–neither acts; na lipyate–nor is affected by any action. [32]

32 O Arjuna, since the Supersoul is beginningless, transcendental, and inexhaustible, although also present within the field (with the individual soul), He neither acts nor is affected by any action.

यथा सर्व्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते ।
सर्व्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥३३॥

yatha sarva-gatam sauksmyad akasam nopalipyate
sarvatravasthito dehe tathatma nopalipyate [33]

yatha–As; sarva-gatam–the all-pervading; akasam–space; na upalipyate–is not tainted by anything, is untouched; sauksmyat–due to its subtleness; tatha–similarly; atma–atma, the soul; avasthitah–situated; sarvatra–pervading; dehe–the body; na upalipyate–is not tainted or touched. [33]

33 As the most subtle element of space pervades everything yet is not tainted by anything, similarly, the soul, though pervading the body, is not tainted by it.

यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः ।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥३४॥

yatha prakasayaty ekah krtsnam lokam imam ravih
ksetram ksetri tatha krtsnam prakasayati bharata [34]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; yatha–as; ekah–the one; ravih–sun; prakasayati–illuminates; imam–this; krtsnam–entire; lokam–world; tatha–similarly; ksetri–the occupier of the field; prakasayati–illuminates; krtsnam–the entire; ksetram–field. [34]

34 O Bharat, as the one sun illuminates the entire world, the occupier of the field illuminates the entire field.

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षञ्च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥३५॥

ksetra-ksetrajnayor evam antaram jnana-chaksusa
bhuta-prakrti-moksan cha ye vidur yanti te param [35]

ye–Those who; jnana-chaksusa–through the eyes of knowledge; evam viduh–can thus know; antaram–the distinction; ksetra-ksetrajnayoh–between the field and its knower; cha–and (can thus know); bhuta-prakrti-moksam–the way of liberation of the living beings from material nature; te–they; yanti–attain; param–the Supreme. [35]

35 Those who, through the eyes of knowledge, can thus distinguish between the field and the knower of the field, and who can thus know the path of liberation of the living beings from material nature—such persons attain the Supreme.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे प्रकृतिपुरुषविवेकयोगो नाम त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः ॥१३॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade prakrti-
purusa-viveka-yogo nama trayodaso ’dhyayah [13]

End of Chapter Thirteen
Distinction between Matter and Spirit
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

चतुर्द्दशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Fourteen

Gunatraya-vibhaga-yoga: The Three Divisions of Material Nature

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

परं भूयः प्रवक्ष्यामि ज्ञानानां ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ।
यज्ज्ञात्वा मुनयः सर्व्वे परां सिद्धिमितो गताः ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

param bhuyah pravaksyami jnananam jnanam uttamam
yaj jnatva munayah sarve param siddhim ito gatah [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: bhuyah–Again; (aham) pravaksyami–I shall speak; param–the supreme; jnanam–knowledge, teaching; uttamam–the highest; jnananam–of all fields of knowledge; jnatva–knowing; yat–which; sarve–all; munayah–the sages; gatah–attained; param–ultimate; siddhim–perfection; itah–beyond this mundane plane. [1]

1 The Supreme Lord said: Again, I shall describe to you the supreme teaching, the highest of all fields of knowledge, knowing which the sages attained the ultimate perfection beyond this mundane plane.

इदं ज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्म्यमागताः ।
सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च ॥२॥

idam jnanam upasritya mama sadharmyam agatah
sarge ’pi nopajayante pralaye na vyathanti cha [2]

upasritya–Taking refuge in; idam–this; jnanam–knowledge; (jivah)–the living being; agatah (santah)–attaining; sadharmyam–the same (spiritual) nature; mama–as Mine; na upajayante–is neither born; sarge api–in the universal manifestation; na vyathanti–nor suffers; pralaye cha–in the universal dissolution. [2]

2 By taking refuge in this knowledge, the soul attains to My nature. Then he is neither born in the cosmic manifestation, nor does he suffer (death) in the cosmic dissolution.

मम योनिर्महद्ब्रह्म तस्मिन्गर्भं दधाम्यहम् ।
सम्भवः सर्व्वभूतानां ततो भवति भारत ॥३॥

mama yonir mahad-brahma tasmin garbham dadhamy aham
sambhavah sarva-bhutanam tato bhavati bharata [3]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; mahat-brahma–primordial matter; mama yonih–is My place of impregnation; tasmin–into which; aham–I; dadhami–cast; garbham–the seed. tatah–From there; sambhavah–the birth; sarva-bhutanam–of all living beings; bhavati–occurs. [3]

3 O Bharat, I place the seed within My womb of primordial matter from which all living beings take birth.

सर्व्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्त्तयः सम्भवन्ति याः ।
तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता ॥४॥

sarva-yonisu kaunteya murtayah sambhavanti yah
tasam brahma mahad yonir aham bija-pradah pita [4]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; yah murtayah–of all forms which; sambhavanti–are born; sarva-yonisu–of the wombs of all species; tasam–their; yonih–womb; mahat brahma–is primordial matter; aham–and I; bija-pradah–the seed-giving; pita–father. [4]

4 O Kaunteya, primordial matter is the original womb of all life-forms that are born of the wombs of all species, and I am the seed-giving father.

सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसम्भवाः ।
निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥५॥

sattvam rajas tama iti gunah prakrti-sambhavah
nibadhnanti maha-baho dehe dehinam avyayam [5]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; gunah–the qualities; sattvam rajah tamah iti–known as goodness, passion, and ignorance; prakrti-sambhavah–manifest from material nature; nibadhnanti–bind; avyayam–the immutable; dehinam–resident of the body; dehe–within the body. [5]

5 O mighty hero, Arjuna, the three modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance, born of material nature, bind the immutable spirit soul within the body.

तत्र सत्त्वं निर्म्मलत्वात्प्रकाशकमनामयम् ।
सुखसङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञानसङ्गेन चानघ ॥६॥

tatra sattvam nirmalatvat prakasakam anamayam
sukha-sangena badhnati jnana-sangena chanagha [6]

(he) anagha–O sinless one; tatra–among these three; nirmalatvat–due to purity; sattvam–the mode of goodness; prakasakam–illuminating; anamayam–and wholesome; badhnati–binds; (dehinam)–the embodied living being; sukha-sangena–with happiness; jnana-sangena cha–and knowledge. [6]

6 O sinless one, of these three modes, due its purity, the mode of goodness is illuminating and wholesome, conditioning one to happiness and knowledge.

रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्गसमुद्भवम् ।
तन्निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्म्मसङ्गेन देहिनम् ॥७॥

rajo ragatmakam viddhi trsna-sanga-samudbhavam
tan nibadhnati kaunteya karma-sangena dehinam [7]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; viddhi–know; rajah–the mode of passion; raga-atmakam–as the embodiment of desire; trsna-sanga-samudbhavam–born of hankering and attachment. tat–That rajo-guna mode of passion; nibadhnati–binds; dehinam–the embodied; karma-sangena–by action. [7]

7 O son of Kunti, know the mode of passion to be the embodiment of desire. Born of hankering and attachment, it conditions one to action.

तमस्त्वज्ञानजं विद्धि मोहनं सर्व्वदेहिनाम् ।
प्रमादालस्यनिद्राभिस्तन्निबध्नाति भारत ॥८॥

tamas tv ajnana-jam viddhi mohanam sarva-dehinam
pramadalasya-nidrabhis tan nibadhnati bharata [8]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; viddhi tu–and know; tamah–the mode of ignorance; ajnana-jam–born of darkness; mohanam–the delusion; sarva-dehinam–of all the embodied beings; tat–that; nibadhnati–binds; (dehinam)–the living being; pramada-alasya-nidrabhih–with delusion, laziness, and sleep. [8]

8 And, O Bharat, know the mode of ignorance, born of darkness, to be the ignorance of all the embodied beings, conditioning them to delusion, laziness, and slumber.

सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रजः कर्म्मणि भारत ।
ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे सञ्जयत्युत ॥९॥

sattvam sukhe sanjayati rajah karmani bharata
jnanam avrtya tu tamah pramade sanjayaty uta [9]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; sattvam–the mode of goodness; sanjayati–dominates; (dehinam)–the embodied living being; sukhe–with happiness; rajah–and the mode of passion; karmani–with action; tu–but; tamah–the mode of ignorance; avrtya–covering; jnanam–knowledge; sanjayati uta–binds one; pramade–with illusion. [9]

9 O Arjuna, the mode of goodness conditions the embodied being to happiness, and the mode of passion conditions him to action. But the mode of ignorance covers his knowledge and traps him in illusion.

रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत ।
रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा ॥१०॥

rajas tamas chabhibhuya sattvam bhavati bharata
rajah sattvam tamas chaiva tamah sattvam rajas tatha [10]

(he) bharata–O Arjuna; sattvam–the mode of goodness; bhavati–appears; abhibhuya–defeating; rajah tamah cha–the modes of passion and ignorance. rajah–The mode of passion; (bhavati)–appears; (abhibhuya)–defeating; sattvam tamah eva cha–goodness and ignorance too. tatha–Similarly; tamah–ignorance; (abhibhuya bhavati)–defeats; sattvam rajah–goodness and passion. [10]

10 O Bharat, goodness overcomes passion and ignorance, passion overcomes goodness and ignorance, and ignorance overcomes goodness and passion. Each mode in turn defeats the others in an unending battle for supremacy.

सर्व्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन्प्रकाश उपजायते ।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्याद्विवृद्धं सत्त्वमित्युत ॥११॥

sarva-dvaresu dehe ’smin prakasa upajayate
jnanam yada tada vidyad vivrddham sattvam ity uta [11]

yada–When; prakasah–illumination; jnanam–of knowledge; upajayate–appears; sarva-dvaresu–in the gateways (the senses); asmin dehe–of this body; tada–then; vidyat iti uta–know by that symptom; sattvam–the mode of goodness; vivrddham–has increased. [11]

11 When the gateways of the body are illuminated with knowledge, know this to be the manifestation of the mode of goodness.

लोभः प्रवृत्तिरारम्भः कर्म्मणामशमः स्पृहा ।
रजस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे भरतर्षभ ॥१२॥

lobhah pravrttir arambhah karmanam asamah sprha
rajasy etani jayante vivrddhe bharatarsabha [12]

(he) bharatarsabha–O most noble of the Bharat dynasty; rajasi vivrddhe–with a predominance of the mode of passion; etani–all these symptoms; jayante–are manifest: lobhah–greed; pravrttih–exertion; arambhah–undertaking; karmanam–of activities; asamah–unrest; sprha–and hankering. [12]

12 O Arjuna, most noble of the Bharat dynasty, know that when the mode of passion predominates in a person, greed, exertion, undertaking of activities, unrest, and hankering become manifest.

अप्रकाशोऽप्रवृत्तिश्च प्रमादो मोह एव च ।
तमस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे कुरुनन्दन ॥१३॥

aprakaso ’pravrttis cha pramado moha eva cha
tamasy etani jayante vivrddhe kuru-nandana [13]

(he) kuru-nandana–O descendant of Kuru; tamasi vivrddhe–by the force of the mode of ignorance; etani–all these symptoms; jayante–are manifest: aprakasah–dullness; apravrttih cha–inactivity; pramadah–delusion; mohah eva cha–and bewilderment. [13]

13 O Kuru Nandan, by the influence of the mode of ignorance, all the symptoms of dullness, inactivity, delusion, and bewilderment become manifest.

यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देहभृत् ।
तदोत्तमविदां लोकानमलान्प्रतिपद्यते ॥१४॥

yada sattve pravrddhe tu pralayam yati deha-bhrt
tadottama-vidam lokan amalan pratipadyate [14]

yada–When; deha-bhrt–the embodied; pravrddhe (sati)–having developed; sattve–goodness; yati–reaches; pralayam–death; tada tu–then; amalan–the pure; lokan–planes; uttama-vidam–of persons of higher knowledge (worshippers of Hiranyagarbha [Brahma], etc.); pratipadyate–are attained. [14]

14 If a person dies in a state of the mode of goodness, he goes to the pure planes where those who have higher knowledge reside.

रजसि प्रलयं गत्वा कर्म्मसङ्गिषु जायते ।
तथा प्रलीनस्तमसि मूढयोनिषु जायते ॥१५॥

rajasi pralayam gatva karma-sangisu jayate
tatha pralinas tamasi mudha-yonisu jayate [15]

(jivah) pralayam gatva–When a person dies; rajasi (pravrddhe)–with a predominance of the mode of passion; jayate–he is born; karma-sangisu–as a human attached to action. tatha–Similarly; pralinah (san)–dying; tamasi (vivrddhe)–when the mode of ignorance predominates; jayate–one takes birth; mudha-yonisu–in the lower species. [15]

15 When a person dies in the mode of passion, he takes birth as a human attached to worldly activity. If one dies in the mode of ignorance, he takes birth in the lower species.

कर्म्मणः सुकृतस्याहुः सात्त्विकं निर्म्मलं फलम् ।
रजसस्तु फलं दुःखमज्ञानं तमसः फलम् ॥१६॥

karmanah sukrtasyahuh sattvikam nirmalam phalam
rajasas tu phalam duhkham ajnanam tamasah phalam [16]

(panditah)–The learned; ahuh–proclaim; phalam–the fruit; sukrtasya karmanah–of good works; nirmalam–is pure; sattvikam–and of the nature of goodness; tu phalam–and the fruit; rajasah–of passionate action; duhkham–is sorrow; phalam (cha)–and the fruit; tamasah–of ignorant action; ajnanam–is ignorance. [16]

16 It is said by the learned that good actions result in purity, passionate actions result in sorrow, and ignorant actions lead to darkness.

सत्त्वात्सञ्जायते ज्ञानं रजसो लोभ एव च ।
प्रमादमोहौ तमसो भवतोऽज्ञानमेव च ॥१७॥

sattvat sanjayate jnanam rajaso lobha eva cha
pramada-mohau tamaso bhavato ’jnanam eva cha [17]

sattvat–From goodness; jnanam–knowledge; cha eva–and; rajasah–from passion; lobhah–greed; sanjayate–is born; tamasah (cha)–and from ignorance; pramada-mohau–delusion and bewilderment; bhavatah–arise; ajnanam eva cha–and a lack of knowledge; (bhavati)–ensues. [17]

17 From the mode of goodness, knowledge arises; from the mode of passion, greed; and from the mode of ignorance, delusion, bewilderment, and a lack of knowledge ensue.

ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्वस्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः ।
जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः ॥१८॥

urdhvam gachchhanti sattva-stha madhye tisthanti rajasah
jaghanya-guna-vrtti-stha adho gachchhanti tamasah [18]

sattva-sthah–Persons situated in the mode of goodness; gachchhanti–go; urdhvam–up (to Satyaloka). rajasah–Those in the mode of passion; tisthanti–remain; madhye–in the middle (as humans). tamasah–Persons in the mode of ignorance; jaghanya-guna-vrtti-sthah–tending to lower qualities; gachchhanti–go; adhah–down (suffer). [18]

18 Persons in goodness ascend (up to Satyaloka), those in passion remain in the middle (as humans), and the unfortunate, ignorant persons fall to the lower planes (of suffering).

नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्त्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति ।
गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति ॥१९॥

nanyam gunebhyah kartaram yada drastanupasyati
gunebhyas cha param vetti mad-bhavam so ’dhigachchhati [19]

yada–When; drasta–the living being, the witness; anupasyati–sees; na anyam–nothing else; gunebhyah–but the three modes of nature; kartaram–as the doer; cha–and; vetti–is able to know; param–the Lord, transcendental; gunebhyah–to the modes; (tada)–then; sah–he; adhigachchhati–attains; mat-bhavam–My nature (My bhava-bhakti). [19]

19 When a person sees the three modes to be the only impetus of this world, and knows the Supreme Lord, transcendental to the modes, then he comes to love Me with devotion.

गुणानेतानतीत्य त्रीन्देही देहसमुद्भवान् ।
जन्ममृत्युजरादुःखैर्विमुक्तोऽमृतमश्नुते ॥२०॥

gunan etan atitya trin dehi deha-samudbhavan
janma-mrtyu-jara-duhkhair vimukto ’mrtam asnute [20]

dehi–The embodied living being; atitya–transcending; etan trin gunan–these three modes of nature; deha-samudbhavan–that appear in the body; vimuktah (san)–being liberated; janma-mrtyu-jara-duhkhaih–from the miseries of birth, death, and old age; asnute–knows the joy of; amrtam–immortality, love transcendental (nirguna prema). [20]

20 Transcending these modes manifest in the body, he is liberated from the miseries of birth, death, and old age, and knows the joy of immortality.

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

कैर्लिङ्गैस्त्रीन्गुणानेतानतीतो भवति प्रभो ।
किमाचारः कथं चैतांस्त्रीन्गुणानतिवर्त्तते ॥२१॥

arjuna uvacha

kair lingais trin gunan etan atito bhavati prabho
kim acharah katham chaitams trin gunan ativartate [21]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) prabho–O Lord; kaih lingaih–by what symptoms; bhavati (jneyah)–can be known; atitah–a person who has transcended; etan–these; trin–three; gunan–modes? kim acharah–How does he behave? katham cha–and how; ativartate–does he transcend; etan–these; trin gunan–three modes? [21]

21 Arjuna said: O Lord, what are the symptoms of a person transcendental to these three modes of material nature? How does he behave, and how does he transcend the modes?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

प्रकाशञ्च प्रवृत्तिञ्च मोहमेव च पाण्डव ।
न द्वेष्टि सम्प्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति ॥२२॥

उदासीनवदासीनो गुणैर्यो न विचाल्यते ।
गुणा वर्त्तन्त इत्येवं योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते ॥२३॥

समदुःखसुखः स्वस्थः समलोष्ट्राश्मकाञ्चनः ।
तुल्यप्रियाप्रियो धीरस्तुल्यनिन्दात्मसंस्तुतिः ॥२४॥

मानापमानयोस्तुल्यस्तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः ।
सर्व्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते ॥२५॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

prakasan cha pravrttin cha moham eva cha pandava
na dvesti sampravrttani na nivrttani kanksati [22]

udasinavad asino gunair yo na vichalyate
guna vartanta ity evam yo ’vatisthati nengate [23]

sama-duhkha-sukhah svasthah sama-lostrasma-kanchanah
tulya-priyapriyo dhiras tulya-nindatma-samstutih [24]

manapamanayos tulyas tulyo mitrari-paksayoh
sarvarambha-parityagi gunatitah sa uchyate [25]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord replied: (he) pandava–O son of Pandu; yah–one who; na dvesti–neither resents; prakasam cha–illumination (the effect of goodness); pravrttim cha–activation (the effect of passion); moham eva cha–and delusion (the effect of ignorance); sampravrttani–when they appear; na kanksati–nor hankers for them; nivrttani–when they disappear; yah–one who; asinah (san)–remaining; udasinavat–as unconcerned; na vichalyate–is not perturbed; gunaih–by the modes; avatisthati–remains poised; na ingate–without wavering; iti evam (jnatva)–knowing that; gunah–the modes; vartate–are engaged in their functions; (yah)–one who; sama-duhkha-sukhah–is equipoised in happiness and unhappiness; svasthah–is situated within the self; sama-lostra-asma-kanchanah–with the vision of equality towards earth, stone, or gold; tulya-priya-apriyah–equipoised in desirable and undesirable circumstances; dhirah–wise; tulya-ninda-atma-samstutih–balanced with regard to abuse and praise; tulyah mana-apamanayoh–balanced in honour and dishonour; tulyah–balanced; mitra-ari-paksayoh–toward friend and foe; sarva-arambha-parityagi–and is a renouncer of all mundane endeavours; sah–that person; uchyate–is described; guna-atitah–as transcendental to the modes of material nature. [22–25]

22–25 The Supreme Lord replied: O Pandava, it is said that a person who has transcended the three modes of material nature neither resents illumination, activation, and delusion when they appear, nor does he hanker for them when they withdraw. Poised in the knowledge that the modes are engaging, he is not distracted by them; he remains unperturbed, unconcerned. Remaining self-satisfied, he sees joy and sorrow equally; he sees earth, rock, or gold with the vision of equality; he is wise, equipoised in desirable and undesirable circumstances, abuse and praise, honour and dishonour; he behaves fairly with friend and foe alike, and he renounces all mundane endeavours.

माञ्च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते ।
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥२६॥

man cha yo ’vyabhicharena bhakti-yogena sevate
sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate [26]

yah–One who; bhakti-yogena–by the yoga of devotion; avyabhicharena–without deviation; sevate–renders service; mam cha–unto Me (the Supreme Lord Syamasundar); sah–that person; samatitya–transcending; etan–these; gunan–modes; kalpate–becomes qualified; brahma-bhuyaya–to know his internal divine identity (chit-svarup-siddhi). [26]

26 A person who, without deviation, serves Me with devotion, transcends the three modes of material nature and becomes qualified to know his internal divine identity.

ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहममृतस्याव्ययस्य च ।
शाश्वतस्य च धर्म्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च ॥२७॥

brahmano hi pratisthaham amrtasyavyayasya cha
sasvatasya cha dharmasya sukhasyaikantikasya cha [27]

hi–For; aham pratistha–I am the basis; brahmanah–of the Absolute Truth; avyayasya cha–and of the inexhaustible; amrtasya–nectar; sasvatasya cha–and of the eternal; dharmasya–divine Pastimes; aikantikasya sukhasya cha–and of the ultimate ecstasy of divine love. [27]

27 I am the basis of the Absolute Truth, the inexhaustible nectar, the eternal Pastimes, and the ultimate ecstasy of divine love.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे गुणत्रयविभागयोगो नाम चतुर्द्दशोऽध्यायः ॥१४॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade gunatraya
vibhaga-yogo nama chaturdaso ’dhyayah [14]

End of Chapter Fourteen
The Three Divisions of Material Nature
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

पञ्चदशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Fifteen

Purusottama-yoga: The Supreme Person

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम् ।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित् ॥१॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

urdhva-mulam adhah-sakham asvattham prahur avyayam
chhandamsi yasya parnani yas tam veda sa veda-vit [1]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: prahuh–It is said in the scriptures (when describing this material world): urdhva-mulam–“The roots are uppermost as it is rooted in aversion to the highest principle, the Supreme Lord; adhah-sakham–the branches face downwards, representing all beings from Lord Brahma down to the lowest species; avyayam–and it is endless (for those who desire the independence to enjoy the fruits of their actions); asvattham–yet transient; (for a person with devotion to the Lord) it will be ‘gone tomorrow’. chhandamsi–The ritualistic verses of the Vedas; parnani–are represented by the protective leaves; yasya–of the Asvattha or Peepul tree of this material world.” yah–One who; veda–knows; tam–that tree; sah–he; veda-vit–is a knower of the Vedas. [1]

1 The Supreme Lord said: It is said in the scriptures that this material world is like a Peepul tree, roots up, branches down, endless, yet transient. Its leaves represent the nourishing verses of the Vedas. One who knows this tree is a knower of the Vedas.

Commentary

The roots of the tree of this world are said to face upwards—its root cause is the highest plane. It is manifest by the potency of the Supreme Lord. However, it is rooted in aversion to the Lord. Its branches are said to face downwards since according to the law of karma all species of life from the highest to the lowest branch out from it. It is known as an Asvattha tree. The word asvattha means ‘ephemeral,’ or ‘that which does not remain in the same state for even a day.’ Yet, it is endless* in the sense that it constantly appears in the natural flow of cause and effect. The leaves of the tree represent the fruitive verses of the Vedas (karma-kanda). As the leaves of a tree nourish and beautify it, these verses similarly encourage and illuminate the world.

The external potency of the Lord, maya, is eternal, and it manifests this world. Yet the world itself is perishable inasmuch as it again becomes unmanifest. Although the fruitive verses of the Vedas provide its nourishment, their underlying purpose is rather to enlighten the conditioned souls to take shelter of the Supreme Lord who is transcendental to the mundane. Thus, one who knows these fundamental principles is a knower of the true essence of the Vedas.

*The Peepul tree is known for its longevity.

अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखा
गुणप्रवृद्धा विषयप्रवालाः ।
अधश्च मूलान्यनुसन्ततानि
कर्म्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके ॥२॥

adhas chordhvam prasrtas tasya sakha
guna-pravrddha visaya-pravalah
adhas cha mulany anusantatani
karmanubandhini manusya-loke [2]

tasya sakhah–Its branches, representing the living beings; visaya-pravalah–with shoots, representing the objects of the senses; guna-pravrddhah–nourished by the three modes of nature; adhah prasrtah–extend downwards as the planes of human, animal, and lower species; urdhvam cha–and upwards, as the planes of higher celestial beings. karma-anubandhini–According to religious and irreligious actions; mulani–some roots, as aerial roots; anusantatani–as a secondary causal factor, as the search to enjoy the fruits of actions, have extended; adhah cha–downwards also; manusya-loke–in the human plane. [2]

2 Some of its branches extend upwards (as the planes of the demigods and celestial beings), some of the branches extend downwards (as the planes of the humans, animals, and lower species), and nourished by three modes of nature, its shoots are the objects of the senses. Some aerial roots also extend downwards, to take root in the land of karma, within the human plane.

Commentary

Within the expansive manifestation of this ‘perishable yet endless’ world, some of the living beings are nourished by the mode of goodness, and they wander throughout the upper planes, in the ego of gods and celestial beings. Others, influenced by the modes of passion and ignorance, are wandering throughout the planes of the humans, animals, trees, and lower species, assuming the identities of those species. The shoots of the tree of this world represent the objects of the senses—sound, smell, touch, taste, and form, as transformations of the five primary subtle elements (pancha-tanmatra) produced from the ego of the living beings.

The principal roots face upwards, inverted, indicating aversion to the Supreme Lord. Further, some aerial roots face downward, entering the land of karma in the human plane. These represent the humans’ attempt to enjoy the fruits of their actions, and these aerial roots nourish the tree as a separate, secondary cause.

न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते
नान्तो न चादिर्न च सम्प्रतिष्ठा ।
अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूलम्
असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा ॥३॥

ततः पदं तत्परिमार्गितव्यं
यस्मिन्गता न निवर्त्तन्ति भूयः ।
तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी ॥४॥

na rupam asyeha tathopalabhyate
nanto na chadir na cha sampratistha
asvattham enam suvirudha-mulam
asanga-sastrena drdhena chhittva [3]

tatah padam tat parimargitavyam
yasmin gata na nivartanti bhuyah
tam eva chadyam purusam prapadye
yatah pravrttih prasrta purani [4]

iha–Within this world; tatha rupam–that inverted form; asya–of the Asvattha tree representing this world; na upalabhyate–cannot be realised (through any method except Vedic knowledge); (asya) antah na–nor its end; adih cha na–nor its origin; sampratistha cha na–nor its continuance. chhittva–Cutting down; enam suvirudha-mulam–this stubbornly rooted (in aversion to the Supreme Lord); asvattham–perishable tree of the material world; drdhena–with the sharp; asanga-sastrena–axe of detachment acquired from sadhu-sanga, association of saints; tatah–and thereafter; yasmin gatah (santah)–having reached that plane from which; (kechid api)–one; na nivartanti–does not return; bhuyah–again; parimargitavyam–one should approach for shelter; tat padam–the holy feet of Lord Visnu; (ekanta bhaktya)–with exclusive devotion; (iti evam)–in this way: prapadye–“I surrender unto; tam eva cha–Him alone; adyam–the original; purusam–Supreme Person; yatah–from whose illusory energy; (esa)–this; purani–perpetual; pravrttih–manifestation; prasrta–has appeared.” [3–4]

3–4 In the human plane, this inverted form of the Peepul tree of this material world is inconceivable (without Vedic knowledge)—neither its beginning, nor its middle, nor its end can be perceived. From the association of devotees, one acquires the sharp axe of detachment from the mundane. Using this weapon to cut down that illusory tree of one’s mundane existence which is stubbornly rooted in aversion to the Supreme Lord, one attains to the plane of no return, which is the lotus feet of the Lord. With pure devotion, one should approach the holy lotus feet of the Supreme Lord Visnu for shelter, and pray, “I surrender unto the Original Person, the Supreme Lord of all, by whose illusory potency (maya) this perpetual tree of the material world has appeared.”

निर्म्मानमोहा जितसङ्गदोषा
अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः ।
द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैर्
गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत् ॥५॥

nirmana-moha jita-sanga-dosa
adhyatma-nitya vinivrtta-kamah
dvandvair vimuktah sukha-duhkha-samjnair
gachchhanty amudhah padam avyayam tat [5]

nirmana-mohah (santah)–Having become free from pride and delusion; jita-sanga-dosah–free from the defect of unholy association; adhyatma-nityah–dedicated to self-realisation; vinivrtta-kamah–completely free from desire; vimuktah–completely liberated; dvandvaih–from the dualities; sukha-duhkha-samjnaih–known as joy and sorrow; amudhah–thus undeluded; (te)–those surrendered souls; gachchhanti–reach; tat–that; avyayam–eternal; padam–goal. [5]

5 Free from vanity and delusion, aloof to unholy association, dedicated to self-realisation, desireless, liberated from the duality of joy and sorrow, undeluded, those surrendered souls reach the eternal goal.

न तद्भासयते सूर्य्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः ।
यद्गत्वा न निवर्त्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥६॥

na tad bhasayate suryo na sasanko na pavakah
yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama [6]

tat mama–That is My; paramam–all-illuminating; dhama–holy abode; gatva–having reached; yat–which; (prapannah)–the surrendered souls; na nivartante (tatah)–never return from there. suryah–The sun; na bhasayate–cannot illuminate; tat–that; na sasankah–nor the moon; na pavakah–nor fire. [6]

6 The surrendered souls reach My eternal abode, never to return to this world. Neither sun, nor moon, nor fire—nothing can illuminate that all-illuminating supreme abode.

ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः ।
मनः षष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति ॥७॥

mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah
manah sasthanindriyani prakrti-sthani karsati [7]

eva–Certainly; jiva-bhutah–the spirit soul living being is; mama–My; sanatanah–eternal; amsah–particle, potency. jiva-loke–In this world; karsati–it attracts, adopts; prakrti-sthani–the mundane; manah sasthani indriyani–six perceptual senses including the mind. [7]

7 The soul is a particle (potency) of Mine. Although it is eternal, for worldly existence it adopts the five mundane senses and the mind, which is the sixth.

शरीरं यदवाप्नोति यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः ।
गृहीत्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गन्धानिवाशयात् ॥८॥

sariram yad avapnoti yach chapy utkramatisvarah
grhitvaitani samyati vayur gandhan ivasayat [8]

yat sariram–Regarding any body which; isvarah–the soul, as master of the body; avapnoti–obtains; yat cha api–and from which; utkramati–it departs; (tada)–then; grhitva–taking; etani–these six senses; vayuh iva–as the wind; gandhan–carries fragrance; asayat–from its source, such as a flower; (sarirantaram) samyati–it goes to enter another body. [8]

8 The soul is the master of the body. When it departs the body, it goes to enter another, carrying these (subtle) senses, as the wind carries fragrance from its source.

श्रोत्रञ्चक्षुः स्पर्शनञ्च रसनं घ्राणमेव च ।
अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते ॥९॥

srotran chaksuh sparsanan cha rasanam ghranam eva cha
adhisthaya manas chayam visayan upasevate [9]

adhisthaya–Presiding over; srotram–the ear; chaksuh–eye; sparsanam–skin; rasanam cha–tongue; ghranam eva cha–and nose; manah cha–and also the mind; ayam–this soul; upasevate–enjoys; visayan–the objects of the senses—sound, etc. [9]

9 Presiding over the ear, eye, skin, tongue, and nose, and also the mind, the living entity enjoys the sense objects of sound, form, touch, taste, and smell.

उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वापि भुञ्जानं वा गुणान्वितम् ।
विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः ॥१०॥

utkramantam sthitam vapi bhunjanam va gunanvitam
vimudha nanupasyanti pasyanti jnana-chaksusah [10]

vimudhah–Those thus deluded; na anupasyanti–cannot see; (jivam)–the soul; utkramantam–when departing the body; sthitam va api–or residing in the body; bhunjanam va–or enjoying; guna-anvitam–in association with the senses and their objects. jnana-chaksusah–Persons with the eyes of wisdom; pasyanti–see. [10]

10 Those who are thus deluded cannot see the soul when it is departing the body, residing in the body, or when enjoying through the senses in the body. Those with the eyes of wisdom can see.

यतन्तो योगिनश्चैनं पश्यन्त्यात्मन्यवस्थितम् ।
यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यन्त्यचेतसः ॥११॥

yatanto yoginas chainam pasyanty atmany avasthitam
yatanto ’py akrtatmano nainam pasyanty achetasah [11]

cha–And; yatantah–the perseverent, sincere; yoginah–yogis—seekers; pasyanti–see; enam–this soul; avasthitam–situated; atmani–within. yatantah api–But despite endeavouring; achetasah–those of poor understanding; akrta-atmanah–lacking self-control; na pasyanti–cannot see; enam–this soul. [11]

11 And the sincere seekers see the soul present within. But persons of poor understanding and lacking in self-control cannot see the soul, despite their endeavours.

यदादित्यगतं तेजो जगद्भासयतेऽखिलम् ।
यच्चन्द्रमसि यच्चाग्नौ तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम् ॥१२॥

yad aditya-gatam tejo jagad bhasayate ’khilam
yach chandramasi yach chagnau tat tejo viddhi mamakam [12]

yat tejah–That effulgence which; aditya-gatam–emanates from the sun; bhasayate–and illuminates; akhilam jagat–the entire universe; yat chandramasi cha–and which is in the moon; yat agnau (cha)–and which is in fire; viddhi–know; tat tejah–that effulgence; mamakam–as Mine. [12]

12 The light of the sun that illuminates the entire universe, the light of the moon, and the radiance of fire—know that to be Mine.

गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा ।
पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्व्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः ॥१३॥

gam avisya cha bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa
pusnami chausadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakah [13]

avisya cha–Entering; gam–the earth; aham–I; dharayami–maintain; bhutani–the living beings; ojasa–by My potency. bhutva cha–And becoming; rasa-atmakah–the essential; somah–moon; (aham) pusnami–I nourish; sarvah–all; ausadhih–crops. [13]

13 Entering the earth, I maintain all beings by My potency; and in the form of the life-giving moon, I nourish the crops.

अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहमाश्रितः ।
प्राणापानसमायुक्तःपचाम्यन्नं चतुर्विधम् ॥१४॥

aham vaisvanaro bhutva praninam deham asritah
pranapana-samayuktah pachamy annam chatur-vidham [14]

bhutva–Becoming; vaisvanarah–the power of digestion; aham–I; asritah–entering into; praninam deham–the bodies of the living beings; pachami–digest; chatuh-vidham annam–the four types of foodstuffs; prana-apana-samayuktah–through the agency of the ascending and descending vital airs. [14]

14 Entering into the bodies of the living beings as the power of digestion, I digest the four types of eatables (chewed, sucked, licked, and drunk), through the agency of the ascending and descending vital airs.

सर्व्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्ठो
मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनञ्च ।
वेदैश्च सर्व्वैरहमेव वेद्यो
वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम् ॥१५॥

sarvasya chaham hrdi sannivistho
mattah smrtir jnanam apohanan cha
vedais cha sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedanta-krd veda-vid eva chaham [15]

aham cha sannivistah–I am situated as the indwelling monitor, the Supersoul; hrdi–within the heart; sarvasya–of all beings. (jivasya)–The living being’s; smrtih–remembrance; jnanam–knowledge; apohanam cha–and the disappearance of both; mattah–arise from Me; aham eva cha vedyah–and I alone am the object to be known; sarvaih vedaih–by means of all the Vedas. aham eva vedanta-krt–In the form of Vedavyas, I am the revealer of the Vedanta; veda-vit cha–and the knower of the meaning of the Vedas. [15]

15 I am situated (as the Supersoul) within the heart of all souls, and from Me arises the soul’s remembrance, knowledge, and forgetfulness (according to his actions). I alone am the Sweet Absolute to be known through all the Vedas. I am the revealer of the Vedanta—Vedavyas, and I am the knower of the Vedas.

द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च ।
क्षरः सर्व्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ॥१६॥

dvav imau purusau loke ksaras chaksara eva cha
ksarah sarvani bhutani kutastho ’ksara uchyate [16]

loke–In the fourteen worlds; imau dvau eva–only these two types of; purusau–conscious entities; (sthah)–exist: ksarah cha–the perishable; aksarah cha–and the imperishable. (tayoh)–Of the two; sarvani bhutani–all beings, from Lord Brahma down to the lowest stationary beings; uchyate–are described; ksarah–as perishable, as they are fallen from their true nature; kuta-sthah–and the associates of the Lord, situated in their eternally perfect nature; (uchyate)–are described; aksarah–as imperishable; (vidvadbhih)–by the knowledgeable. [16]

16 In this world, there are two types of beings: the perishable and the imperishable. All beings from Lord Brahma down to the lowest stationary life-forms are known as perishable (as they are fallen from their true nature). But those who are situated in their eternal, spiritual nature are known as imperishable (eternal associates of the Lord).

उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः ।
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ॥१७॥

uttamah purusas tv anyah paramatmety udahrtah
yo loka-trayam avisya bibharty avyaya isvarah [17]

anyah tu–But otherwise; uttamah–the Supreme; purusah–Person; udahrtah–is described; iti–as; paramatma–the Supersoul, Aksara-purus, or the Supreme Imperishable Personality; isvarah–the Lord: yah–who; avisya–entering; loka-trayam–the three worlds; avyayah–in His eternal form; bibharti–is maintaining all beings. [17]

17 But completely distinct from both these types of beings is the Supreme Person, who is known as Paramatma, the Supersoul. He is the Supreme Lord. Entering the three worlds in His eternal form, He maintains all beings in the universe.

यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः ।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥१८॥

yasmat ksaram atito ’ham aksarad api chottamah
ato ’smi loke vede cha prathitah purusottamah [18]

yasmat–Because; aham atitah–I am transcendental to; ksaram–the perishable beings; cha–and; (aham) uttamah–I am superior; aksarat api–to the liberated souls, too; atah–therefore; prathitah asmi–I am glorified; loke–in the world; vede cha–and in the Vedas; purusottamah–as Purusottam, the Supreme Person. [18]

18 Because I am transcendental to the perishable beings and also superior to My imperishable eternal associates, My glories are sung in the world and in the scriptures as Purusottam, the Supreme Person.

यो मामेवमसम्मूढो जानाति पुरुषोत्तमम् ।
स सर्व्वविद्भजति मां सर्व्वभावेन भारत ॥१९॥

yo mam evam asammudho janati purusottamam
sa sarva-vid bhajati mam sarva-bhavena bharata [19]

(he) bharata–O descendant of Bharat; yah–one who; asammudhah (san)–being free from delusion; janati–knows; mam–Me; evam purusottamam–as the Supreme Person; sah sarva-vit–that knower of complete essential truth; bhajati–worships; mam–Me; sarva-bhavena–in all ways (in all spiritual relationships). [19]

19 O Bharat, one who is free from delusion and knows Me as the Supreme Person of eternal, all-conscious, ecstatic form, is the perfect knower of full-fledged theism, and he worships Me in all ways (in the spiritual relationships of tranquillity, servitorship, friendship, parenthood, and consorthood).

इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयानघ ।
एतद्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत ॥२०॥

iti guhyatamam sastram idam uktam mayanagha
etad buddhva buddhiman syat krta-krtyas cha bharata [20]

(he) anagha–O sinless one; iti–in this way; idam–this; guhyatamam–most hidden; sastram–purport of all the scriptures; uktam–has been described; maya–by Me. (he) bharata–O Bharat; etat buddhva–taking this to heart; buddhiman–the intelligent persons of fine theistic temperament; krta-krtyah cha syat–attain their goal. [20]

20 O pure hearted Arjuna, I have thus explained to you this most hidden treasure of all the scriptures. O Bharat, embracing this in their hearts, the persons of fine theistic intelligence attain the perfection of their endeavours.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे पुरुषोत्तमयोगो नाम पञ्चदशोऽध्यायः ॥१५॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade purusottama-
yogo nama panchadaso ’dhyayah [15]

End of Chapter Fifteen
The Supreme Person
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

षोडशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Sixteen

Daivasura-sampad-vibhaga-yoga: The Godly and Ungodly Natures

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः ।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्ज्जवम् ॥१॥

अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् ।
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्द्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥२॥

तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता ।
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥३॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

abhayam sattva-samsuddhir jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih
danam damas cha yajnas cha svadhyayas tapa arjavam [1]

ahimsa satyam akrodhas tyagah santir apaisunam
daya bhutesv aloluptvam mardavam hrir achapalam [2]

tejah ksama dhrtih saucham adroho natimanita
bhavanti sampadam daivim abhijatasya bharata [3]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) bharata–O Arjuna; (ete gunah) bhavanti–these are the qualities; abhijatasya–of a person born to a destiny; daivim sampadam–blessed with godliness: abhayam–fearlessness; sattva-samsuddhih–gracious-heartedness; jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih–absorption in the yoga of knowledge (13.8–12); danam–generosity; damah cha–sense-control; yajnah cha–sacrifice; svadhyayah–study of the Vedas; tapah–austerity; arjavam–straightforwardness; ahimsa–nonviolence; satyam–truthfulness; akrodhah–freedom from anger; tyagah–worldly detachment; santih–mental control, tranquillity; apaisunam–freedom from finding fault in others; daya–compassion; bhutesu–for all beings; aloluptvam–absence of greed; mardavam–gentleness; hrih–modesty; achapalam–steadfastness; tejah–vigour; ksama–forgiveness; dhrtih–patience; saucham–external and internal purity; adrohah–freedom from malice; na ati-manita–and freedom from conceit. [1–3]

1–3 The Supreme Lord said: O Bharat, these are the qualities of a person born of a godly nature: fearlessness, gracious-heartedness, absorption in self-knowledge, generosity, sense-control, sacrifice, study of the Vedas, austerity, sincerity, nonviolence, truthfulness, freedom from anger, worldly detachment, tranquillity, disinclination to see the faults of others, compassion, freedom from greed, gentleness, modesty, steadfastness, vigour, forgiveness, patience, purity, and freedom from malice and egoism.

दम्भो दर्पोऽभिमानश्च क्रोधः पारुष्यमेव च ।
अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ सम्पदमासुरीम् ॥४॥

dambho darpo ’bhimanas cha krodhah parusyam eva cha
ajnanam chabhijatasya partha sampadam asurim [4]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; (ete gunah bhavanti)–these are the (impure) characteristics; abhijatasya–of a person born to a destiny; asurim sampadam–of the ungodly nature: dambhah–pride (of religiosity, etc); darpah–conceit (on account of one’s knowledge, wealth, or high birth); abhimanah cha–considering oneself worshippable; krodhah–anger; parusyam eva cha–mercilessness; ajnanam cha–and ignorance. [4]

4 O Partha, these are the qualities of a person born of an ungodly nature: pride, conceit, egoism, anger, cruelty, and ignorance.

दैवी सम्पद्विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता ।
मा शुचः सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातोऽसि पाण्डव ॥५॥

daivi sampad vimoksaya nibandhayasuri mata
ma suchah sampadam daivim abhijato ’si pandava [5]

daivi sampat–The godly qualities; mata–are described; vimoksaya–as the cause of liberation; asuri (cha)–and the demoniac qualities; nibandhaya–as the cause of bondage. (he) pandava–O son of Pandu; (tvam)–you; abhijatah asi–are born to a destiny; daivim sampadam–of the godly and virtuous qualities; ma suchah–so do not fear. [5]

5 The godly qualities have been described as the cause of liberation, and the ungodly qualities have been described as the cause of bondage. O Pandava, do not fear, for you are born of a godly nature.

द्वौ भूतसर्गौ लोकेऽस्मिन्दैव आसुर एव च ।
दैवो विस्तरशः प्रोक्त आसुरं पार्थ मे शृणु ॥६॥

dvau bhuta-sargau loke ’smin daiva asura eva cha
daivo vistarasah prokta asuram partha me srnu [6]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; dvau eva bhuta-sargau–these two natures of beings; (drsyate)–are seen; asmin loke–in this material world: daivah–the godly nature; asurah cha—and the ungodly. daivah–The godly nature; proktah–has been described; vistarasah–elaborately. srnu–Now hear; me–from Me; asuram–of the ungodly nature. [6]

6 O Partha, in this world the living beings are of two natures—the godly and the ungodly. I have elaborately described the godly nature to you, so now hear from Me about the ungodly:

प्रवृत्तिञ्च निवृत्तिञ्च जना न विदुरासुराः ।
न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते ॥७॥

pravrttin cha nivrttin cha jana na vidur asurah
na saucham napi chacharo na satyam tesu vidyate [7]

asurah janah–Persons of demoniac nature; na viduh–do not know; pravrttim cha–right action; nivrttim cha–and wrong action. na vidyate–There is neither; saucham–purity; na–nor; acharah api–good practices; na satyam cha–nor truthfulness; tesu–in them. [7]

7 The ungodly cannot distinguish between right and wrong action. No purity, good practices, or truthfulness can be found in them.

असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम् ।
अपरस्परसम्भूतं किमन्यत्कामहेतुकम् ॥८॥

asatyam apratistham te jagad ahur anisvaram
aparaspara-sambhutam kim anyat kama-hetukam [8]

te–They, the persons of demoniac nature; ahuh–say: jagat asatyam–“The world is without truth; apratistham–baseless; anisvaram–godless; aparaspara-sambhutam–and everything is born of male and female union. kama-hetukam–The reason for existence is lust alone. kim anyat–What is there beyond this?” [8]

8 The persons of ungodly nature say the world is without truth, baseless, godless, and that everything is born of male and female union. They say that life has no purpose beyond lust.

एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः ।
प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्म्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः ॥९॥

etam drstim avastabhya nastatmano ’lpa-buddhayah
prabhavanty ugra-karmanah ksayaya jagato ’hitah [9]

avastabhya–Holding; etam–such; drstim–a view; (asurah)–the demons; nasta-atmanah–depraved; alpa-buddhayah–of low intelligence; ugra-karmanah–of cruel acts; ahitah–of inauspicious nature; prabhavanti–become powerful; ksayaya–for the destruction; jagatah–of the world. [9]

9 Holding such a view, the demons, depraved and of low intelligence, become powerful and engage in cruel, inauspicious acts for the destruction of the world.

काममाश्रित्य दुष्पूरं दम्भमानमदान्विताः ।
मोहाद्गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्त्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः ॥१०॥

kamam asritya duspuram dambha-mana-madanvitah
mohad grhitvasad-grahan pravartante ’suchi-vratah [10]

asritya–Giving themselves up to; duspuram–insatiable; kamam–desire; (te)–such demons; dambha-mana-mada-anvitah–full of vanity, pride, and arrogance; mohat–deluded; asat-grahan grhitva–by eagerness for mundane enjoyment; pravartante–engage; asuchi-vratah–in grave malpractices. [10]

10 Giving themselves up to the delusion of insatiable desires for mundane enjoyment, such demons, full of vanity, pride, and arrogance, engage in grave malpractices.

चिन्तामपरिमेयाञ्च प्रलयान्तामुपाश्रिताः ।
कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः ॥११॥

आशापाशशतैर्बद्धाः कामक्रोधपरायणाः ।
ईहन्ते कामभोगार्थमन्यायेनार्थसञ्चयान् ॥१२॥

chintam aparimeyan cha pralayantam upasritah
kamopabhoga-parama etavad iti nischitah [11]

asa-pasa-satair baddhah kama-krodha-parayanah
ihante kama-bhogartham anyayenartha-sanchayan [12]

pralaya-antam–Until death; upasritah–overwhelmed with; aparimeyam cha–unlimited; chintam–cares; (te)–they; nischitah iti–consider that; etavat–only; kama-upabhoga-paramah–enjoyment of desires is the ultimate. baddhah–Bound; asa-pasa-sataih–by the snares of hundreds of wishes; kama-krodha-parayanah–overcome with desire and anger; (te) ihante–they try; artha-sanchayan–to amass wealth; anyayena–unlawfully; kama-bhoga-artham–for the fulfillment of their desires. [11–12]

11–12 Until death they remain burdened with endless cares. They think that mundane enjoyment is the goal of life. Bound by hundreds of wishes and overcome with desire and anger, they endeavour to amass wealth unlawfully to fulfill their desires.

इदमद्य मया लब्धमिदं प्राप्स्ये मनोरथम् ।
इदमस्तीदमपि मे भविष्यति पुनर्धनम् ॥१३॥

idam adya maya labdham idam prapsye manoratham
idam astidam api me bhavisyati punar dhanam [13]

adya–“Today; idam–this; labdham–was gained; maya–by me; (punah)–and again; prapsye–I will get; idam manoratham–this other desirable object. idam–This wealth; asti me–is mine; punah–and again; idam api dhanam–more wealth; bhavisyati–will be; (me)–mine.” [13]

13 The ungodly persons say, “Today I got what I wanted, and tomorrow I will also get what I want. All this is my wealth, and I will have even more in the future.”

असौ मया हतः शत्रुर्हनिष्ये चापरानपि ।
ईश्वरोऽहमहं भोगी सिद्धोऽहं बलवान्सुखी ॥१४॥

asau maya hatah satrur hanisye chaparan api
isvaro ’ham aham bhogi siddho ’ham balavan sukhi [14]

asau–“This; satruh–enemy; hatah–has been destoyed; maya–by me; api cha–and again; hanisye–I will destroy; aparan–others. aham isvarah–I am the lord; aham bhogi–I am the enjoyer; aham siddhah–I am successful; balavan–powerful; sukhi–and happy.” [14]

14 “I have destroyed one enemy, and I will destroy others. I am successful, powerful, and happy.”

आढ्योऽभिजनवानस्मि कोऽन्योऽस्ति सदृशो मया ।
यक्ष्ये दास्यामि मोदिष्य इत्यज्ञानविमोहिताः ॥१५॥

adhyo ’bhijanavan asmi ko ’nyo ’sti sadrso maya
yaksye dasyami modisya ity ajnana-vimohitah [15]

(aham) asmi–“I am; adhyah–rich; abhijanavan–and high-born. kah asti–Who is; anyah–another; maya sadrsah–like me? (aham)–I; yaksye–will perform sacrifice; dasyami–give charity; modisye–and enjoy.” iti–Thus; ajnana-vimohitah–they are deluded by ignorant notions. [15]

15 “I am wealthy and aristocratic. Who can compare with me? I shall perform sacrifice, give charity, and enjoy myself.” Thus they are deluded by ignorance.

अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्ता मोहजालसमावृताः ।
प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु पतन्ति नरकेऽशुचौ ॥१६॥

aneka-chitta-vibhranta moha-jala-samavrtah
prasaktah kama-bhogesu patanti narake ’suchau [16]

aneka-chitta-vibhrantah–Their minds full of many vain thoughts; moha-jala-samavrtah–caught in the net of illusion; prasaktah–engrossed; kama-bhogesu–in mundane enjoyment; patanti–they fall; asuchau–to a foul; narake–hell, like Vaitarani. [16]

16 Their minds full of vain thoughts, caught in the net of illusion and engrossed in mundane enjoyment, such ungodly persons fall to a foul hell.

आत्मसम्भाविताः स्तब्धा धनमानमदान्विताः ।
यजन्ते नामयज्ञैस्ते दम्भेनाविधिपूर्व्वकम् ॥१७॥

atma-sambhavitah stabdha dhana-mana-madanvitah
yajante nama-yajnais te dambhenavidhi-purvakam [17]

atma-sambhavitah–Conceited; stabdhah–obstinate; dhana-mana-mada-anvitah–intoxicated by wealth and pride; te–those demons; avidhi-purvakam–ignoring the scriptural injunctions; dambhena–hypocritically; yajante–perform sacrifices; nama-yajnaih–in name only (pseudo-sacrifices). [17]

17 Conceited, obstinate, and intoxicated by wealth and grandeur, ignoring the scriptural injunctions, these demons make a hypocritical show of sacrifices.

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधञ्च संश्रिताः ।
मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः ॥१८॥

ahankaram balam darpam kamam krodhan cha samsritah
mam atma-para-dehesu pradvisanto ’bhyasuyakah [18]

samsritah–Given to; ahankaram–egoism; balam–power; darpam–pride; kamam–lust; krodham cha–and anger; (te bhavanti)–they are; pradvisantah–resentful; mam–of Me; (sthitam)–who am situated; atma-para-dehesu–within their own and others’ bodies; abhyasuyakah–and they ascribe faults to the good qualities of the saintly persons. [18]

18 Given to egoism, pomp and power, lust and anger, they are resentful of Me, who am situated in their own and others’ bodies as the Supersoul, and they ascribe faults to the good qualities of the saintly persons.

तानहं द्विषतः क्रूरान्संसारेषु नराधमान् ।
क्षिपाम्यजस्रमशुभानासुरीष्वेव योनिषु ॥१९॥

tan aham dvisatah kruran samsaresu naradhaman
ksipamy ajasram asubhan asurisv eva yonisu [19]

aham–I; ajasram–continually; ksipami–cast; tan–these; dvisatah–resentful; kruran–cruel; asubhan–inauspicious; naradhaman–decadent persons; samsaresu–into the cycle of birth and death; asurisu yonisu eva–in the wombs of the demoniac. [19]

19 I continually cast these resentful, cruel, inauspicious, and decadent persons into the demoniac species, in the cycle of birth and death.

आसुरीं योनिमापन्ना मूढा जन्मनि जन्मनि ।
मामाप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम् ॥२०॥

asurim yonim apanna mudha janmani janmani
mam aprapyaiva kaunteya tato yanty adhamam gatim [20]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; apannah–taking; janmani janmani–birth after birth; asurim–in demoniac; yonim–species; mudhah–these deluded persons; aprapya eva–not reaching; mam–Me; yanti gatim–suffer a fate; tatah adhamam–worse than that. [20]

20 O Kaunteya, repeatedly taking birth in the demoniac species, these deluded persons cannot come to Me, and they descend to lower and lower planes.

त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः ।
कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत् ॥२१॥

tri-vidham narakasyedam dvaram nasanam atmanah
kamah krodhas tatha lobhas tasmad etat trayam tyajet [21]

idam tri-vidham–These three kinds of; dvaram–doors; narakasya–of hell; atmanah nasanam–lead to self-destruction: kamah–lust; krodhah–anger; tatha lobhah–and greed; tasmat–so; etat trayam–these three; tyajet–must be abandoned. [21]

21 Lust, anger, and greed are the three doors of hell leading to self-destruction, so they must be abandoned.

एतैर्विमुक्तः कौन्तेय तमोद्वारैस्त्रिभिर्नरः ।
आचरत्यात्मनः श्रेयस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥२२॥

etair vimuktah kaunteya tamo-dvarais tribhir narah
acharaty atmanah sreyas tato yati param gatim [22]

(he) kaunteya–O Kaunteya; narah–a person; vimuktah–liberated; etaih–from these; tribhih tamah-dvaraih–three doors of darkness; acharati–acts; sreyah–for the benefit; atmanah–of the soul. tatah–By that; yati–he reaches; param–the supreme; gatim–goal. [22]

22 O Kaunteya, one who is liberated from these three doors of darkness strives for the benefit of the soul, by which he attains the supreme destination.

यः शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य वर्त्तते कामचारतः ।
न स सिद्धिमवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम् ॥२३॥

yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya vartate kama-charatah
na sa siddhim avapnoti na sukham na param gatim [23]

sah yah–He who; utsrjya–disregarding; sastra-vidhim–the injunctions of the scriptures; vartate kama-charatah–acts according to his own desires; avapnoti–attains; na siddhim–neither perfection, purification; na sukham–nor happiness; na param gatim–nor the supreme destination. [23]

23 One who acts according to his own desires, disregarding the scriptural injunctions, cannot attain perfection, happiness, or the supreme destination.

तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्य्याकार्य्यव्यवस्थितौ ।
ज्ञात्वा शास्त्रविधानोक्तं कर्म्म कर्त्तुमिहार्हसि ॥२४॥

tasmach chhastram pramanam te karyakarya-vyavasthitau
jnatva sastra-vidhanoktam karma kartum iharhasi [24]

tasmat–Therefore; sastram–the scriptural injunctions; karyakarya-vyavasthitau–concerning duty and non-duty; te pramanam–are your authority. jnatva–Knowing; sastra-vidhana-uktam–scripturally enjoined; karma–duty; iha–in this world of action; (tvam) arhasi–you ought; (tat) kartum–to act accordingly. [24]

24 Therefore, the scriptural injunctions for duty and non-duty are your authority. Knowing your duty in this world according to the scriptures (to act only for the Lord’s pleasure), you should act accordingly.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे दैवासुरसम्पद्विभागयोगो नाम षोडशोऽध्यायः ॥१६॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade daivasura-
sampad-vibhaga-yogo nama sodaso ’dhyayah [16]

End of Chapter Sixteen
The Godly and Ungodly Natures
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

सप्तदशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Seventeen

Sraddhatraya-vibhaga-yoga: The Three Types of Faith

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

ye sastra-vidhim utsrjya yajante sraddhayanvitah
tesam nistha tu ka krsna sattvam aho rajas tamah [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) krsna–O Krishna; ka–what; nistha–is the position; tesam–of those; ye–who; utsrjya–ignore; sastra-vidhim–the scriptural injunctions; tu–yet; sraddhaya-anvitah (santah)–faithfully; yajante–worship? (sa kim)–Is that; sattvam–in goodness; aho rajah–or passion; (uta) tamah–or ignorance? [1]

1 Arjuna inquired: O Krishna, what is the position of those who worship with faith, but ignore the injunctions of the scriptures? Is their faith in the mode of goodness, passion, or ignorance?

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

tri-vidha bhavati sraddha dehinam sa svabhava-ja
sattviki rajasi chaiva tamasi cheti tam srnu [2]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: sraddha eva–Faith; dehinam–of the living beings; bhavati–is; tri-vidha iti–of these three types: sattviki–good; rajasi cha–passionate; tamasi cha–and ignorant. sa–That faith; svabhava-ja–is born of their own nature acquired from impressions of previous lives. tam srnu–Now hear of that. [2]

2 The Supreme Lord said: Faith is of three types, born of the embodied soul’s acquired nature, whether good, passionate, or ignorant. Now hear of this:

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्व्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥३॥

sattvanurupa sarvasya sraddha bhavati bharata
sraddhamayo ’yam puruso yo yach chhraddhah sa eva sah [3]

(he) bharata–O descendant of Bharata; sraddha–the faith; sarvasya–of all living beings; bhavati–is; sattva-anurupa–according to their consciousness. ayam purusah–The living being; sraddha-mayah–possesses faith by constitution. sah–He; sah eva–is that; yah yat sraddhah–which his faith is. [3]

3 O Bharata, the faith of all living beings is governed by their consciousness. The living being possesses faith by constitution. He is that which his faith is.

यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥४॥

yajante sattvika devan yaksa-raksamsi rajasah
pretan bhuta-ganams chanye yajante tamasa janah [4]

sattvikah–Those with faith of the nature of goodness; yajante–worship; devan–demigods of the nature of goodness. rajasah–Those of passionate faith; yajante–worship; yaksa-raksamsi–the Yaksa demigods and Raksasa demons of passionate nature. anye–Others; tamasah janah–who possess ignorant faith; (yajante)–worship; pretan bhuta-ganan cha–the ghosts and spirits of the nature of ignorance. [4]

4 Persons with faith of the nature of goodness worship the demigods, persons with faith of a passionate nature worship the Yaksa demigods and Raksasa demons, while those with faith of the nature of ignorance worship the ghosts and spirits.

अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।
दम्भाहङ्कारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥५॥

कर्शयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।
मां चैवान्तः शरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥६॥

asastra-vihitam ghoram tapyante ye tapo janah
dambhahankara-samyuktah kama-raga-balanvitah [5]

karsayantah sarira-stham bhuta-gramam achetasah
man chaivantah sarira-stham tan viddhy asura-nischayan [6]

achetasah–Ignorant; janah–persons; ye–who; tapyante–perform; ghoram–severe; tapah–austerities; asastra-vihitam–unsanctioned by the scriptures; dambha-ahankara-samyuktah–full of pride and egoism; kama-raga-bala-anvitah–and impelled by desire, attachment, and power; karsayantah–torture; bhuta-gramam–the five basic material elements; sarira-stham–in the body; (karsayantah) mam cha eva–and also torment Me, in the form of My particle, the spirit soul, the jivatman; antah sarira-stham–in the body. viddhi–Know; tan–them; asura-nischayan–to be of demoniacal conviction. [5–6]

5–6 Full of pride and egoism, motivated by ambition, attachment, and power, ignorant persons perform severe austerities unsanctioned by the scriptures and torture the body’s natural elements and the soul within. Know them to be of demoniacal faith.

आहारस्त्वपि सर्व्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु ॥७॥

aharas tv api sarvasya tri-vidho bhavati priyah
yajnas tapas tatha danam tesam bhedam imam srnu [7]

(guna bhedat)–According to the three modes of material nature; bhavati tu api–there are also; tri-vidhah aharah–three kinds of food; priyah–pleasing; sarvasya–to everyone. tatha–There are similarly; (tri vidham)–three kinds; yajnah–of sacrifice; tapah–austerity; danam–and charity. srnu–Now hear of; imam–this; bhedam–classification; tesam–of them. [7]

7 According to the three modes of material nature, there are also three kinds of food preference. In the same way, there are three kinds of sacrifice, three kinds of austerity, and three kinds of charity. Now hear of these:

आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥८॥

ayuh-sattva-balarogya-sukha-priti-vivardhanah
rasyah snigdhah sthira hrdya aharah sattvika-priyah [8]

aharah–Foods; ayuh-sattva-bala-arogya-sukha-priti-vivardhanah–that increase longevity, vitality, strength, health, happiness, and loving kindness; rasyah–tasty; snigdhah–succulent; sthirah–wholesome; hrdyah–and pleasant; (bhavati)–are; sattvika-priyah– dear to persons of the nature of goodness. [8]

8 Foods that increase longevity, vitality, strength, health, happiness, and loving kindness, and which are tasty, succulent, wholesome, and pleasant, are dear to persons of the nature of goodness.

कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरुक्षविदाहिनः ।
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥९॥

katv-amla-lavanaty-usna-tiksna-ruksa-vidahinah
ahara rajasasyesta duhkha-sokamaya-pradah [9]

aharah–Food; katu-amla-lavana-ati-usna-tiksna-ruksa-vidahinah–that is too bitter, too sour, too salty, too hot, too pungent, too dry, and overheating; duhkha-soka-amaya-pradah–and which cause pain, sorrow, and illness (bhavati)–are; istah–dear; rajasasya–to the passionate. [9]

9 Foods dear to persons of passionate nature are too bitter (nimba, etc.), too sour, too salty, too hot, too pungent (chilli pepper, etc.), too dry (dry-roasted chickpeas, etc.), and too heating (mustard seed, etc.). Such foods cause pain, sorrow, and illness.

यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्य्युषितञ्च यत् ।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥१०॥

yata-yamam gata-rasam puti paryusitan cha yat
uchchhistam api chamedhyam bhojanam tamasa-priyam [10]

yat bhojanam–That food which is; yata-yamam–cooked, but left to become cold; gata-rasam–tasteless; puti–odoriferous; paryusitam cha–putrid; uchchhistam api–remnants (other than that of worshippable persons); amedhyam cha–and impure foods unofferable in sacrifice (meat, wine, and onions, etc.); (tat bhavati)–such food is; tamasa-priyam–dear to the ignorant. [10]

10 Dear to the ignorant are foods that are stale, tasteless, foul-smelling or were cooked the day before, remnants (other than that of worshippable persons), and impure foods (such as meat, wine, and onions).

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदिष्टो य इज्यते ।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥११॥

aphalakanksibhir yajno vidhi-disto ya ijyate
yastavyam eveti manah samadhaya sa sattvikah [11]

sah yajnah–That sacrifice; yah ijyate–which is performed; vidhi-distah–according to scriptural injunctions; aphala-akanksibhih–by one who does not hanker for its fruit; manah samadhaya–with the firm conviction; yastavyam eva iti–and dutifully; sattvikah–is sacrifice of the nature of goodness. [11]

11 That sacrifice which is in accordance with scriptural injunctions and faithfully performed by a person free from fruitive desire, is sacrifice of the nature of goodness.

अभिसन्धाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥१२॥

abhisandhaya tu phalam dambhartham api chaiva yat
ijyate bharata-srestha tam yajnam viddhi rajasam [12]

tu–But; (he) bharata-srestha–O Bharat; yat–that which; ijyate–is performed; abhisandhaya–motivated by; phalam–remuneration; dambha-artham api cha eva–and which is a show of pomp and grandeur; viddhi–know; tam yajnam–that sacrifice; rajasam–to be of a passionate nature. [12]

12 But, O Bharat, know that sacrifice which is performed in fruitive expectation and as a display of pomp and grandeur, is sacrifice of the nature of passion.

विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥१३॥

vidhi-hinam asrstannam mantra-hinam adaksinam
sraddha-virahitam yajnam tamasam parichaksate [13]

vidhi-hinam–Non-scriptural; yajnam–sacrifice; asrsta-annam–without the distribution of food, etc.; mantra-hinam–without mantra; adaksinam–without appropriate offerings to the priests; sraddha-virahitam–and without faith; parichaksate–is called; tamasam–ignorant. [13]

13 And that sacrifice which ignores the injunctions of the scriptures, which is performed without the distribution of foodstuffs, without uttering the appropriate mantras, without offerings to the priests, and without faith, is known as sacrifice in ignorance.

देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्ज्जवम् ।
ब्रह्मचर्य्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥१४॥

deva-dvija-guru-prajna-pujanam saucham arjavam
brahmacharyam ahimsa cha sariram tapa uchyate [14]

deva-dvija-guru-prajna-pujanam–Worship of the deity, the brahman, the guru, and the enlightened soul; saucham–internal and external purity; arjavam–simplicity; brahmacharyam–celibacy; ahimsa cha–and nonviolence; uchyate–are called; sariram–bodily; tapah–austerity. [14]

14 Worship of the deity, the brahman, the spiritual master, and the enlightened soul, purity, simplicity, celibacy, and nonviolence—these all constitute austerity of the body.

अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितञ्च यत् ।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥१५॥

anudvega-karam vakyam satyam priya-hitan cha yat
svadhyayabhyasanam chaiva vanmayam tapa uchyate [15]

satyam–Truthful; vakyam–speech; yat–which; anudvega-karam–does not disturb; priya-hitam cha–and is pleasing yet beneficial; svadhyaya-abhyasanam cha eva–and regular recitation of the Vedas; uchyate–is called; vak-mayam–verbal; tapah–austerity. [15]

15 Speech which does not disturb others, which is truthful, pleasing yet beneficial, as well as regular recitation of the Vedas—all these are known as verbal austerity.

मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥१६॥

manah prasadah saumyatvam maunam atma-vinigrahah
bhava-samsuddhir ity etat tapo manasam uchyate [16]

iti etat–All these; uchyate–are called; manasam–mental; tapah–austerity: manah prasadah–self-satisfaction; saumyatvam–benevolence; maunam–stability; atma-vinigrahah–mental control; bhava-samsuddhih–and pure-heartedness.[16]

16 Self-satisfaction, benevolence, stability, mental control, and pure-heartedness are all known as mental austerity.

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥१७॥

sraddhaya paraya taptam tapas tat tri-vidham naraih
aphalakanksibhir yuktaih sattvikam parichaksate [17]

taptam–When practised; yuktaih–by the devout; aphala-akanksibhih–desireless; naraih–person; paraya–with deep; sraddhaya–faith; tat–that; tri-vidham tapah–threefold austerity (bodily, verbal, and mental); parichaksate–are designated as; sattvikam–being of the nature of goodness. [17]

17 When performed by a desireless, devout soul with deep faith in the Supreme Lord, this threefold austerity of thought, word, and deed is of the nature of goodness.

सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥१८॥

satkara-mana-pujartham tapo dambhena chaiva yat
kriyate tad iha proktam rajasam chalam adhruvam [18]

tat–That; chalam–unenduring; adhruvam–transitory; tapah–austerity; yat–which; kriyate–is performed; satkara-mana-puja-artham–for the sake of gain, worship, and fame; dambhena cha eva–and performed with great pride; iha proktam–is designated in this world as; rajasam–passionate austerity. [18]

18 That unenduring, transitory austerity which is proudly performed for the sake of gain, worship, name, and fame, is known as austerity of the nature of passion.

मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पिडया क्रियते तपः ।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१९॥

mudha-grahenatmano yat pidaya kriyate tapah
parasyotsadanartham va tat tamasam udahrtam [19]

tat tapah–That austerity; yat–which; kriyate–is performed; mudha-grahena–with dubious intent; pidaya–causing pain; atmanah–to oneself; va–or; utsadana-artham–for harming; parasya–others; udahrtam–is described as; tamasam–ignorant. [19]

19 That austerity which is performed with dubious intent, causing self-torture, or meant to harm others, is known as austerity of the nature of ignorance.

दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥२०॥

datavyam iti yad danam diyate ’nupakarine
dese kale cha patre cha tad danam sattvikam smrtam [20]

danam–The gift; yat–which; diyate–is given; anupakarine iti–without expectation of return; dese–at an auspicious or holy place; kale cha–at an astrologically auspicious time; patre–to a qualified recipient; datavyam cha–and with the conviction that it ought to be given; tat danam–that gift; smrtam–is considered; sattvikam–to be of the nature of goodness. [20]

20 The gift which is given without expectation of return, with the conviction that it ought to be given, at an appropriate place and time, and to an appropriate recipient, is considered to be of the nature of goodness.

यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥२१॥

yat tu praty-upakarartham phalam uddisya va punah
diyate cha pariklistam tad danam rajasam smrtam [21]

yat tu–And that which; diyate–is given; prati-upakara-artham–with expectation of return; va–or; phalam uddisya–for the purpose of a reward; punah cha–and moreover; pariklistam–(is given) begrudgingly; tat danam–that gift; smrtam–is considered; rajasam–to be of the nature of passion. [21]

21 Otherwise, the gift begrudgingly given in expectation of gaining something in return, or with a desire for a reward (such as the attainment of heaven), is considered to be of the nature of passion.

अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥२२॥

adesa-kale yad danam apatrebhyas cha diyate
asatkrtam avajnatam tat tamasam udahrtam [22]

yat danam–That gift which; diyate–is given; asat-krtam–disrespectfully; avajnatam cha–and scornfully; adesa-kale–at an improper place and time; apatrebhyah–to an undeserving recipient; tat–that gift; udahrtam–is described as; tamasam–being of the nature of ignorance. [22]

22 The gift given disrespectfully and scornfully to an unworthy recipient at an improper place and time is considered to be of the nature of ignorance.

ओंत्सदिति निर्द्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥२३॥

om-tat-sad iti nirdeso brahmanas tri-vidhah smrtah
brahmanas tena vedas cha yajnas cha vihitah pura [23]

iti–These; tri-vidhah–three words: om-tat-satOm Tat Sat; smrtah–are known in the scriptures as; nirdesah–indicating; brahmanah–Brahma, the Supeme Spirit. pura–In ancient times, at the universal manifestation; brahmanah–the brahmans; vedah cha–the Vedas; yajnah cha–and sacrifices; vihitah–were manifested; tena–by these three words. [23]

23 The scriptures say that the words Om Tat Sat indicate Brahma, the Supreme Spirit. At the time of the universal manifestation, the brahmans, the Vedas, and sacrifices were manifested by these three words.

तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।
प्रवर्त्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥२४॥

tasmad om ity udahrtya yajna-dana-tapah-kriyah
pravartante vidhanoktah satatam brahma-vadinam [24]

tasmat–Therefore; vidhana-uktah–scripturally prescribed; yajna-dana-tapah-kriyah–duties of sacrifice, charity, and austerity; brahma-vadinam–of the followers of the Vedas; satatam pravartante–are always initiated; udahrtya–uttering; om iti–the syllable Om, representing Brahma, the Absolute. [24]

24 Thus the followers of the Vedas always utter the syllable Om representing Brahma, the Absolute, to initiate their prescribed duties of sacrifice, charity, and austerity.

तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥२५॥

tad ity anabhisandhaya phalam yajna-tapah-kriyah
dana-kriyas cha vividhah kriyante moksa-kanksibhih [25]

moksa-kanksibhih–Persons aspiring for liberation; (udahrtya)–uttering; tat iti–the word Tat, representing Brahma, the Absolute; kriyante–perform; vividhah yajna-tapah-kriyah–acts of various kinds of sacrifice and austerity; dana-kriyah cha–and acts of charity; anabhisandhaya–without motivation; phalam–for the fruits. [25]

25 Persons aspiring for liberation utter the word Tat, representing Brahma, the Absolute, to invoke the performance of various acts of sacrifice, charity, and austerity without motivation for the results.

सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।
प्रशस्ते कर्म्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥२६॥

sad-bhave sadhu-bhave cha sad ity etat prayujyate
prasaste karmani tatha sach chhabdah partha yujyate [26]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; sat iti–the word Sat, representing Brahma, the Absolute; prayujyate–is used; sat-bhave–to indicate truth, the nature of Brahma; sadhu-bhave cha–and persons dedicated to the truth, knowers of Brahma. tatha–Therefore; etat sat-sabdah–this word Sat; yujyate–is uttered; prasaste karmani–during auspicious activities. [26]

26 O Partha, the word Sat, representing Brahma, the Absolute, indicates the truth and persons dedicated to the truth. Therefore, the word Sat is uttered to invoke the performance of auspicious activities.

यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।
कर्म्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥२७॥

yajne tapasi dane cha sthitih sad iti chochyate
karma chaiva tad-arthiyam sad ity evabhidhiyate [27]

sthitih–The eternality; yajne–in sacrifice; tapasi–austerity; dane cha–and charity; uchyate–is described; sat iti cha–by this word Sat. karma cha eva–And action; tat-arthiyam–for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord; abhidhiyate–is designated; sat iti eva–by the word Sat. [27]

27 The word Sat is said to indicate the eternality of sacrifice, austerity, and charity. And action for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord is called Sat—truth.

अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतञ्च यत् ।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥२८॥

asraddhaya hutam dattam tapas taptam krtan cha yat
asad ity uchyate partha na cha tat pretya no iha [28]

(he) partha–O Arjuna; yat–whatever; hutam–sacrifice is offered; dattam–charity is given; tapah taptam–austerity is endured; cha–and; krtam–action is performed; asraddhaya–without faith; tat–that; uchyate–is described; asat iti–as asat, untruth; (yatah tat)–because that; (phalati)–fructifies; na u iha–neither in this world; na cha pretya–nor the next. [28]

28 O Partha, sacrifice, charity, and austerity or any action performed without faith in the Supreme is known as asat, or untruth. Such works cannot bring an auspicious result, either in this world or the next.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे श्रद्धात्रयविभागयोगो नाम सप्तदशोऽध्यायः ॥१७॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade sraddha
traya-vibhaga-yogo nama sapta-daso ’dhyayah [17]

End of Chapter Seventeen
The Three Types of Faith
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

एकादशोऽध्यायः
Chapter Eighteen

Moksa-yoga: The Path of Liberation

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

सन्न्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम् ।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिसूदन ॥१॥

arjuna uvacha

sannyasasya maha-baho tattvam ichchhami veditum
tyagasya cha hrsikesa prthak kesinisudana [1]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; (he) hrsikesa–O Lord of all senses; (he) kesinisudana–O slayer of the Kesi demon; ichchami–I wish; veditum–to understand; tattvam–the subject; sannyasasya–of renunciation; tyagasya cha–and detachment; prthak–separately. [1]

1 Arjuna said: O almighty Lord, slayer of the demon Kesi, I wish to understand the subject of renunciation (sannyas) and detachment (tyaga), separately.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

काम्यानां कर्म्मणां न्यासं सन्न्यासं कवयो विदुः ।
सर्व्वकर्म्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः ॥२॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

kamyanam karmanam nyasam sannyasam kavayo viduh
sarva-karma-phala-tyagam prahus tyagam vichaksanah [2]

sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: kavayah–the learned; vichaksanah–enlightened personalities; viduh–know; nyasam–renunciation; karmanam–of actions; kamyanam–that are motivated by fruitive desires; sannyasam–as sannyas, renunciation; prahuh–and they say that; sarva-karma-phala-tyagam–the renunciation of the fruits of all actions, whether daily, incidental, or fruitive; tyagam–is detachment. [2]

2 The Supreme Lord said: Learned, enlightened persons know the giving up of fruitive action as renunciation, and the giving up of the fruits of all action as detachment.

त्याज्यं दोषवदित्येके कर्म्म प्राहुर्मनीषिणः ।
यज्ञदानतपःकर्म्म न त्याज्यमिति चापरे ॥३॥

tyajyam dosavad ity eke karma prahur manisinah
yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam iti chapare [3]

eke manisinah–Some scholars (generally the sankhyas); prahuh–declare that; karma–action; tyajyam–should be given up; dosavat iti–as imperfect (due to violence, etc.); apare cha–and others (generally the mimamsakas); iti (prahuh)–say that; yajna-dana-tapah-karma–(scripturally enjoined) action of the nature of sacrifice, charity, and austerity; na tyajyam–should not be abandoned. [3]

3 Some philosophers hold that action should be renounced as imperfect. Others hold that action of the nature of sacrifice, charity, and austerity should never be given up.

निश्चयं शृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरतसत्तम ।
त्यागो हि पुरुषव्याघ्र त्रिविधः सम्प्रकीर्त्तितः ॥४॥

nischayam srnu me tatra tyage bharata-sattama
tyago hi purusa-vyaghra tri-vidhah samprakirtitah [4]

(he) bharata-sattama–O best of the Bharatas; srnu–hear; me–My; nischayam–perfect conclusion; tatra tyage–concerning tyaga, detachment, or the quality of renunciation; hi–since; (he) purusa-vyaghra–O best of men; tyagah–the quality of renunciation; samprakirtitah–has been clearly described (in the scriptures); tri-vidhah–to be of three types. [4]

4 O best of the Bharatas, hear My perfect conclusion concerning detachment, the quality of renunciation, since, O best of men, it has been clearly established that the quality of renunciation is of three types.

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म्म न त्याज्यं कार्य्यमेव तत् ।
यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम् ॥५॥

yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam karyam eva tat
yajno danam tapas chaiva pavanani manisinam [5]

yajna-dana-tapah-karma–Duties of sacrifice, charity, and austerity, etc.; na tyajyam–should not be given up. tat–They; eva–certainly; karyam–must be performed; (yatah)–because; yajnah–sacrifice; danam–charity; tapah cha–and austerity; (bhavanti)–are; pavanani eva–the purifiers; manisinam–of the wise. [5]

5 Actions of the nature of sacrifice, charity, and austerity should never be abandoned. They must be performed for they are the purifiers of the wise.

एतान्यपि तु कर्म्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च ।
कर्त्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतमुत्तमम् ॥६॥

etany api tu karmani sangam tyaktva phalani cha
kartavyaniti me partha nischitam matam uttamam [6]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; api tu–but even; etani–these; karmani–actions; kartavyani–must be performed; tyaktva–renouncing; sangam–attachment; phalani cha–and desire for the results. iti–This is; me–My; nischitam–definite; uttamam–supreme; matam–perfect conclusion (siddhanta). [6]

6 But even these actions must be performed abandoning attachment and fruitive desire. O Partha, know this to be My perfect, supreme conclusion.

नियतस्य तु सन्न्यासः कर्म्मणो नोपपद्यते ।
मोहात्तस्य परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्त्तितः ॥७॥

niyatasya tu sannyasah karmano nopapadyate
mohat tasya parityagas tamasah parikirtitah [7]

tu–But; sannyasah–renunciation; niyatasya–of obligatory; karmanah–duties; na upapadyate–cannot be justified. parityagah–Abandonment; tasya–of those duties; mohat–out of delusion; parikirtitah–is called; tamasah–renunciation of the nature of ignorance. [7]

7 Renunciation of one’s obligatory duties is wrong. The delusion of giving up these duties is called false renunciation, or renunciation of the nature of ignorance.

दुःखमित्येव यत्कर्म्म कायक्लेशभयात्त्यजेत् ।
स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्यागफलं लभेत् ॥८॥

duhkham ity eva yat karma kaya-klesa-bhayat tyajet
sa krtva rajasam tyagam naiva tyaga-phalam labhet [8]

(yah)–That person who; iti (matva)–thinks that; yat karma–such obligatory duties; duhkham eva–are troublesome; tyajet–and renounces them; kaya-klesa-bhayat–out of fear of physical discomfort; sah–that person; krtva–by performing; tyagam–renunciation; rajasam–of the nature of passion; na labhet eva–cannot attain; tyaga-phalam–the fruit of detachment—enlightenment. [8]

8 One who abandons his obligatory duties out of fear of physical discomfort, considering them troublesome, performs renunciation of the nature of passion. Thus, he does not attain the fruit of true detachment.

कार्य्यमित्येव यत्कर्म्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्ज्जुन ।
सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलञ्चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः ॥९॥

karyam ity eva yat karma niyatam kriyate ’rjuna
sangam tyaktva phalan chaiva sa tyagah sattviko matah [9]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; niyatam–obligatory; karma–duties; yat–which; kriyate–are performed; karyam iti eva–as a matter of duty; tyaktva–abandoning; sangam–attachment; phalam eva cha–and fruitive desire; sah tyagah sattvikah–constitute renunciation of the nature of goodness; (me) matah–in My consideration. [9]

9 O Arjuna, performance of obligatory works as a matter of duty while abandoning attachment and fruitive desire, is renunciation of the nature of goodness. This is My opinion.

न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म्म कुशले नानुषज्जते ।
त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः ॥१०॥

na dvesty akusalam karma kusale nanusajjate
tyagi sattva-samavisto medhavi chhinna-samsayah [10]

medhavi–The wise; tyagi–renunciate; sattva-samavistah–absorbed in the nature of goodness; chhinna-samsayah–having slashed all doubts; na dvesti–neither resents; akusalam–troublesome; karma–duties; na anusajjate–nor is attached to; kusale–duties which bestow happiness. [10]

10 The wise renunciate who is absorbed in the nature of goodness, and who has slashed all doubts, neither resents disagreeable duties nor is attached to agreeable works.

न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्म्माण्यशेषतः ।
यस्तु कर्म्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते ॥११॥

na hi deha-bhrta sakyam tyaktum karmany asesatah
yas tu karma-phala-tyagi sa tyagity abhidhiyate [11]

deha-bhrta–The embodied soul; na sakyam hi–can never; asesatah–fully; tyaktum–renounce; karmani–actions; tu–however; abhidhiyate–it is said; iti–that; yah sah karma-phala-tyagi–one who renounces the fruits of action; tyagi–is a renunciate. [11]

11 It is not possible for the embodied soul to fully renounce actions. However, one who renounces the fruits of his actions is a true renunciate.

अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रञ्च त्रिविधं कर्म्मणः फलम् ।
भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु सन्न्यासिनां क्वचित् ॥१२॥

anistam istam misran cha tri-vidham karmanah phalam
bhavaty atyaginam pretya na tu sannyasinam kvachit [12]

tri-vidham phalam (iti)–These three kinds of fruits; karmanah–of action; bhavati–remain; pretya–after death; atyaginam–for those who desire material enjoyment: anistam–undesirable (low or hellish birth); istam–desirable (high or godly birth); misram cha–and mixed (human birth); tu–but; na (bhavati)–these fruits do not ensue; kvachit–at any time; sannyasinam–for those who are sannyasi, renounced. [12]

12 After death, the three kinds of fruits of actions—good, bad, and mixed—accrue to those who have worldly desires, but never to those who are renounced.

पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्व्वकर्म्मणाम् ॥१३॥

panchaitani maha-baho karanani nibodha me
sankhye krtante proktani siddhaye sarva-karmanam [13]

(he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; nibodha–know; me–from Me; etani–these; pancha–five; karanani–causes; siddhaye–of the accomplishment; sarva-karmanam–of all actions; proktani–described; krtante–in the conclusive knowledge of action; sankhye–in the Vedanta scripture. [13]

13 O mighty hero, know from Me of the five causes of the accomplishment of all actions as described in the conclusive teachings of the scripture known as Sankhya or Vedanta:

अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्त्ता करणञ्च पृथग्विधम् ।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवञ्चैवात्र पञ्चमम् ॥१४॥

adhisthanam tatha karta karanan cha prthag-vidham
vividhas cha prthak chesta daivan chaivatra panchamam [14]

adhistanam–(1) The basis, the body; tatha–and; karta–(2) the ‘doer’, the ego of the knot of spirit and matter; prthak-vidham–(3) the separate, various; karanam cha–senses—eyes, ears, etc., as the instrument; vividhah–(4) the various; prthak cha–and separate; chesta–endeavours or functions of the vital airs; atra panchamam–and the fifth factor; daivam eva cha–(5) is the Divine, the Supersoul. [14]

14 (All actions are accomplished by these five causes:) The body, the performer (ego, a knot of spirit and matter), the instrument (the senses), the various endeavours, and the Divine (the Supersoul).

शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म्म प्रारभते नरः ।
न्यायं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः ॥१५॥

sarira-vanmanobhir yat karma prarabhate narah
nyayam va viparitam va panchaite tasya hetavah [15]

yat karma–Whatever action; narah–a man; prarabhate–performs; sarira-vak-manobhih–with his body, speech, and mind; nyayam va–whether lawful; viparitam va–or unlawful; ete pancha–these five; tasya–are its; hetavah–causes. [15]

15 Whether lawful of unlawful, whatever action a man performs with his body, mind, or speech, is caused by these five elements.

तत्रैवं सति कर्त्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः ।
पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्म्मतिः ॥१६॥

tatraivam sati kartaram atmanam kevalam tu yah
pasyaty akrta-buddhitvan na sa pasyati durmatih [16]

tatra–In this respect; evam sati tu–despite this; yah–whoever; pasyati–sees; kevalam–only; atmanam–the living being; kartaram–as the doer; sah durmatih–that ignorant person; akrta-buddhitvat–due to impure intelligence; na pasyati–does not see. [16]

16 But an ignorant person who sees only himself as the doer does not actually see, due to his impure intelligence.

यस्य नाहङ्कृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते ।
हत्वापि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते ॥१७॥

yasya nahankrto bhavo buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatvapi sa ima̐l lokan na hanti na nibadhyate [17]

yasya–He within whom; bhavah–the mentality; ahankrtah–of considering oneself a doer; na–does not occur; yasya–and he whose; buddhih–intelligence; na lipyate–is not attached to the fruits of actions; sah–such a person; hatva api–even if he kills; iman lokan–the entire world; na hanti–he neither kills anyone; na nibadhyate–nor is he bound by action. [17]

17 He who is free from egoism (aversion to the Absolute), and whose intelligence is not implicated in worldly action—even if he kills the entire world, he neither kills nor is he bound by action.

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्म्मचोदना ।
करणं कर्म्म कर्त्तेति त्रिविधः कर्म्मसन्ग्रहः ॥१८॥

jnanam jneyam parijnata tri-vidha karma-chodana
karanam karma karteti tri-vidhah karma-sangrahah [18]

tri-vidha iti–These three are; karma-chodana–the driving force of action: jnanam–knowledge; jneyam–the knowable; parijnata–the knower. tri-vidhah (iti)–These three are; karma-sangrahah–the constitution of action: karanam–the instrument, the senses; or the practice to attain the objective (sadhana); karma–the action; karta–the performer. [18]

18 These three are the driving force of action: knowledge, the knowable, and the knower. These three are the constitution of action—the instrument, the action, and the performer.

ज्ञानं कर्म्म च कर्त्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः ।
प्रोच्यते गुणसङ्ख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि ॥१९॥

jnanam karma cha karta cha tridhaiva guna-bhedatah
prochyate guna-sankhyane yathavach chhrnu tany api [19]

guna-sankhyane–In the sankhya scripture; jnanam–knowledge; karma cha–action; karta cha–and the performer; (ete) prochyate–are mentioned; tri-dha eva–in three divisions; guna-bhedatah–according to the three modes of material nature. srnu–now hear; tani api–of these, too; yathavat–as it is. [19]

19 In the sankhya scripture, knowledge, action, and the performer have each been classified according to the three modes of material nature. Now hear of these from Me:

सर्व्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते ।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् ॥२०॥

sarva-bhutesu yenaikam bhavam avyayam iksate
avibhaktam vibhaktesu taj jnanam viddhi sattvikam [20]

viddhi–You should know; tat jnanam–that knowledge; yena–by which; ekam–one; avibhaktam–undivided; avyayam–imperishable; bhavam–nature; iksate–is seen; vibhaktesu sarva-bhutesu–within all the diverse living beings; sattvikam–as knowledge of the nature of goodness. [20]

20 That knowledge by which the one imperishable and undivided principle (My superior divine potency) is seen to be present in all the diverse living beings is to be known as knowledge of the nature of goodness.

पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान् ।
वेत्ति सर्व्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम् ॥२१॥

prthaktvena tu yaj jnanam nana-bhavan-prthag-vidhan
vetti sarvesu bhutesu taj jnanam viddhi rajasam [21]

yat jnanam–That knowledge by which; vetti–one experiences; sarvesu–within all; bhutesu–living beings; prthaktvena–separately; nana-bhavan–many natures; prthak-vidhan–engaged in many pursuits; viddhi–know; tat jnanam tu–that knowledge; rajasam–to be of the nature of passion. [21]

21 That knowledge in which one experiences in the plane of living beings many separate (independent) entities engaged in many separate (clashing) pursuits is to be known as knowledge of the nature of passion.

यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्य्ये सक्तमहैतुकम् ।
अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पञ्च तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥२२॥

yat tu krtsnavad ekasmin karye saktam ahaitukam
atattvarthavad alpan cha tat tamasam udahrtam [22]

tat–That; yat tu–which; saktam–is attached; ekasmin karye–to the peripheral only, such as the body; krtsnavat–as everything; ahaitukam–(and which is) irrational; atattva-arthavat–not seeking the truth—without spiritual or scriptural conception; alpam cha–and trivial; udahrtam–is said to be; tamasam–knowledge of the nature of ignorance. [22]

22 And that ideology which is stubbornly attached to the peripheral only, considering it to be all-in-all, without spiritual or scriptural conception, without seeking the truth, and based on trivialities alone, is said to be knowledge of the (animalistic) nature of ignorance.

नियतं सङ्गरहितमरागद्वेषतः कृतम्
अफलप्रेप्सुना कर्म्म यत्तत्सात्त्विकमुच्यते ॥२३॥

niyatam sanga-rahitam araga-dvesatah krtam
aphala-prepsuna karma yat tat sattvikam uchyate [23]

tat karma yat–That action which is; niyatam–constantly; krtam–performed; sanga-rahitam–without attachment; aphala-prepsuna–by a person without fruitive desire; araga-dvesatah–unbiased by likes and dislikes; uchyate–is called; sattvikam–action of the nature of goodness. [23]

23 That obligatory action which is faithfully executed without attachment by a person who does not seek its rewards and who is unbiased by likes and dislikes, is said to be action of the nature of goodness.

यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म्म साहङ्कारेण वा पुनः ।
क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम् ॥२४॥

yat tu kamepsuna karma sahankarena va punah
kriyate bahulayasam tad rajasam udahrtam [24]

punah–Again; tat karma yat tu–that action which is; kriyate–performed; kama-ipsuna–by one desiring the result; va–or; sa-ahankarena–by an egotistic person; bahula-ayasam–with great endeavour; udahrtam–is said to be; rajasam–of the nature of passion. [24]

24 And that action which is performed with great endeavour by an egotistic person desiring its fruits, is said to be action of the nature of passion.

अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसामनपेक्ष्य च पौरुषम् ।
मोहादारभ्यते कर्म्म यत्तत्तामसमुच्यते ॥२५॥

anubandham ksayam himsam anapeksya cha paurusam
mohad arabhyate karma yat tat tamasam uchyate [25]

tat karma yat–That action which; arabhyate–is undertaken; mohat–due to delusion; anapeksya–without considering; anubandham–consequence; ksayam–loss; himsam–harm to others; paurusam cha–and one’s capability of performing it; uchyate–is called; tamasam–action of the nature of ignorance. [25]

25 And that work which is undertaken out of delusion, without consideration for its consequences, its loss, harm to others, and one’s capability of performing it, is called action of the nature of ignorance.

मुक्तसङ्गोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वितः ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्व्विकारः कर्त्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥२६॥

mukta-sango ’nahamvadi dhrty-utsaha-samanvitah
siddhy-asiddhyor nirvikarah karta sattvika uchyate [26]

mukta-sangah–Unattached; anaham-vadi–without ego; dhrti-utsaha-samanvitah–patient, enthusiastic; karta–the worker; nirvikarah–who is unaffected; siddhi-asiddhyoh–in success or failure; uchyate–is called; sattvikah–a worker of the nature of goodness. [26]

26 The worker who is unattached, without ego, patient, enthusiastic, and unaffected in success or failure, is known as a worker of the nature of goodness.

रागी कर्म्मफलप्रेप्सुर्लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः ।
हर्षशोकान्वितः कर्त्ता राजसः परिकीर्त्तितः ॥२७॥

ragi karma-phala-prepsur lubdho himsatmako ’suchih
harsa-sokanvitah karta rajasah parikirtitah [27]

ragi–The attached; karma-phala-prepsuh–desirer of the fruits of action; lubdhah–covetous; himsa-atmakah–cruel-natured; karta–worker; asuchih–engaged in unscriptural or abominable practices; harsa-soka-anvitah–and always subject to joy and sorrow; parikirtitah–is called; rajasah–a worker of the nature of passion. [27]

27 The worker who is attached, desirous of the fruits of action, covetous, cruel, engaged in abominable practices not sanctioned by the scriptures, and always subject to joy and sorrow, is known as a worker of the nature of passion.

अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः ।
विषादी दीर्घसूत्री च कर्त्ता तामस उच्यते ॥२८॥

ayuktah prakrtah stabdhah satho naiskrtiko ’lasah
visadi dirgha-sutri cha karta tamasa uchyate [28]

ayuktah–The uncontrolled; prakrtah–vulgar; stabdhah–stubbornly arrogant; sathah–deceitful; naiskrtikah–offensive; alasah–lazy; visadi–despondent; dirgha-sutri cha–procrastinating; karta–worker; uchyate–is called; tamasah–a worker of the nature of ignorance. [28]

28 The worker who is uncontrolled, vulgar, arrogant, deceitful, offensive, lazy, despondent, and a procrastinator is known as a worker of the nature of ignorance.

बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं शृणु ।
प्रोच्यमानमशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनञ्जय ॥२९॥

buddher bhedam dhrtes chaiva gunatas tri-vidham srnu
prochyamanam asesena prthaktvena dhananjaya [29]

(he) dhananjaya–O Arjuna; srnu–hear; prochyamanam–as I describe; asesena–fully; prthaktvena–and distinctly; tri-vidham bhedam–the three types; buddheh–of intelligence; dhrteh cha eva–and determination; gunatah–according to the modes of nature. [29]

29 O Dhananjaya, now listen attentively. I shall clearly describe the three types of intelligence and determination, according to the modes of nature:

प्रवृत्तिञ्च निवृत्तिञ्च कार्य्याकार्य्ये भयाभये ।
बन्धं मोक्षञ्च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥३०॥

pravrttin cha nivrttin cha karyakarye bhayabhaye
bandham moksan cha ya vetti buddhih sa partha sattviki [30]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; sattviki buddhih–intelligence of the nature of goodness; sa ya–is that which; vetti–distinguishes; pravrttim cha–virtuous engagement; nivrttim cha–and abstinence from vice; karya-akarye–duty and non-duty; bhaya-abhaye–danger and safety; bandham moksam cha–and bondage and liberation. [30]

30 O Partha, intelligence of the nature of goodness is that which can distinguish (virtuous) engagement and abstinence (from vice), duty and non-duty, danger and safety, and bondage and liberation.

यया धर्म्ममधर्म्मञ्च कार्य्यञ्चाकार्य्यमेव च ।
अयथावत्प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥३१॥

yaya dharmam adharman cha karyan chakaryam eva cha
ayathavat prajanati buddhih sa partha rajasi [31]

(he) partha–O Partha; rajasi buddhih–intelligence of the nature of passion; sa yaya–is that by which; dharmam–religion; adharmam cha–and irreligion; karyam cha–and duty; akaryam eva cha–and non-duty; prajanati ayathavat–are misunderstood. [31]

31 O Partha, intelligence of the nature of passion is that which causes an erroneous perception of religion, irreligion, duty, and non-duty.

अधर्म्मं धर्म्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता ।
सर्व्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥३२॥

adharmam dharmam iti ya manyate tamasavrta
sarvarthan viparitams cha buddhih sa partha tamasi [32]

(he) partha–O Partha; tamasi buddhih–intelligence of the nature of ignorance; avrta–covered; tamasa–by the mode of ignorance; sa ya–is that which; manyate–considers; adharmam–vice; dharmam–virtue; sarva-arthan cha–and all knowable objects; viparitan iti–contrary to what they are. [32]

32 Intelligence of the nature of ignorance is covered by illusion, whereby vice is considered virtue, and everything is taken to be the opposite of the reality.

धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः ।
योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥३३॥

dhrtya yaya dharayate manah-pranendriya-kriyah
yogenavyabhicharinya dhrtih sa partha sattviki [33]

(he) partha–O Partha; yaya avyabhicharinya dhrtya–that unwavering determination which; yogena–with single-minded concentration; dharayate–controls; manah-prana-indriya-kriyah–the functions of the mind, life forces, and senses; sa dhrtih sattviki–is determination of the nature of goodness. [33]

33 O Partha, determination of the nature of goodness is that determination which unfailingly and with single-minded concentration controls the functions of the mind, the life-airs, and the senses.

यया तु धर्म्मकामार्थान्धृत्या धारयतेऽर्ज्जुन ।
प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥३४॥

yaya tu dharma-kamarthan dhrtya dharayate ’rjuna
prasangena phalakanksi dhrtih sa partha rajasi [34]

tu–But; (he) partha arjuna–O Partha, Arjuna; yaya dhrtya–determination by which; dharma-kama-arthan–religiosity, desire, and wealth; dharayate–are held; (pradhanyena)–foremost; prasangena–by the contact of which; (bhavati)–one becomes; phala-akanksi–desirous of their fruits; sa dhrtih–that determination; rajasi–is of the nature of passion. [34]

34 O Partha, O Arjuna, determination of the nature of passion is that fruitive, attached determination which adheres to religiosity for the purpose of amassing wealth to fulfill mundane desires.

यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च ।
न विमुञ्चति दुर्म्मेधा धृतिः सा तामसी मता ॥३५॥

yaya svapnam bhayam sokam visadam madam eva cha
na vimunchati durmedha dhrtih sa tamasi mata [35]

sa dhrtih–That determination; yaya–by which; durmedhah–a foolish person; na vimunchati–never leaves; svapnam–sleep; bhayam–fear; sokam–sorrow; visadam–depression; madam eva cha–pride, arrogance; mata–is considered; tamasi–determination of the nature of ignorance. [35]

35 Determination of the nature of ignorance is that by which a foolish person does not give up sleep, fear, sorrow, depression, and arrogance.

सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं शृणु मे भरतर्षभ ।
अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तञ्च निगच्छति ॥३६।

यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम् ।
तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम् ॥३७॥

sukham tv idanim tri-vidham srnu me bharatarsabha
abhyasad ramate yatra duhkhantan cha nigachchhati [36]

yat tad agre visam iva pariname ’mrtopamam
tat sukham sattvikam proktam atma-buddhi-prasada-jam [37]

(he) bharatarsabha–O best of the Bharatas; idanim tu–now; srnu–hear; me–from Me; tri-vidham sukham–about the three kinds of happiness: yatra–that in which; ramate–one delights; abhyasat–through his practices; nigachchhati cha–and attains; duhkha-antam–the cessation of unhappiness; yat tat–and that which; agre–initially; visam iva–is like poison; pariname–and subsequently; amrta-upamam–like nectar; tat sukham–such happiness; atma-buddhi-prasada-jam–born of the purity of self-realisation; proktam–is called; sattvikam–happiness of the nature of goodness. [36–37]

36–37 O Bharatarsabha, now hear from Me about the three kinds of happiness: That state in which one is joyful through his practices while attaining the cessation of all unhappiness, and which in the beginning is like poison but ultimately like nectar, and which is born of the purity of self-realisation—that happiness is said to be of the nature of goodness.

विषयेन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम् ।
परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥३८।

visayendriya-samyogad yat tad agre ’mrtopamam
pariname visam iva tat sukham rajasam smrtam [38]

tat yat–That which; (jayate)–is born; visaya-indriya-samyogat–from the contact of the senses with their objects; agre–and in the beginning; amrta-upamam–is like nectar; pariname–and subsequently; visam iva–like poison; tat sukham–that happiness; smrtam–is called; rajasam–happiness of the nature of passion. [38]

38 That happiness which is born of the contact of the senses with their objects, and which is like nectar in the beginning but poison in the end, is said to be happiness of the nature of passion.

यदग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनमात्मनः ।
निद्रालस्यप्रमादोत्थं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥३९॥

yad agre chanubandhe cha sukham mohanam atmanah
nidralasya-pramadottham tat tamasam udahrtam [39]

nidra-alasya-pramada-uttham–Born of sleep, laziness, and illusion; yat sukham–that happiness which; agre cha–in the beginning; anubandhe cha–and in the end; atmanah mohanam–is self-deception; tat–such happiness; udahrtam–is called; tamasam–happiness of the nature of ignorance. [39]

39 That happiness which is self-deception from beginning to end, and which arises from sleep, laziness, and illusion, is called happiness of the nature of ignorance.

न तदस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः ।
सत्त्वं प्रकृतिजैर्मुक्तं यदेभिः स्यात्त्रिभिर्गुणैः ॥४०॥

na tad asti prthivyam va divi devesu va punah
sattvam prakrti-jair muktam yad ebhih syat tribhir gunaih [40]

prthivyam va–Either on earth; (manusyadisu)–amongst the humans, etc.; va punah–or again; divi–in the heavenly plane; devesu–amongst the demigods; na asti–there is no; tat sattvam–such entity; yat–which; muktam syat–can be free; ebhih tribhih gunaih–from these three modes; prakrti-jaih–born of material nature. [40]

40 Amongst all species on earth including the humans or amongst even the celestial gods in the heavenly plane, there is no entity that can be free from these three modes which are born of material nature.

ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणाञ्च परन्तप ।
कर्म्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुनैः ॥४१॥

brahmana-ksatriya-visam sudranan cha parantapa
karmani pravibhaktani svabhava-prabhavair gunaih [41]

(he) parantapa–O vanquisher of the enemy; karmani–the duties; brahmana-ksatriya-visam–of the brahman, ksatriya, and vaisya; sudranam cha–and sudra sections; pravibhaktani–are appropriately classified; gunaih–according to the qualities of goodness, passion, and ignorance; svabhava-prabhavaih–born of their natures. [41]

41 O Parantapa, according to their natures, the duties of the brahmans, ksatriyas, vaisyas, and sudras are appropriately classified.

शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्ज्जवमेव च ।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म्म स्वभावजम् ॥४२॥

samo damas tapah saucham ksantir arjavam eva cha
jnanam vijnanam astikyam brahma-karma svabhava-jam [42]

(etani)–All these; (bhavati)–are; svabhava-jam–the natural; brahma-karma–duties of the brahmans: samah–internal sense-control; damah–external sense-control; tapah–austerity; saucham–external and internal purity; ksantih–forbearance; arjavam eva cha–straightforwardness; jnanam–scriptural knowledge; vijnanam–realisation of essential truth; astikyam–theistic mentality or firm faith in the teachings of the scriptures. [42]

42 Internal and external sense-control, austerity, purity, forbearance, straightforwardness, knowledge, realisation, and theistic mentality—these are the natural duties of the brahmans.

शौर्य्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् ।
दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म्म स्वभावजम् ॥४३॥

sauryam tejo dhrtir daksyam yuddhe chapy apalayanam
danam isvara-bhavas cha ksatram karma svabhava-jam [43]

(etani)–All these; (bhavati)–are; svabhava-jam–the natural; ksatram karma–duties of the ksatriyas: sauryam–prowess; tejah–valour; dhrtih–endurance; daksyam–dexterity; apalayanam–never retreating; yuddhe cha api–in battle; danam–generosity; isvara-bhavah cha–and regality. [43]

43 Prowess, valour, endurance, dexterity, never retreating in battle, generosity, and regality—these are the characteristic duties of the ksatriyas.

कृषिगोरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म्म स्वभावजम् ।
परिचर्य्यात्मकं कर्म्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम् ॥४४॥

krsi-goraksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava-jam
paricharyatmakam karma sudrasyapi svabhava-jam [44]

(etani)–All these; (bhavati)–are; svabhava-jam–the natural; vaisya-karma–functions of the vaisyas: krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam–agriculture, cow protection, and trade. karma api–The duty; paricharya-atmakam–of service to the brahmans, ksatriyas, and vaisyas; svabhava-jam–is natural; sudrasya–for the sudra section. [44]

44 Agriculture, cow protection, and trade are the natural work of the vaisyas; and natural to the sudras is service to the brahmans, ksatriyas, and vaisyas (assisting them in their various works).

स्वे स्वे कर्म्मण्यभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः ।
स्वकर्म्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु ॥४५॥

sve sve karmany abhiratah samsiddhim labhate narah
svakarma-niratah siddhim yatha vindati tach chhrnu [45]

narah–The man; abhiratah–devoted; sve sve karmani–to his own appropriate duty; labhate–attains; samsiddhim–perfection in self-knowledge. srnu tat–Now hear; yatha–how; svakarma-niratah–one dedicated to executing his prescribed duty; vindati– attains; siddhim–perfection. [45]

45 One who devotes himself to his own duty attains perfection in self-knowledge. Now hear from Me how a person attains perfection through devotion to his own duty:

यतः प्रवृत्तिर्भूतानां येन सर्व्वमिदं ततम् ।
स्वकर्म्मणा तमभ्यर्च्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः ॥४६॥

yatah pravrttir bhutanam yena sarvam idam tatam
svakarmana tam abhyarchya siddhim vindati manavah [46]

manavah–A man; vindati–attains; siddhim–perfection; abhyarchya–by worshipping; svakarmana–through his appropiate, prescribed duty; tam–that Supreme Lord; yatah–from whom occurs; pravrttih–the manifestation or impetus; bhutanam–of all living beings; yena–and by whom, individually and collectively; idam–this; sarvam–entire universe; tatam–is pervaded. [46]

46 A man achieves perfection by worshipping, through his prescribed duties, the Supreme Lord from whom all beings originate, by whom all beings are engaged, and who (individually and collectively) pervades the entire universe.

श्रेयान्स्वधर्म्मो विगुणः परधर्म्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वभावनियतं कर्म्म कुर्व्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥४७॥

sreyan svadharmo vigunah para-dharmat svanusthitat
svabhava-niyatam karma kurvan napnoti kilbisam [47]

svadharmah–One’s own prescribed duty; vigunah–though imperfect; sreyan–is better; para-dharmat–than another’s duties; su-anusthitat–executed well. kurvan–By doing; karma–the duty; svabhava-niyatam–prescribed according to his nature; (manavah)–a man; kilbisam na apnoti–does not incur sin. [47]

47 One’s own duty, though imperfect, is better than another’s executed well. Sin is never incurred by a man fullfilling the duty prescribed according to his nature.

सहजं कर्म्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत् ।
सर्व्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निरिवावृताः ॥४८॥

saha-jam karma kaunteya sa-dosam api na tyajet
sarvarambha hi dosena dhumenagnir ivavrtah [48]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; sa-dosam api–although imperfect; karma–action; saha-jam–prescribed according to one’s nature; na tyajet–must not be given up; hi–for; sarva-arambhah–all undertakings; avrtah–are covered; dosena–by defects; agnih iva–as fire is covered; dhumena–by smoke. [48]

48 O Kaunteya, even though it may be imperfect, one should not give up the duty prescribed according to his nature. Verily, all action (karma) is (generally) covered by imperfection, as fire is covered by smoke.

असक्तबुद्धिः सर्व्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः।
नैष्कर्म्म्यसिद्धिं परमां सन्न्यासेनाधिगच्छति ॥४९॥

asakta-buddhih sarvatra jitatma vigata-sprhah
naiskarmya-siddhim paramam sannyasenadhigachchhati [49]

asakta-buddhih–One with the wisdom of detachment; sarvatra–from all mundane objects; jita-atma–the self-controlled; vigata-sprhah–person whose desires have gone; adhigachchhati–attains to; paramam naiskarmya-siddhim–the higher state, of transcending all duties; sannyasena–by renouncing the fruits of his actions. [49]

49 One who has the wisdom of detachment from all mundane objects, who is self-controlled, and whose desires have gone—such a person attains the perfection of transcending all duties in the world by renouncing the fruits of his actions.

सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे ।
समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा ॥५०॥

siddhim prapto yatha brahma tathapnoti nibodha me
samasenaiva kaunteya nistha jnanasya ya para [50]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; yatha–how; siddhim praptah–the person who has achieved the state of transcending all duties; apnoti–attains to; brahma–Brahma, the Absolute; ya para nistha–the ultimate state; jnanasya–of knowledge; tatha nibodha–now understand that; samasena eva–in brief; me–from Me. [50]

50 O Kaunteya, now know from Me in brief how the person who has attained transcendence of all duties reaches the transcendental plane of the Absolute, the ultimate state of knowledge (spiritual awakening):

बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च ।
शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च ॥५१॥

विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः ।
ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः ॥५२॥

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् ।
विमुच्य निर्म्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥५३॥

buddhya visuddhaya yukto dhrtyatmanam niyamya cha
sabdadin visayams tyaktva raga-dvesau vyudasya cha [51]

vivikta-sevi laghv-asi yata-vak-kaya-manasah
dhyana-yoga-paro nityam vairagyam samupasritah [52]

ahankaram balam darpam kamam krodham parigraham
vimuchya nirmamah santo brahma-bhuyaya kalpate [53]

yuktah (san)–A person possessing; visuddhaya buddhya–intelligence of the nature of goodness; niyamya cha–and controlling; atmanam–the mind; dhrtya–through determination of the nature of goodness; tyaktva–rejecting; visayan–the sense objects; sabdadin–of sound, touch, etc.; vyudasya cha–abandoning; raga-dvesau–attachment and aversion—likes and dislikes; vivikta-sevi–remaining free from the association of materialistic persons; laghu-asi–a temperate eater; yata-vak-kaya-manasah–disciplining the body, mind, and speech; nityam–and constantly; dhyana-yoga-parah–absorbed in meditation on the Supreme Lord; vairagyam samupasritah–fully detached from the mundane; vimuchya–giving up; ahankaram–ego—considering oneself ‘the doer’; balam–power; darpam–vanity; kamam–desire; krodham–anger; parigraham–possessiveness; santah–being at peace; nirmamah–not thinking of anything as ‘mine’; kalpate–is qualified; brahma-bhuyaya–for spiritual realisation. [51–53].

51–53 Endowed with intelligence of the nature of goodness, mentally controlled through determination of the nature of goodness, rejecting the sense objects of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell, abandoning attachment and aversion, free from the association of materialistic persons, a temperate eater, disciplining the body, mind, and speech, constantly absorbed in thought of the Supreme Lord, and fully detached from the mundane world; giving up ego, power, vanity, desire, anger, and possessiveness, not thinking of anything as ‘mine’; being at peace—such a person is qualified for spiritual realisation.

ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।
समः सर्व्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम् ॥५४॥

brahma-bhutah prasannatma na sochati na kanksati
samah sarvesu bhutesu mad-bhaktim labhate param [54]

prasanna-atma–The joyful, enlightened soul; brahma-bhutah–who has attained his divine nature; na sochati–neither sorrows; na kanksati–nor desires. samah–Being of equal vision; sarvesu–for all; bhutesu–living beings (considering My superior potency to be in everything); labhate–he attains; param–transcendental; mat-bhaktim–devotion to Me. [54]

54 The joyful-hearted, enlightened soul who has attained his divine nature neither sorrows nor desires. Seeing all beings equally, he comes to attain transcendental loving devotion to Me.

भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः ।
ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनन्तरम् ॥५५॥

bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas chasmi tattvatah
tato mam tattvato jnatva visate tad-anantaram [55]

bhaktya–Through devotion; (sah)–he; abhijanati–can well know; mam–Me; tattvatah–in reality; yavan–as far as being the Master of all opulences; yah cha (aham) asmi–and that which I am. jnatva–Thus knowing Me; tattvatah–in truth; (sah)–he; tat-anantaram–thereafter; tatah–by the potency of that devotion; visate–enters; mam–My eternal Pastimes (nitya-lila), non-different from Me. [55]

55 Through devotion, he realises that I am the Lord of all potencies and the Sweet Absolute. Then, realising his divine relationship with Me, he enters the company of My intimate associates who are non-different from My very self.

सर्व्वकर्म्माण्यपि सदा कुर्व्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः ।
मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम् ॥५६॥

sarva-karmany api sada kurvano mad-vyapasrayah
mat-prasadad avapnoti sasvatam padam avyayam [56]

api–Although; sada–ever; kurvanah–active; sarva-karmani–in all duties; mat-vyapasrayah–My surrendered souls; avapnoti–attain; sasvatam–the eternal; avyayam–immutable (flourishing); padam–plane (of service); mat-prasadat–by My grace. [56]

56 Although ever active in all duties, those who have taken refuge in Me attain, by My grace, the eternal, indestructable plane (of service).

चेतसा सर्व्वकर्म्माणि मयि सन्न्यस्य मत्परः ।
बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव ॥५७॥

chetasa sarva-karmani mayi sannyasya mat-parah
buddhi-yogam upasritya mach-chittah satatam bhava [57]

sannyasya–Offering; chetasa–whole-heartedly; sarva-karmani–all actions; mayi–to Me; mat-parah–keeping Me as the supreme objective; upasritya–and taking refuge; buddhi-yogam–in dedicating your intelligence to Me; bhava–be; satatam–ever; mat-chittah–devoted to Me. [57]

57 Whole-heartedly offering your every action to Me, keeping Me as the supreme objective and fully dedicating your intelligence to Me (being unattached to worldly action), be ever devoted to Me.

मच्चित्तः सर्व्वदुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि ।
अथ चेत्त्वमहङ्कारान्न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि ॥५८॥

mach-chittah sarva-durgani mat-prasadat tarisyasi
atha chet tvam ahankaran na srosyasi vinanksyasi [58]

mach-chittah–Giving your heart to Me; tvam–you; tarisyasi–will cross; sarva-durgani–all obstacles; mat-prasadat–by My grace. atha chet–Yet, if; ahankarat–out of pride; na srosyasi–you do not heed (My words); (tarhi)–then; vinanksyasi–you will perish. [58]

58 Giving your heart to Me, you will be able to overcome all obstacles by My grace. But if out of pride you do not heed My words, you will perish.

यदहङ्कारमाश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे ।
मिथ्यैव व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति ॥५९॥

yad ahankaram asritya na yotsya iti manyase
mithyaiva vyavasayas te prakrtis tvam niyoksyati [59]

asritya–Resorting to; ahankaram–pride; yat manyase iti–you are thinking; na yotsya–“I shall not fight”; (esah)–but such; vyavasayah–a decision; te–of yours; (bhavisyati)–will be; mithya eva–only in vain. prakrtih–The nature befitting a ksatriya; niyoksyati–will compel; tvam–you. [59]

59 Out of pride you are thinking, “I shall not fight.” But your decision will be in vain, for your nature (as a ksatriya) will compel you to fight.

स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्म्मणा ।
कर्त्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोऽपि तत् ॥६०॥

svabhava-jena kaunteya nibaddhah svena karmana
kartum nechchhasi yan mohat karisyasy avaso ’pi tat [60]

(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; nibaddhah (san)–being bound; svena–by your; karmana–duty; svabhava-jena–born of your nature; tat api–that very action; yat–which; mohat–out of delusion; (tvam)–you; na ichchhasi–do not wish; kartum–to perform; karisyasi–you will do; avasah (san)–inevitably. [60]

60 O Kaunteya, being bound by the duty born of your nature, that very action which out of delusion you are now avoiding will be inevitably executed by you.

ईश्वरः सर्व्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्ज्जुन तिष्ठति ।
भ्रामयन्सर्व्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया ॥६१॥

isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese ’rjuna tisthati
bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya [61]

(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; sarva-bhutanam–for all beings; isvarah–the Supreme Lord as the Supersoul; tisthati–is situated; hrd-dese–in region of the heart. mayaya–By His illusory potency; sarva-bhutani bhramayan–He causes all beings to revolve (through many existences); yantra-arudhani (iva)–as though riding a carousel. [61]

61 O Arjuna, the Supreme Lord is situated in the hearts of all beings, and by His deluding potency He causes them to revolve (through many existences) like puppets riding a carousel.

तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्व्वभावेन भारत ।
तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम् ॥६२॥

tam eva saranam gachchha sarva-bhavena bharata
tat prasadat param santim sthanam prapsyasi sasvatam [62]

(he) bharata–O Bharat; (atah)–therefore; saranam gachchha–surrender; sarva-bhavena–wholeheartedly; tam eva–unto Him, alone. tat-prasadat–By His grace; prapsyasi–you will attain; param–the supreme; santim–peace; sasvatam–the eternal; sthanam–abode. [62]

62 O Bharat, wholeheartedly surrender to Him. By His grace you will attain the supreme peace and the eternal abode.

इति ते ज्ञानमाख्यातं गुह्याद्गुह्यतरं मया ।
विमृश्यैतदशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥६३॥

iti te jnanam akhyatam guhyad guhyataram maya
vimrsyaitad asesena yathechchhasi tatha kuru [63]

iti–Up to this point; guhyat–from profound; guhyataram jnanam–to more profound knowledge; akhyatam–has been disclosed; maya–by Me; te–to you. asesena–Fully; vimrsya–considering; etat–that; kuru–do; yatha–as; ichchhasi–you wish; tatha– accordingly. [63]

63 I have now revealed more and more profound teachings to you. Duly consider this, and then do as you wish.

सर्व्वगुह्यतमं भूयः शृणु मे परमं वचः ।
इष्टोऽसि मे दृढमिति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम् ॥६४॥

sarva-guhyatamam bhuyah srnu me paramam vachah
isto ’si me drdham iti tato vaksyami te hitam [64]

bhuyah–Again; srnu–hear; me–My; paramam–supreme; vachah–teaching. sarva-guhyatamam–most profound of all. (tvam)–You; asi–are; drdham–extremely; istah–dear; me–to Me; iti tatah–so; vaksyami–I am speaking; te–to you; hitam–for your benefit. [64]

64 Now again hear My supreme teaching, the most hidden treasure of all. I tell you this for your benefit as you are most dear to Me.

Commentary

According to Srila Bhakti Vinod Thakur (Vidvad-ranjan commentary, 9.1), the wisdom of self-realisation in the second and third chapters of Sri Gita are the profound (guhyam) teachings of Lord Sri Krishna. The Lord’s descriptions of Himself as the Supreme in the seventh and eighth chapters are more profound (guhyataram), as such knowledge gives birth to devotion. In chapter nine, the most profound (guhyatamam) teachings begin as the Lord describes the symptoms of exclusive devotion (kevala-bhakti).

Because His devotee Arjuna is very dear to Him, the Lord now repeats His secret teaching for Arjuna’s benefit. This time, however, He reveals His most hidden of all hidden treasures (sarva-guhyatamam), His most affectionate advice: “Arjuna, you are most dear to Me, so I will now divulge the whole truth to you.”

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।
मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे ॥६५॥

man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaisyasi satyam te pratijane priyo ’si me [65]

bhava–Be; mat-manah–of mind dedicated to Me; mat-bhaktah–devoted to Me; mat-yaji–be My worshipper; namaskuru–and offer obeisance—offer yourself; mam–to Me; (tarhi)–then; eva–certainly; esyasi–you will come; mam–to Me. satyam–Truly; pratijane–I promise this; te–to you; (yatah tvam)–as you; asi–are; priyah–dear; me–to Me. [65]

65 Think of Me always, devote yourself to Me, worship Me, and bow to Me, and surely you will come to Me. I promise you this, because you are dear to Me.

सर्व्वधर्म्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।
अहं त्वां सर्व्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥६६॥

sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja
aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami ma suchah [66]

parityajya–Totally rejecting; sarva-dharman–all kinds of religion; saranam vraja–take shelter; mam–of Me; ekam–alone. aham–I; moksayisyami–will liberate; tvam–you; sarva-papebhyah–from all kinds of sins. ma suchah–Do not despair. [66]

66 Give up all kinds of religion and surrender to Me alone. I will liberate you from all sins. Do not despair.

Commentary

Here, the glory of the hidden purpose in the Bhagavad-gita is sung (Gita-gudhartha-gauravam): “Give up all engagements and come to Me. You won’t have to repent, Arjuna, because I am everything to you, and you are everything to Me. This is the most hidden of all hidden truths. What more can I say? And you will find this in Vraja.”

There is a literary ornament in Sanskrit called dhvani, echo, by which a word ‘echoes’, suggests, an additional meaning. Here, such a hint is given. Mam ekam saranam ‘vraja’*: “You may ‘go’ to ‘Vraja’, and there you will find the most hidden of all hidden truths (sarva-guhyatamam). The deepest secret of the inner loving heart has been fully revealed there: I am beyond all conceptions of religion, society, friends—everything. My position is above everything, and in the heart of the heart of everything. In the eternal land of Vraja, you will experience the whole conception of beauty. Dismiss all other engagements and prospects, and come to Me alone. Your inner hankering will be fulfilled beyond your expectations. You will find such dignity in Me that you will be beyond reaction and repentance.” This is the deepest meaning of the highest glory.

If one comes to this conception, everything else will be seen as sin (Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami). Everything conceived of as duty or purity in this material world will be seen as sinful, and all conceptions of religiosity will be reduced to the level of sin. In the absolute plane, everything and everyone belongs wholly to Krishna, and the slightest deviation from this ideal is no better than committing sin. Mere self-forgetfulness leads to impersonalism and culminates in deep slumber. But self-forgetfulness (sarva-dharman parityajya) in Krishna’s service (Mam ekam saranam vraja) is positive and living. It is the full, absolute plane of life.

The hidden treasure attracts our hearts. We have been deprived of our heart’s deepest interest. Though we have a natural claim to it, it has been hidden from us (srutibhir vimrgyam). In an unparalleled way, Sri Gita considers all these aspects and directs us to the correct meaning and conclusion of all the Upanisads. From this point, the Srimad Bhagavatam begins.

*In the verse, vraja means ‘go’, and Vraja is also a name of Vrndavan.

इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन ।
न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति ॥६७॥

idam te natapaskaya nabhaktaya kadachana
na chasusrusave vachyam na cha mam yo ’bhyasuyati [67]

te–You; kadachana na vachyam–should never disclose; idam–this; atapaskaya–to one devoid of self-sacrifice; na abhaktaya–nor to a non-devotee; asusrusave na cha–nor to one who is averse to My service; yah na cha–nor to one who; abhyasuyati–is resentful; mam–towards Me. [67]

67 You should never disclose this hidden treasure to one devoid of self-sacrifice, to the non-devotee, to the faithless, to one who is averse to My service, or to one who is resentful towards Me.

य इमं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति ।
भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः ॥६८॥

ya imam paramam guhyam mad-bhaktesv abhidhasyati
bhaktim mayi param krtva mam evaisyaty asamsayah [68]

yah–One who; abhidhasyati–sings the glories of; imam–this; paramam–supreme; guhyam–secret; mat-bhaktesu–to My devotees; (sah)–such a person; krtva–attaining; param–transcendental; bhaktim–devotion; mayi–to Me; esyati–will reach; mam eva–Me; asamsayah–without a doubt. [68]

68 One who reveals the glories of this supreme secret to My devotees will attain transcendental devotion to Me and reach Me without a doubt.

न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन्मे प्रियकृत्तमः ।
भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि ॥६९॥

na cha tasman manusyesu kaschin me priya-krttamah
bhavita na cha me tasmad anyah priyataro bhuvi [69]

manusyesu–In human society; na cha kaschit–no one; me priya-krttamah–pleases Me more by his actions; tasmat–than he (the preacher of Bhagavad-gita); cha–and; na bhavita–there will not be; anyah–any other; priyatarah–dearer; me–to Me; tasmat– than he; bhuvi–in the world. [69]

69 In the entire human society there is no one who pleases Me by his actions more than he (who preaches the glories of the Bhagavad-gita), nor will there ever be anyone in the world dearer to Me than he.

अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्म्यं संवादमावयोः ।
ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः ॥७०॥

adhyesyate cha ya imam dharmyam samvadam avayoh
jnana-yajnena tenaham istah syam iti me matih [70]

yah cha–And for he who; adhyesyate–studies; imam–this; dharmyam–holy; samvadam–conversation; avayoh–of ours; aham–I; syam–shall be; istah–worshipped; tena–by that (by him); jnana-yajnena–by the ‘knowledge-sacrifice’. iti–That; me matih–is My opinion. [70]

70 And one who studies with devotion this holy conversation of ours will worship Me by the ‘knowledge-sacrifice’. This is My conclusion.

श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः ।
सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्म्मणाम् ॥७१॥

sraddhavan anasuyas cha srnuyad api yo narah
so ’pi muktah subha̐l lokan prapnuyat punya-karmanam [71]

sah narah api–That person, too; sraddhavan–possessing faith; anasuyah cha–and without resentment; yah–who; srnuyat api–only hears; muktah (san)–shall be liberated; (papat)–from sin; prapnuyat–and will reach; subhan–the auspicious; lokan–abodes; (prapya)–attainable; punya-karmanam–by the performers of virtuous acts. [71]

71 Simply by hearing this with an open heart, a faithful person is liberated and attains to the auspicious abodes of the virtuous souls.

कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा ।
कच्चिदज्ञानसम्मोहः प्रणष्टस्ते धनञ्जय ॥७२॥

kachchid etach chhrutam partha tvayaikagrena chetasa
kachchid ajnana-sammohah pranastas te dhananjaya [72]

(he) partha–O son of Kunti; kachchit–has; etat–this Gita; srutam–been heard; tvaya–by you; ekagrena–with your single-minded; chetasa–attention? (he) dhananjaya–O Arjuna; kachchit te–has your; ajnana-sammohah–ignorance and delusion; pranastah–been dispelled? [72]

72 O Partha, have you listened to this with your undivided attention? O Dhananjaya, are you now free from the darkness of your delusion?

अर्ज्जुन उवाच ।

नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत ।
स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव ॥७३॥

arjuna uvacha

nasto mohah smrtir labdha tvat prasadan mayachyuta
sthito ’smi gata-sandehah karisye vachanam tava [73]

arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) achyuta–O Sri Krishna; tvat prasadat–by Your grace; (me)–my; mohah–delusion; nastah–is dispelled. smrtih–Self-remembrance; labdha–is regained; maya–by me. sthitah asmi–I am steady. gata-sandehah–My doubts have gone. karisye–I shall follow; tava–Your; vachanam–instructions. [73]

73 Arjuna said: O infallible one, by Your grace my delusion is now gone, I can now remember who I am, my doubts are destroyed, and I am firm in my resolve. I shall follow Your instructions.

सञ्जय उवाच ।

इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः ।
संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम् ॥७४॥

sanjaya uvacha

ity aham vasudevasya parthasya cha mahatmanah
samvadam imam asrausam adbhutam roma-harsanam [74]

sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: iti–thus; aham–I; asrausam–heard; imam–this; adbhutam–wonderful; roma-harsanam–thrilling; samvadam–conversation; maha-atmanah vasudevasya–of the Supreme Soul Vasudeva; parthasya cha–and Arjuna. [74]

74 Sanjaya said: Thus, I heard this wondrous conversation of the Supreme Soul Vasudev and the son of Prtha, Arjuna, which arouses ecstasy in the hearts of all.

व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानिमं गुह्यमहं परम् ।
योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम् ॥७५॥

vyasa-prasadach chhrutavan imam guhyam aham param
yogam yogesvarat krsnat saksat-kathayatah svayam [75]

vyasa-prasadat–By the grace of Sri Vyasadev; aham–I; srutavan–heard; imam–this; param–supreme; guhyam–secret; yogam–yoga (yoga of action, knowledge, and devotion); saksat-kathayatah–spoken directly; yogesvarat–by the Lord of yoga; krsnat svayam–Krishna Himself. [75]

75 By the mercy of Sri Vyasadev I heard this supreme secret teaching of yoga, sung directly by the Supreme Lord of yoga, Lord Sri Krishna Himself.

राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम् ।
केशवार्ज्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः ॥७६॥

rajan samsmrtya samsmrtya samvadam imam adbhutam
kesavarjunayoh punyam hrsyami cha muhur muhuh [76]

(he) rajan–O King Dhrtarastra; samsmrtya samsmrtya–ever remembering; imam adbhutam–this miraculous; punyam–sacred; samvadam–conversation; kesava-arjuna-yoh–of Sri Krishna and Arjuna; hrsyami–my heart thrills; muhuh muhuh cha–repeatedly. [76]

76 O King, ever remembering this miraculous, sacred conversation of Lord Sri Krishna and Arjuna, my heart thrills over and over again.

तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः ।
विस्मयो मे महान्राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः ॥७७॥

tach cha samsmrtya samsmrtya rupam atyadbhutam hareh
vismayo me mahan rajan hrsyami cha punah punah [77]

(he) rajan–O King; samsmrtya samsmrtya cha–and repeatedly remembering; tat–that; ati-adbhutam–most miraculous; rupam–universal form; hareh–of the Lord, Sri Hari; me–my; mahan–great; vismayah–wonder; (bhavati)–occurs; cha–and; hrsyami–and I thrill with ecstasy; punah punah–again and again. [77]

77 And remembering, O King, I marvel at that astonishing, almighty universal form of the Supreme Lord Hari, and my whole being thrills with ecstasy.

यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः ।
तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम ॥७८॥

yatra yogesvarah krsno yatra partho dhanur-dharah
tatra srir vijayo bhutir dhruva nitir matir mama [78]

yatra–Where there is; yoga-isvarah–the Lord of yoga, the objective of yoga; krsnah–Lord Krishna; yatra–where there is; dhanuh-dharah parthah–Arjuna with bow in hand, the winner of wealth; tatra–there; dhruva–prevails; srih–fortune; vijayah–victory, Jayasri; bhutih–prosperity; nitih–and virtue. (iti)–This is; mama–my; matih–opinion. [78]

78 Where there is Yogesvar Krishna, and where there is Arjuna, the winner of wealth with bow in hand, there prevails fortune, victory, prosperity, and virtue. This is my opinion.

इति श्रीमहाभारते शतसाहस्र्यां संहितायां वैयासिक्या भीष्मपर्व्वणि
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्ज्जुनसंवादे मोक्षयोगो नामष्टादशोऽध्यायः ॥१८॥

iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
bhisma-parvani srimad-bhagavad-gitasupanisatsu brahma
vidyayam yoga-sastre sri-krsnarjuna-samvade moksa
yogo namastadaso ’dhyayah [18]

End of Chapter Eighteen
The Path of Liberation
from the conversation
of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad
the yoga scripture of transcendental knowledge
in Bhisma Parva of Sri Mahabharata, the holy scripture
revealed by Srila Vyasadev in a hundred thousand verses.

श्रीगीतामाहात्म्यम् ।

The Glories of the Gita

गीताशास्त्रमिदं पुण्यं यः पठेत्प्रयतः पुमान् ।
विष्णोः पदमवाप्नोति भयशोकादिवर्ज्जितः ॥१॥

gita-sastram idam punyam yah pathet prayatah puman
visnoh padam avapnoti bhaya-sokadi-varjitah [1]

1 This Bhagavad-gita scripture is the bestower of all good. One who regularly studies it with devotion will attain to the holy abode of Lord Visnu, the plane of freedom from all distress, fear, and sorrow.

गीताध्ययनशीलस्य प्राणायामपरस्य च ।
नैव सन्ति हि पापानि पूर्व्वजन्मकृतानि च ॥२॥

gitadhyayana-silasya pranayama-parasya cha
naiva santi hi papani purva-janma-krtani cha [2]

2 For a self-controlled person who seriously studies this Bhagavad-gita scripture, not a trace of sin from this life or even from the previous life remains, as all the sins of such a person are burnt to ashes.

मलनिर्मोचनं पुंसां जलस्नानं दिने दिने ।
सकृद्गीताम्भसि स्नानं संसारमलनाशनम् ॥३॥

malanir mochanam pumsam jala-snanam dine dine
sakrd-gitambhasi snanam samsara-mala-nasanam [3]

3 As a person bathes every day to cleanse the body, similarly, by bathing only once in the waters of the Bhagavad-gita (reading the Gita once with devotion) all the dirt of painful material existence is washed away.

गीता सुगीता कर्त्तव्या किमन्यैः शास्त्रविस्तरैः ।
या स्वयं पद्मनाभस्य मुखपद्माद्विनिःसृता ॥४॥

gita sugita kartavya kim anyaih sastra-vistaraih
ya svayam padma-nabhasya mukha-padmad vinihsrta [4]

4 The Gita should always be sung with devotion. This divine song emanated from the holy lotus mouth of the Supreme Lord Himself, Lord Sri Krishna. What more can any other scriptures give?

भारतामृतसर्व्वस्वं विष्णोर्वक्त्राद्विनिःसृतम् ।
गीतागङ्गोदकं पीत्वा पुनर्जन्म न विद्यते ॥५॥

bharatamrta-sarvasvam visnor vaktrad vinihsrtam
gita-gangodakam pitva punar janma na vidyate [5]

5 By drinking the Ganges waters of the Gita (by singing the Gita with devotion), the nectar of the Mahabharata emanating from the lotus mouth of Lord Visnu, one will never take birth in the material world again.

सर्व्वोपनिषदो गावो दोग्धा गोपालनन्दनः ।
पार्थो वत्सः सुधीर्भोक्ता दुग्धं गीतामृतं महत् ॥६॥

sarvopanisado gavo dogdha gopala-nandanah
partho vatsah sudhir bhokta dugdham gitamrtam mahat [6]

6 All the Upanisads are as the cow, and the milker of the cow is Sri Krishna, the son of Nanda. Arjuna is the calf, the nectar of the Gita is the milk, and the fortunate devotees are the enjoyers of the milk.

एकं शास्त्रं देवकीपुत्रगीतम्
एको देवो देवकीपुत्र एव ।
एको मन्त्रस्तस्य नामानि यानि
कर्म्माप्येकं तस्य देवस्य सेवा ॥७॥

ekam sastram devaki-putra-gitam
eko devo devaki-putra eva
eko mantras tasya namani yani
karmapy ekam tasya devasya seva [7]

7 There need be only one scripture—the holy Gita sung by Sri Krishna; only one worshippable Lord—Sri Krishna; only one mantra—His Holy Names; and only one work—devotional service to the Supreme Lord, Sri Krishna.

श्रीवैष्णवीय तन्त्रसारोक्त
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतामाहात्म्यम्

The Glories of Srimad Bhagavad-gita
from Sri-Vaisnaviya-tantra-sara

ऋषिरुवाच ।

गीतायाश्चैव माहात्म्यं यथावत्सूत मे वद ।
पुरा नारायणक्षेत्रे व्यासेन मुनिनोदितम् ॥१॥

rsir uvacha

gitayas chaiva mahatmyam yathavat suta me vada
pura narayana-ksetre vyasena muninoditam [1]

1 The sage said: O Suta, please tell us of the glories of Srimad Bhagavad-gita, as expressed long ago at Narayan Ksetra by the great sage Srila Vyasadev.

सूत उवाच ।

भद्रं भगवता पृष्टं यद्धि गुप्ततमं परम् ।
शक्यते केन तद्वक्तुं गीतामाहात्म्यमुत्तमम् ॥२॥

suta uvacha

bhadram bhagavata prstam yaddhi guptatamam param
sakyate kena tad vaktum gita-mahatmyam uttamam [2]

2 Suta Goswami said: O venerable one, your request is most auspicious. Indeed, who can describe the transcendental glories of Sri Gita, the most hidden of all treasures?

कृष्णो जानाति वै सम्यक्कञ्चित्कुन्तीसुतः फलम् ।
व्यासो वा व्यासपुत्रो वा याज्ञवल्क्योऽथ मैथिलः ॥३॥

krsno janati vai samyak kinchit kunti-sutah phalam
vyaso va vyasa-putro va yajnavalkyo ’tha maithilah [3]

3 Certainly Lord Sri Krishna is in full knowledge of those glories; and so Arjuna, the son of Kunti, knows of them; and Vyasadev, Sukadev, Yajnavalkya, and the saintly King Janaka, too.

अन्ये श्रवणतः श्रुत्वा लेशं सङ्कीर्त्तयन्ति च ।
तस्मात्किञ्चिद्वदाम्यत्र व्यासस्य स्यान्मया श्रुतम् ॥४॥

anye sravanatah srutva lesam sankirtayanti cha
tasmat kinchid vadamy atra vyasasya syan maya srutam [4]

4 Others too, who have heard but a little of the glories of Sri Gita, are engaged in singing them. And so I shall now speak of the glories of Sri Gita as I heard them from Vyasadev:

सर्व्वोपनिषदो गावो दोग्धा गोपालनन्दनः ।
पार्थो वत्सः सुधीर्भोक्ता दुग्धं गीतामृतं महत् ॥५॥

sarvopanisado gavo dogdha gopala-nandanah
partho vatsah sudhir bhokta dugdham gitamrtam mahat [5]

5 All the Upanisads are personified as the cow, Sri Krishna is milker of the cow, Arjuna is the calf, the nectar of the Gita is the milk, and the fortunate devotees are the enjoyers of the milk.

सारथ्यमर्ज्जुनस्यादौ कुर्व्वन्गीतामृतं ददौ ।
लोकत्रयोपकाराय तस्मै कृष्णात्मने नमः ॥६॥

sarathyam arjunasyadau kurvan gitamrtam dadau
loka-trayopakaraya tasmai krsnatmane namah [6]

6 I first offer my obeisances unto Lord Sri Krishna who accepted the position of the chariot driver of Arjuna, just to distribute this nectar of the Gita for the benefit of the three worlds.

संसारसागरं घोरं तर्त्तुमिच्छति यो नरः ।
गीतानावं समासाद्य पारं याति सुखेन सः ॥७॥

samsara-sagaram ghoram tartum ichchhati yo narah
gita-navam samasadya param yati sukhena sah [7]

7 A person desiring to cross over the treacherous ocean of material suffering can do so very easily by taking refuge in the boat of the Bhagavad-gita.

गीताज्ञानं श्रुतं नैव सदैवाभ्यासयोगतः ।
मोक्षमिच्छति मूढात्मा याति बालकहास्यताम् ॥८॥

gita-jnanam srutam naiva sadaivabhyasa-yogatah
moksam ichchhati mudhatma yati balaka-hasyatam [8]

8 A foolish person who desires liberation by constant yoga practice without hearing the wisdom of the Gita, is to be considered childish.

ये शृण्वन्ति पठन्त्येव गीताशास्त्रमहर्निशम् ।
न ते वै मानुषा ज्ञेया देवरूपा न संशयः ॥९॥

ye srnvanti pathanty eva gita-sastram ahar nisam
na te vai manusa jneya deva-rupa na samsayah [9]

9 Persons who day and night hear and sing the Gita are never to be taken as mere human beings. Without doubt, they are as gods in this world.

गीताज्ञानेन सम्बोधं कृष्णः प्राहार्ज्जुनाय वै ।
भक्तितत्त्वं परं तत्र सगुणं वाथ निर्गुणम् ॥१०॥

gita-jnanena sambodham krsnah praharjunaya vai
bhakti-tattvam param tatra sa-gunam vatha nirgunam [10]

10 To enlighten Arjuna with the wisdom of the Gita, Lord Krishnachandra has revealed the supremacy of devotion, either in this world or in the transcendental plane.

सोपानाष्टादशैरेवं भुक्तिमुक्तिसमुच्छ्रितैः ।
क्रमशश्चित्तशुद्धिः स्यात्प्रेमभक्त्यादिकर्म्मसु ॥११॥

sopanastadasair evam bhukti-mukti-samuchchhritaih
kramasas chitta-suddhih syat prema-bhakty adi karmasu [11]

11 Thus, the wisdom of the Gita is a ladder of eighteen chapters, ascending which one rises above sense enjoyment and liberation (bhukti-mukti), and gradually attains purification of the heart and the qualification of loving devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

साधोर्गीताम्भसि स्नानं संसारमलनाशनम् ।
श्रद्धाहीनस्य तत्कार्य्यं हस्तिस्नानं वृथैव तत् ॥१२॥

sadhor gitambhasi snanam samsara-mala-nasanam
sraddha-hinasya tat karyam hasti-snanam vrthaiva tat [12]

12 Bathing in the pure waters of the Gita, the devotees are liberated from the contamination of the mundane world. However, persons lacking faith in the Lord may attempt this, but in vain, like an elephant’s bathing. (The elephant immediately rolls in the dust after bathing).

गीतायाश्च न जानाति पठनं नैव पाठनम् ।
स एव मानुषे लोके मोघकर्म्मकरो भवेत् ॥१३॥

gitayas cha na janati pathanam naiva pathanam
sa eva manuse loke mogha-karma-karo bhavet [13]

13 A person who knows nothing of learning and teaching the Gita fails in the duty of the human being.

तस्माद्गीतां न जानाति नाधमस्तत्परो जनः ।
धिक्तस्य मानुषं देहं विज्ञानं कुलशीलताम् ॥१४॥

tasmad gitam na janati nadhamas tat paro janah
dhik tasya manusam deham vijnanam kula-silatam [14]

14 Therefore, there is none more fallen than he who is ignorant of the teachings of the Gita. Shame on his human birth, his learning, his dignity, and his entire family.

गीतार्थं न विजानाति नाधमस्तत्परो जनः ।
धिक्शरीरं शुभं शीलं विभवन्तद्गृहाश्रमम् ॥१५॥

gitartham na vijanati nadhamas tat paro janah
dhik sariram subham silam vibhavantad grhasramam [15]

15 There is none more fallen than he who is ignorant of the meaning of the Gita. Shame on his bodily beauty, his character, his wealth, and his home.

गीताशास्त्रं न जानाति नाधमस्तत्परो जनः ।
धिक्प्रारब्धं प्रतिष्ठाञ्च पूजां दानं महत्तमम् ॥१६॥

gita-sastram na janati nadhamas tat paro janah
dhik prarabdham pratisthan cha pujam danam mahattamam [16]

16 There is none more fallen than he who is ignorant of the scripture Bhagavad-gita. Shame on his undertakings, his reputation, his worship, his charity, and his honour.

गीताशास्त्रे मतिर्नास्ति सर्व्वं तन्निष्फलं जगुः ।
धिक्तस्य ज्ञानदातारं व्रतं निष्ठां तपो यशः ॥१७॥

gita-sastre matir nasti sarvam tan nisphalam jaguh
dhik tasya jnana-dataram vratam nistham tapo yasah [17]

17 A person who does not care for the Gita scripture is to be known as a failure in all respects. Shame on his teacher, his vows, his faith, his austerity, and his renown.

गीतार्थपठनं नास्ति नाधमस्तत्परो जनः ।
गीतागीतं न यज्ज्ञानं तद्विद्ध्यासुरसम्मतम् ।
तन्मोघं धर्म्मरहितं वेदवेदान्तगर्हितम् ॥१८॥

gitartha-pathanam nasti nadhamas tat paro janah
gita-gitam na yaj jnanam tad viddhy asura-sammatam
tan mogham dharma-rahitam veda-vedanta-garhitam [18]

18 There is none more fallen than he who does not study the purport of the Gita; and that knowledge which is not glorified in the Gita should be known as demoniac, futile, unvirtuous, and rejected by the Vedas and the Upanisads.

तस्माद्धर्म्ममयी गीता सर्व्वज्ञानप्रयोजिका ।
सर्व्वशास्त्रसारभूता विशुद्धा सा विशिष्यते ॥१९॥

tasmad dharma-mayi gita sarva-jnana-prayojika
sarva-sastra-sara-bhuta visuddha sa visisyate [19]

19 Therefore, the holy Gita is universally respected as the compilation of the essence of all scriptures and the source of all wisdom.

योऽधीते विष्णुपर्व्वाहे गीतां श्रीहरिवासरे ।
स्वपन्जाग्रत्चलन्तिष्ठन्शत्रुभिर्न स हीयते ॥२०॥

yo ’dhite visnu-parvahe gitam sri-hari-vasare
svapan jagrat chalan tisthan satrubhir na sa hiyate [20]

20 One who studies the Gita on the holy festival days of the advent of the Supreme Lord, and on the holy fasting days, especially Ekadasi—such a person, whether awake or asleep, moving or still, is never defeated by enemies.

शालग्रामशिलायां वा देवागारे शिवालये ।
तीर्थे नद्यां पठेद्गीतां सौभाग्यं लभते ध्रुवम् ॥२१॥

salagrama-silayam va devagare sivalaye
tirthe nadyam pathed gitam saubhagyam labhate dhruvam [21]

21 One who sings the Gita before the Salagram-sila Deity, or in a Temple of the Supreme Lord, or in a Temple of Lord Siva, at a holy place of pilgrimage, or on the bank of a holy river—certainly such a person attains to all good fortune.

देवकीनन्दनः कृष्णो गीतापाठेन तुष्यति ।
यथा न वेदैर्दानेन यज्ञतीर्थव्रतादिभिः ॥२२॥

devaki-nandanah krsno gita-pathena tusyati
yatha na vedair danena yajna-tirtha-vratadibhih [22]

22 Neither the singing of the Vedas, nor the performance of charity, sacrifice, pilgrimage, or vows, can bring such satisfaction to Krishna, the son of Devaki, as does the singing of the Gita.

गीताधीता च येनापि भक्तिभावेन चेतसा ।
वेदशास्त्रपुराणानि तेनाधीतानि सर्व्वशः ॥२३॥

gitadhita cha yenapi bhakti-bhavena chetasa
veda-sastra-puranani tenadhitani sarvasah [23]

23 The study of the Vedas and Puranas, verily the study of all the scriptures, is fulfilled in all respects by one who studies the Gita with devotion.

योगस्थाने सिद्धपीठे शिलाग्रे सत्सभासु च ।
यज्ञे च विष्णुभक्ताग्रे पठन्सिद्धिं परां लभेत् ॥२४॥

yoga-sthane siddha-pithe silagre sat-sabhasu cha
yajne cha visnu-bhaktagre pathan siddhim param labhet [24]

24 The highest perfection of life is attained by one who sings the Gita at a place of yoga meditation, at a place of worship, before the Salagram-sila, in the association of saintly persons, during a sacrifice, and before a devotee of Visnu.

गीतापाठञ्च श्रवणं यः करोति दिने दिने ।
क्रतवो वाजिमेधाद्याः कृतास्तेन सदक्षिणाः ॥२५॥

gita-pathan cha sravanam yah karoti dine dine
kratavo vajimedhadyah krtas tena sa-daksinah [25]

25 One who daily hears and sings the Gita is to be considered as having accomplished the performance of all sacrifices such as the Asvamedha and others, including the receiving of the sacrificial gifts.

यः शृणोति च गीतार्थं कीर्त्तयत्येव यः परम् ।
श्रावयेच्च परार्थं वै स प्रयाति परं पदम् ॥२६॥

yah srnoti cha gitartham kirtayaty eva yah param
sravayech cha parartham vai sa prayati param padam [26]

26 One who attentively hears and sings the glories of the purport of the Gita, or reiterates it to others, attains to the supreme destination.

गीतायाः पुस्तकं शुद्धं योऽर्पयत्येव सादरात् ।
विधिना भक्तिभावेन तस्य भार्य्या प्रिया भवेत् ॥२७॥

gitayah pustakam suddham yo ’rpayaty eva sadarat
vidhina bhakti-bhavena tasya bharya priya bhavet [27]

27 One who, with respect and devotion, and according to scriptural directives makes a gift of this holy book, the Gita—such a person’s wife will be devoted.

यशः सौभाग्यमारोग्यं लभते नात्र संशयः ।
दयितानां प्रियो भूत्वा परमं सुखमश्नुते ॥२८॥

yasah saubhagyam arogyam labhate natra samsayah
dayitanam priyo bhutva paramam sukham asnute [28]

28 And without a doubt, he shall enjoy fame, fortune, and good health. He shall enjoy the affection of those dear to him, and he shall know the highest happiness.

अभिचारोद्भवं दुःखं वरशापागतञ्च यत् ।
नोपसर्पति तत्रैव यत्र गीतार्च्चनं गृहे ॥२९॥

abhicharodbhavam duhkham vara-sapagatan cha yat
nopasarpati tatraiva yatra gitarchanam grhe [29]

29 The sorrow caused by a terrible curse or black rites can never enter the home where the Gita is worshipped.

तापत्रयोद्भवा पीडा नैव व्याधिर्भवेत्क्वचित् ।
न शापो नैव पापञ्च दुर्गतिर्नरकं न च ॥३०॥

tapa-trayodbhava pida naiva vyadhir bhavet kvachit
na sapo naiva papan cha durgatir narakam na cha [30]

30 In that house there is never suffering of the threefold miseries, nor fear of any illness, curse, sin, misfortune, or hellish existence.

विस्फोटकादयो देहे न बाधन्ते कदाचन ।
लभेत्कृष्णपदे दास्यां भक्तिञ्चाव्यभिचारिणीम् ॥३१॥

visphotakadayo dehe na badhante kadachana
labhet krsna-pade dasyam bhaktin chavyabhicharinim [31]

31 In that house, no one is ever afflicted with infectious diseases, and the residents attain undeviating devotion in service to the lotus feet of Lord Sri Krishna.

जायते सततं सख्यं सर्व्वजीवगणैः सह ।
प्रारब्धं भुञ्जतो वापि गीताभ्यासरतस्य च ॥३२॥

jayate satatam sakhyam sarva-jiva-ganaih saha
prarabdham bhunjato vapi gitabhyasa-ratasya cha [32]

32 A person devoted to singing the Gita acquires a friendly disposition to all living beings, despite the desirable or undesirable reactions of his previous actions.

स मुक्तः स सुखी लोके कर्म्मणा नोपलिप्यते ।
महापापातिपापानि गीताध्यायी करोति चेत् ।
न किञ्चित्स्पृश्यते तस्य नलिनीदलमम्भसा ॥३३॥

sa muktah sa sukhi loke karmana nopalipyate
maha-papati-papani gitadhyayi karoti chet
na kinchit sprsyate tasya nalini-dalam-ambhasa [33]

33 He is liberated, and he is happy. He is never implicated by his actions. Even if perchance that person who studies the Gita commits terrible sin, he is as unaffected as the lotus leaf that remains untouched by even a drop of water.

अनाचारोद्भवं पापमवाच्यादिकृतञ्च यत् ।
अभक्ष्यभक्षजं दोषमस्पृश्यस्पर्शजं तथा ॥३४॥

ज्ञानाज्ञानकृतं नित्यमिन्द्रियैर्जनितञ्च यत् ।
तत्सर्व्वं नाशमायाति गीतापाठेन तत्क्षणात् ॥३५॥

anacharodbhavam papam avachyadi-krtan cha yat
abhaksya-bhaksajam dosam asprsya-sparsajam tatha [34]

jnanajnana-krtam nityam indriyair janitan cha yat
tat sarvam nasam ayati gita-pathena tat-ksanat [35]

34–35 Whether the inauspiciousness of wrong action or malevolent speech, of eating unacceptable food or touching the untouchable, or sin knowingly or unknowingly contracted through the senses in the course of daily activities—all evils are immediately dispelled by singing the Gita with devotion.

सर्व्वत्र प्रतिभोक्ता च प्रतिगृह्य च सर्व्वशः ।
गीतापाठं प्रकुर्व्वाणो न लिप्येत कदाचन ॥३६॥

sarvatra pratibhokta cha pratigrhya cha sarvasah
gita-patham prakurvano na lipyeta kadachana [36]

36 One sincerely devoted to singing the Gita is never implicated despite accepting food in all places or gifts in all kinds of circumstances.

रत्नपूर्णां महीं सर्व्वां प्रतिगृह्याविधानतः ।
गीतापाठेन चैकेन शुद्धस्फटिकवत्सदा ॥३७॥

ratna-purnam mahim sarvam pratigrhyavidhanatah
gita-pathena chaikena suddha-sphatikavat sada [37]

37 One who takes unlawful possession of the entire earth full of jewels—he, too, will be innocent; by singing the Gita but once, his heart will be as clear as crystal.

यस्यान्तःकरणं नित्यं गीतायां रमते सदा ।
स साग्निकः सदा जापी क्रियावान्स च पण्डितः ॥३८॥

yasyantahkaranam nityam gitayam ramate sada
sa sagnikah sada japi kriyavan sa cha panditah [38]

38 A person whose heart is ever joyfully absorbed in the Gita is to be considered fully accomplished in sacrifices, always in prayer, perfect in his actions, and truly learned.

दर्शनीयः स धनवान्स योगी ज्ञानवानपि ।
स एव याज्ञिको याजी सर्व्ववेदार्थदर्शकः ॥३९॥

darsaniyah sa dhanavan sa yogi jnanavan api
sa eva yajniko yaji sarva-vedartha-darsakah [39]

39 All are benefitted simply by seeing him. He is glorious, he is a yogi, and he is wise. He is a knower of sacrifice, he is engaged in sacrifice, and he is a knower of the purport of all the Vedas.

गीतायाः पुस्तकं यत्र नित्यपाठश्च वर्त्तते ।
तत्र सर्व्वाणि तीर्थानि प्रयागादीनि भूतले ॥४०॥

gitayah pustakam yatra nitya-pathas cha vartate
tatra sarvani tirthani prayagadini bhutale [40]

40 All the holy places in this world, such as Prayag and others, are present wherever the holy book of the Gita is present and sung constantly.

निवसन्ति सदा देहे देहशेषेऽपि सर्व्वदा ।
सर्व्वे देवाश्च ऋषयो योगिनो देहरक्षकाः ॥४१॥

nivasanti sada dehe deha-sese ’pi sarvada
sarve devas cha rsayo yogino deha-raksakah [41]

41 For one who constantly studies the Gita, the demigods, sages, and yogis all preside as guardians in the body, even at the time of death.

गोपालो बालकृष्णोऽपि नारदध्रुवपार्षदैः ।
सहायो जायते शीघ्रं यत्र गीता प्रवर्त्तते ॥४२॥

gopalo bala-krsno ’pi narada-dhruva-parsadaih
sahayo jayate sighram yatra gita pravartate [42]

42 Wherever the Gita is sung, the gracious cowherd boy Sri Krishna swiftly appears as a friend, accompanied by His associates Narad, Dhruva, and others.

यत्र गीताविचारश्च पठनं पाठनं तथा ।
मोदते तत्र श्रीकृष्णो भगवान्राधया सह ॥४३॥

yatra gita-vicharas cha pathanam pathanam tatha
modate tatra sri-krsno bhagavan radhaya saha [43]

43 Wherever the Gita scripture is discussed, studied, and taught, the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna comes with great joy, accompanied by Srimati Radharani.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

गीता मे हृदयं पार्थ गीता मे सारमुत्तमम् ।
गीता मे ज्ञानमत्युग्रं गीता मे ज्ञानमव्ययम् ॥४४॥

sri-bhagavan uvacha

gita me hrdayam partha gita me saram uttamam
gita me jnanam aty ugram gita me jnanam avyayam [44]

44 The Supreme Lord said: O Partha, the Gita is My heart, the Gita is My supreme essence, and the Gita is the most powerful, imperishable knowledge of Me.

गीता मे चोत्तमं स्थानं गीता मे परमं पदम् ।
गीता मे परमं गुह्यं गीता मे परमो गुरुः ॥४५॥

gita me chottamam sthanam gita me paramam padam
gita me paramam guhyam gita me paramo guruh [45]

45 The Gita is My supreme place, the Gita is My supreme plane, the Gita is My most hidden treasure, the Gita is My supreme teacher.

गीताश्रयेऽहं तिष्ठामि गीता मे परमं गृहम् ।
गीताज्ञानं समाश्रित्य त्रिलोकीं पालयाम्यहम् ॥४६॥

gitasraye ’ham tisthami gita me paramam grham
gita-jnanam samasritya trilokim palayamy aham [46]

46 I am present within the Gita, and the Gita is My supreme abode. I maintain the three worlds by the eternal wisdom of the Gita.

गीता मे परमा विद्या ब्रह्मरूपा न संशयः ।
अर्धमात्राहरा नित्यमनिर्व्वाच्यपदात्मिका ॥४७॥

gita me parama-vidya brahma-rupa na samsayah
ardha-matra-hara nityam anirvachya-padatmika [47]

47 The Gita is My transcendental wisdom, My own self, conveyed by every letter and comprised of eternally ineffable verses.

गीतानामानि वक्ष्यामि गुह्यानि शृणु पाण्डव ।
कीर्त्तनात्सर्व्वपापानि विलयं यान्ति तत्क्षणात् ॥४८॥

gita-namani vaksyami guhyani srnu pandava
kirtanat sarva-papani vilayam yanti tat-ksanat [48]

48 O Pandava, I shall tell you the holy names of the Gita. By singing these names, one is immediately absolved of all sins. Hear now those confidential names from Me:

गङ्गा गीता च सावित्री सीता सत्या पतिव्रता ।
ब्रह्मावलिर्ब्रह्मविद्या त्रिसन्ध्या मुक्तगेहिनी ॥४९॥

अर्धमात्रा चिदानन्दा भवघ्नी भ्रान्तिनाशिनी ।
वेदत्रयी परानन्दा तत्त्वार्थज्ञानमञ्जरी ॥५०॥

ganga gita cha savitri sita satya pativrata
brahmavalir brahma-vidya tri-sandhya mukta-gehini [49]

ardha-matra chidananda bhava-ghni bhranti-nasini
veda-trayi parananda tattvartha-jnana-manjari [50]

49–50 Ganga, Gita, Savitri, Sita, Satya, Pativrata, Brahmavali, Brahmavidya, Trisandhya, Mukta-gehini, Ardhamatra, Chidananda, Bhavaghni, Bhranti-nasini, Vedatrayi, Parananda, and Tattvartha-jnana-manjari.

इत्येतानि जपेन्नित्यं नरो निश्चलमानसः ।
ज्ञानसिद्धिं लभेन्नित्यं तथान्ते परमं पदम् ॥५१॥

ity etani japen nityam naro nischala-manasah
jnana-siddhim labhen nityam tathante paramam padam [51]

51 One who, with unflickering mind, regularly chants these confidential holy names, achieves perfection in divine knowledge, and finally reaches the supreme destination.

पाठेऽसमर्थः सम्पूर्णे तदर्धं पाठमाचरेत् ।
तदा गोदानजं पुण्यं लभते नात्र संशयः ॥५२॥

pathe ’samarthah sampurne tad ardham patham acharet
tada go-dana-jam punyam labhate natra samsayah [52]

52 If one is unable to sing the entire Gita, half of it should be sung. Then, without doubt, the piety gained by making a gift of cows will be attained.

त्रिभागं पठमानस्तु सोमयागफलं लभेत् ।
षडंशं जपमानस्तु गङ्गास्नानफलं लभेत् ॥५३॥

tri-bhagam pathamanas tu soma-yaga-phalam labhet
sad-amsam japamanas tu ganga-snana-phalam labhet [53]

53 One will achieve the fruit of the soma sacrifice by singing one third of the Gita, and the result of bathing in the Ganges is achieved by chanting a sixth of it.

तथाध्यायद्वयं नित्यं पठमानो निरन्तरम् ।
इन्द्रलोकमवाप्नोति कल्पमेकं वसेद्ध्रुवम् ॥५४॥

tathadhyaya-dvayam nityam pathamano nirantaram
indra-lokam avapnoti kalpam ekam vased dhruvam [54]

54 One who unfailingly sings two of its chapters everyday will surely attain residence in the abode of Lord Indra for one millenium.

एकमध्यायकं नित्यं पठते भक्तिसंयुतः ।
रुद्रलोकमवाप्नोति गणो भूत्वा वसेच्चिरम् ॥५५॥

ekam adhyayakam nityam pathate bhakti-samyutah
rudra-lokam avapnoti gano bhutva vasech chiram [55]

55 One who sings with devotion one chapter daily will be recognised as an associate of Lord Siva, and he will attain residence in the abode of Lord Siva for immeasurable time.

अध्यायार्धञ्च पादं वा नित्यं यः पठते जनः ।
प्राप्नोति रविलोकं स मन्वन्तरसमाः शतम् ॥५६॥

adhyayardhan cha padam va nityam yah pathate janah
prapnoti ravi-lokam sa manvantara-samah satam [56]

56 A person who daily sings one half or only one quarter of a chapter will achieve residence in the abode of the sun for the time of one hundred Manus.

गीतायाः श्लोकदशकं सप्त पञ्च चतुष्टयम् ।
त्रिद्व्येकमर्धमथवा श्लोकानां यः पठेन्नरः ।
चन्द्रलोकमवाप्नोति वर्षाणामयुतं तथा ॥५७॥

gitayah sloka-dasakam sapta pancha chatustayam
tri-dvy-ekam-ardham athava slokanam yah pathen narah
chandra-lokam avapnoti varsanam ayutam tatha [57]

57 A person who faithfully sings ten, seven, five, four, three, two verses, one, or only half a verse of the Gita, will attain residence on the moon for ten thousand years.

गीतार्धमेकपादञ्च श्लोकमध्यायमेव च ।
स्मरंस्त्यक्त्वा जनो देहं प्रयाति परमं पदम् ॥५८॥

gitardham eka padan cha slokam adhyayam eva cha
smarams tyaktva jano deham prayati paramam padam [58]

58 One who, at the time of leaving the body, remembers half the Gita, a quarter of the Gita, one chapter or only one verse of the Gita—he reaches the supreme destination.

गीतार्थमपि पाठं वा शृणुयादन्तकालतः ।
महापातकयुक्तोऽपि मुक्तिभागी भवेज्जनः ॥५९॥

gitartham api patham va srnuyad anta-kalatah
maha-pataka-yukto ’pi mukti-bhagi bhavej janah [59]

59 By singing or hearing the purport of the Gita at the time of death even a greatly sinful person qualifies for liberation.

गीतापुस्तकसंयुक्तः प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा प्रयाति यः ।
स वैकुण्ठमवाप्नोति विष्णुना सह मोदते ॥६०॥

gita-pustaka-samyuktah pranams tyaktva prayati yah
sa vaikuntham avapnoti visnuna saha modate [60]

60 One who is touching the holy book of the Gita at the time of leaving the body will attain to Vaikuntha and joyfully reside in the association of the Supreme Lord Visnu.

गीताध्यायसमायुक्तो मृतो मानुषतां व्रजेत् ।
गीताभ्यासं पुनः कृत्वा लभते मुक्तिमुत्तमाम् ॥६१॥

gitadhyaya-samayukto mrto manusatam vrajet
gitabhyasam punah krtva labhate muktim uttamam [61]

61 One whose concentration is intent on just one chapter of the Gita will attain a human birth after death. Then, again studying the Gita, he achieves the ultimate liberation.

गीतेत्युच्चारसंयुक्तो म्रियमाणो गतिं लभेत् ॥६२॥

gitety-uchchara-samyukto mriyamano gatim labhet [62]

62 One who utters the word ‘Gita’ at the time of death attains his life’s fulfillment.

यद्यत्कर्म्म च सर्व्वत्र गीतापाठप्रकीर्त्तिमत् ।
तत्तत्कर्म्म च निर्द्दोसं भूत्वा पूर्णत्वमाप्नुयात् ॥६३॥

yad yat karma cha sarvatra gita-patha-prakirtimat
tat tat karma cha nirdosam bhutva purnatvam apnuyat [63]

63 All actions performed along with the singing of the Gita become purified and successful.

पितॄनुद्दिश्य यः श्राद्धे गीतापाठं करोति हि ।
सन्तुष्टाः पितरस्तस्य निरयाद्यान्ति स्वर्गतिम् ॥६४॥

pitrn-uddisya yah sraddhe gita-patham karoti hi
santustah pitaras tasya nirayad yanti svargatim [64]

64 A person who sings the Gita during the performance of obsequial ceremonies satisfies his forefathers, who, being liberated from a hellish existence, ascend to heaven.

गीतापाठेन सन्तुष्टाः पितरः श्राद्धतर्पिताः ।
पितृलोकं प्रयान्त्येव पुत्राशीर्व्वादतत्पराः ॥६५॥

gita-pathena santustah pitarah sraddha-tarpitah
pitr-lokam prayanty eva putrasirvada tat parah [65]

65 Satisfied by the offerings accompanied by the singing of the Gita, the ancestors offer their descendant their blessings and ascend to the heavenly plane known as Pitrloka.

गीतापुस्तकदानञ्च धेनुपुच्छसमन्वितम् ।
कृत्वा च तद्दिने सम्यक्कृतार्थो जायते जनः ॥६६॥

gita-pustaka-danan cha dhenu-puchchha-samanvitam
krtva cha tad dine samyak krtartho jayate janah [66]

66 A person who makes a gift of a book of the Gita with a yak-tail whisk achieves success in all his endeavours that day.

पुस्तकं हेमसंयुक्तं गीतायाः प्रकरोति यः ।
दत्त्वा विप्राय विदुषे जायते न पुनर्भवम् ॥६७॥

pustakam hema-samyuktam gitayah prakaroti yah
dattva vipraya viduse jayate na punar bhavam [67]

67 One who makes a gift of a book of the Gita along with a presentation of gold to a learned brahman, never takes birth in the material world again.

शतपुस्तकदानञ्च गीतायाः प्रकरोति यः ।
स याति ब्रह्मसदनं पुनरावृत्तिदुर्लभम् ॥६८॥

sata-pustaka-danan cha gitayah prakaroti yah
sa yati brahma-sadanam punar-avrtti-durlabham [68]

68 One who makes a gift of one hundred copies of the Gita attains to the plane of the Absolute wherefrom rebirth practically never occurs.

गीतादानप्रभावेन सप्तकल्पमिताः समाः ।
विष्णुलोकमवाप्यन्ते विष्णुना सह मोदते ॥६९॥

gita-dana-prabhavena sapta-kalpa-mitah samah
visnu-lokam avapyante visnuna saha modate [69]

69 By the potency of making a gift of the Gita, one attains residence in the abode of Lord Visnu for seven millenniums and joyfully associates with the Supreme Lord Visnu.

सम्यक्श्रुत्वा च गीतार्थं पुस्तकं यः प्रदापयेत् ।
तस्मै प्रीतः श्रीभगवान्ददाति मानसेप्सितम् ॥७०॥

samyak srutva cha gitartham pustakam yah pradapayet
tasmai pritah sri-bhagavan dadati manasepsitam [70]

70 One who attentively hears the purport of the Gita and makes a gift of that book to a brahman—he brings satisfaction to the Supreme Lord, who blesses him with the fulfillment of all his aspirations.

न शृणोति न पठति गीताममृतरूपिणीम् ।
हस्तात्त्यक्त्वामृतं प्राप्तं स नरो विषमश्नुते ॥७१॥

na srnoti na pathati gitam-amrta-rupinim
hastat tyaktvamrtam praptam sa naro visam asnute [71]

71 A person who neither sings nor hears the nectarean Gita is like one who has nectar in his hand yet leaves it aside to drink poison.

जनः संसारदुःखार्त्तो गीताज्ञानं समालभेत् ।
पीत्वा गीतामृतं लोके लब्ध्वा भक्तिं सुखी भवेत् ॥७२॥

janah samsara-duhkharto gita-jnanam samalabhet
pitva gitamrtam loke labdhva bhaktim sukhi bhavet [72]

72 When persons suffering in this world of death discover the wisdom of the Gita and drink the nectar of the Gita, they take refuge in devotion to the Supreme Lord and become truly happy.

गीतामाश्रित्य बहवो भूभुजो जनकादयः ।
निर्धूतकल्मषा लोके गतास्ते परमं पदम् ॥७३॥

gitam asritya bahavo bhu-bhujo janakadayah
nirdhuta-kalmasa loke gatas te paramam padam [73]

73 Many saintly kings such as King Janaka and others took shelter in the wisdom of the Gita, and becoming purified of all sins, achieved the supreme destination.

गीतासु न विशेषोऽस्ति जनेषूच्चावचेषु च ।
ज्ञानेष्वेव समग्रेषु समा ब्रह्मस्वरूपिणी ॥७४॥

gitasu na viseso ’sti janesuchchavachesu cha
jnanesv eva samagresu sama brahma-svarupini [74]

74 Neither high nor low birth qualifies or disqualifies a faithful person in the singing of the Gita, since of all kinds of knowledge, the Gita is the embodiment of Brahma and equal to all.

योऽभिमानेन गर्व्वेण गीतानिन्दां करोति च ।
स याति नरकं घोरं यावदाहूतसम्प्लवम् ॥७५॥

yo ’bhimanena garvena gita-nindam karoti cha
sa yati narakam ghoram yavad ahuta-samplavam [75]

75 A person who out of egoism and pride blasphemes the Gita will have to reside in terrible hell up to the time of the universal annihilation.

अहंकारेण मूढात्मा गीतार्थं नैव मन्यते ।
कुम्भीपाकेषु पच्येत यावत्कल्पक्षयो भवेत् ॥७६॥

ahankarena mudhatma gitartham naiva manyate
kumbhi-pakesu pachyeta yavat kalpa-ksayo bhavet [76]

76 That foolish person who, deluded by egoism, disregards the purport of the Gita must remain boiling in oil in the hell known as Kumbhipaka until the annihilation at the end of the millenium.

गीतार्थं वाच्यमानं यो न शृणोति समासतः ।
स शूकरभवां योनिमनेकामधिगच्छति ॥७७॥

gitartham vachyamanam yo na srnoti samasatah
sa sukara-bhavam yonim anekam adhigachchhati [77]

77 One who makes much of speaking about the purport of the Gita yet never properly hears about it, repeatedly takes birth as a hog.

चौर्य्यं कृत्वा च गीतायां पुस्तकं यः समानयेत् ।
न तस्य सफलं किञ्चित्पठनञ्च वृथा भवेत् ॥७८॥

chauryam krtva cha gitayam pustakam yah samanayet
na tasya saphalam kinchit pathanan cha vrtha bhavet [78]

78 A person who obtains the book of Gita by theft is unsuccessful in all his endeavours, and even his attempt to sing the Gita will be in vain.

यः श्रुत्वा नैव गीताञ्च मोदते परमार्थतः ।
नैव तस्य फलं लोके प्रमत्तस्य यथा श्रमः ॥७९॥

yah srutva naiva gitan cha modate paramarthatah
naiva tasya phalam loke pramattasya yatha sramah [79]

79 One who, hearing the Gita, does not experience spiritual joy—his life is fruitless, like the labour of one deluded.

गीतां श्रुत्वा हिरण्यञ्च भोज्यं पट्टाम्बरं तथा ।
निवेदयेत्प्रदानार्थं प्रीतये परमात्मनः ॥८०॥

gitam srutva hiranyan cha bhojyam pattambaram tatha
nivedayet pradanartham pritaye paramatmanah [80]

80 To please the Supreme Lord, after hearing the Gita one should offer gold, food, and silken cloth to a Vaisnava brahman.

वाचकं पूजयेद्भक्त्या द्रव्यवस्त्राद्युपस्करैः ।
अनेकैर्बहुधा प्रीत्या तुष्यतां भगवान्हरिः ॥८१॥

vachakam pujayed bhaktya dravya-vastrady upaskaraih
anekair bahudha pritya tusyatam bhagavan harih [81]

81 To satisfy the Supreme Lord Hari, one must worship the speaker of the Gita with devotion, offering him cloth and many worshipful presentations.

सूत उवाच ।

माहात्म्यमेतद्गीतायाः कृष्णप्रोक्तं पुरातनम् ।
गीतान्ते पठते यस्तु यथोक्तफलभाग्भवेत् ॥८२॥

suta uvacha

mahatmyam etad gitayah krsna-proktam puratanam
gitante pathate yas tu yathokta-phala-bhag bhavet [82]

82 Suta Goswami said: These eternal glories of the Gita are sung by the Supreme Lord, Sri Krishna Himself. One who sings the glories of the Gita on completion of singing the Gita can partake of the fruits of the Gita as mentioned herein.

गीतायाः पठनं कृत्वा माहात्म्यं नैव यः पठेत् ।
वृथा पाठफलं तस्य श्रम एव उदाहृतः ॥८३॥

gitayah pathanam krtva mahatmyam naiva yah pathet
vrtha patha-phalam tasya srama eva udahrtah [83]

83 The attempt to sing the Gita is but fruitless labour for a person who neglects to conclude with singing the glories of the Gita.

एतन्माहात्म्यसंयुक्तं गीतापाठं करोति यः ।
श्रद्धया यः शृणोत्येव परमां गतिमाप्नुयात् ॥८४॥

etan mahatmya-samyuktam gita-patham karoti yah
sraddhaya yah srnoty eva paramam gatim apnuyat [84]

84 One who with heart’s faith hears or sings the Gita, complete with the glories of the Gita, reaches the supreme destination.

श्रुत्वा गीतामर्थयुक्तां माहात्म्यं यः शृणोति च ।
तस्य पुण्यफलं लोके भवेत्सर्व्वसुखावहम् ॥८५॥

srutva gitam artha-yuktam mahatmyam yah srnoti cha
tasya punya-phalam loke bhavet sarva-sukhavaham [85]

85 One who with faith hears this meaningful Gita—song divine, and hears in conclusion the glories of the Gita, shall reap the fruits of virtue in this world, and his life will be filled with joy.

इति श्रीवैष्णवीयतन्त्रसारे श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतामाहात्म्यं सम्पूर्णम्।
सम्पूर्णोऽयं ग्रन्थः। श्री कृष्णार्पणमस्तु।

iti sri-vaisnaviya-tantra-sare srimad-bhagavad-
gita-mahatmyam sampurnam
sampurno ’yam granthah
sri krsnarpanam astu

Thus is completed The Glories of Sri Gita
from the Sri-Vaisnaviya-tantra-sara.
Thus is completed Srimad Bhagavad-gita
The Hidden Treasure of the Sweet Absolute.
May Sri Krishna mercifully accept this offering.

Glossary

(Sanskrit terms and abbreviations used in this edition)

abhidheya: the means to the end.

acharya: learned, vernerable preceptor who teaches by example.

achintya-bhedabheda-tattva: the principle of inconceivable oneness and difference.

Adhoksaja: a name of the Supreme Lord; that witch is above sense perception.

adhyatmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika: pertaining to the psycho-physiological or to the self; pertaining to other beings or elements; pertaining to natural phenomea or the functions of the demigods.

Aditi: mother of the Adityas and other demigods, daughter of Daksa and wife of Kasyapa, and mother of Lord Visnu in His dwarf incarnation of Vamandev.

Aditya(s): Vamandev; the solar gods.

Agni: the fire-god.

ananya-bhakti: exclusive devotion.

Aryan: an inhabitant of Aryavarta; nobleman/person.

astanga-yoga: meditational yoga performed in eight steps: yama, niyama, asan, pranayam, pratyahara, dharana, dhyan, and samadhi, viz., self-control, mental restraint, posture, breath-control, restraint of the senses, steady mental control, meditation, and meditational trance centered on Lord Visnu. Generally impractical in the present age.

Asvini Kumaras: the twin sons of Asvini, the wife of the sun-god.

Bhagavan: the personal and highest aspect of the Absolute.

bhajan: internal devotion; service.

bhakti-yoga: devotional connection with the Supreme Lord.

Bhisma: son of Santanu to Ganga. A lifelong celibate, he became the, guardian of both the Kauravas and the Pandavas. In the battle of Kuruksetra, he was the great genereal who headed the army of the Kauravas.

Bhisma-parva: the sixth book of the epic Mahabharata.

Brahma (Lord): demigod-creator of the universe and the presiding deity of the mode of passion. In another capacity, he takes the position of an Acharya.

brahmachari: celibate spiritual student.

Brahmaloka: (i) the abode of Lord Brahma, Satyaloka, (ii) Brahma, above the mundane plane, yet below the plane wherein devotional service to the Lord begins, i.e., Vaikuntha.

Brahma: the Absolute; the impersonal aspect of the Absolute; the Supreme Spirit; the spiritual effulgence of the Lord, spirit.

brahman: a knower of Brahma; person of the priestly class.

buddhi-yoga: theistic wisdom.

Chaitanya-charitamrta (Sri): the pastimes and teachings os Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, by Srila Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami.

Chandra: the demigod of the moon; the moon.

Chandrayan: a type of penance performed by eating only fifteen mouthfuls of food on the full-moon day, reducing one’s food by a day, and then increasing by one mouthful daily during the moon’s waxing up to the next full moon.

chatur-yuga: see yuga.

dasya (rasa): divine relationship of servitude to the Supreme Lord.

demigods, gods: celestial beings.

Devaki: Krishna’s mother in Mathura.

dham: abode.

dharma: nature; religion; duty.

Dhrstadyumna: a son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi; he acted as commander-in-chief of the Pandavas’ forces.

Dhrtarastra, King: the brother of Pandu. He was disqualified from occupying the throne due to his blindness and tried to establish his eldest son Duryodhan as the emperor. Father of one hundred sons (Kauravas).

dhyan: meditation.

Draupadi: the daughter of Drupada, the wife of the Pandavas.

Dronacharya, Drona: the son of the sage Bharadvaja and the millitary preceptor of both the Kauravas and the Pandavas.

Drupada: a king of the country known as Panchalas, the father of Dhrstadyumna and Draupadi.

Duryodhan: the eldest son of Dhrtarastra.

Ekadasi: fasting day on the eleventh day of the lunar forthnight.

Gandhari: the wife of Dhrtarastra.

Gandharva: celestial singer or musician.

Gaudiya sampradaya: the divine succession following Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Gauranga (Sri): the golden Lord, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

gayatri: sacred mantra chanted by brahmans; Vedik metre.

goswami: sense-controlled ascetic.

gopi(s): cowherd girl; wife of a cowherd; the most intimate associates beloved of Lord Krishna in madhura-rasa, in the pastimes of Vrndavan.

Govinda: Lord Krishna: the object of the Vedas and the Lord of the cows, the earth, the Vedas, and the senses; cowherd.

grhastha: married person.

guhya-guhyatara-guhyatama: hidden, more hidden, and most hidden.

guna: quality, mode (of material nature); rope.

Guru, Gurudev: spiritual master.

Hanuman: the most devoted and loyal servitor of Lord Ramachandra; he is the ideal of dasya-rasa.

Hiranyagarbha: Lord Brahma.

hladini-sakti: the divine ecstasy potency of the Lord, Srimati Radharani.

Iksvaku: a king of the solar dynasty, the son of Vaivasvata Manu.

Indra: the demigod who is king of the heavenly plane.

Jagannatha Puri: the holy city in Odisha, India, where Lord Krishna is worshiped as Lord Jagannath, the Lord of the universe.

Janaka (King): the father of Sita Devi, the consort of Lord Ramachandra.

Jiva Goswami (Srila): one of the six goswamis, apostoles of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In his writings, he illustrated the supremacy of the Krishna conception on the authority of the revealed scriptures.

jiva, jivatma: soul, self.

jnan: knowledge; knowledge of Brahma; knowledge of the supremacy of the Supreme Lord; knowledge of one’s divine relationship (sambandha) with the Lord; knowledge of pure devotion for the Lord.

jnana-sunya-bhakti: noncalculative devotion or attraction to the Lord and His service by natural affinity.

jnana-yoga: the way of knowledge.

jnani: learned person.

Kali-yuga: the age of quarel, the present age. The present Kali-yuga began on the 28th chatur-yuga of Vaivasvata Manu (about 5,000 years ago). The battle of Kuruksetra was fought at this time.

Karanarnavasayi Visnu: Karanodakasayi Visnu, Mahavisnu. The first four-armed plenary expansion of Lord Krishna, from whose pores the innumerable universes emanate.

karma: action; wordly action; good or bad actions; fruitive action; moral duty.

Karma-kanda: the department of the Vedas externally advocating ceremonial and sacrificial rites which reward one with piety and attainment of haven.

karma-yoga: the path of dutifulness, the way of action.

karmi: fruitive worker; fruitive religionist; active person.

Karna: the son of Kunti by the sun-god. He became the most intimate friend of Duryodhan.

Kaunteya: Arjuna, the son of Kunti.

Kauravas: the sons of Dhrtarastra; descendants of Kuru.

kevala-bhakti: ananya-bhakti.

kirtan: singing or narrating the glories of the Lord.

krsna: the all-attractive Supreme Lord, the Lord of love; the male aspect of the Godhead.

krsna-katha: transcendental narrations about Krishna.

ksatriya: warrior, a person of the warrior class.

ksetra: field; the field of action as the habitat of the conditioned soul.

ksetrajna: the knower of the field; the soul; the Supersoul.

Kubera: the god of riches, the presiding deity of the northern quarter and half.brother of Ravana, he is the king of the Yaksas and Kinnaras and a friend of Rudra. He resides in Kailas.

Kunti: Prtha, the first wife of Pandu, and mother of Yudhisthir by the god Yama, Bhima by the god Vayu, and Arjuna by the god Indra. Mother of Karna by the god Surya.

Kuru(s): a place at the location of modern Delhi; name of the kings of this land.

Kuruksetra: a holy plain near Delhi, the scene of the great war between the Kauravas and the Pandavas.

lila: divine pastimes.

loka: plane of life; world; people.

madhura (rasa): the highest of all divine relationships with the Lord, the relationship of consorthood.

Madhusudan: Krishna, the slayer of the demon Madhu.

Mahabharata: the great scripture which describes the saga of the history of the Kauravas and Pandavas, composed by Srila Vyasadev in eighteen parvas or books.

mantra: a sacred incantation which delivers one through meditation upon it.

Manus: the fourteen progenitors of mankind who appear successively within one day of Lord Brahma. The present Manu is Vaivasvata Manu.

Mayapur: the holy land in the centre of Nabadwip, West Bengal, place of the advent of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Nanda Maharaj: Krishna’s father in Vrndavana-lila.

Narayan: Visnu, Krishna’s four-armed plenary expansion.

Navadvipa, Nabadwip (coll.), (Dhama, Dham [coll.]): the holy abode of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, manifest in this world in West Bengal.

Nimai: a name of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, due to His advent under the Nimba tree.

niskam: desireless.

niskam karma-yoga: the yoga or path of selfless action or duty.

Om, Omkara: the sacred monosyllable, sound representation of the Absolute Truth.

pancha-mahayajna: five types of daily sacrifices preformed by brahmans as mentioned in the scripture Manu-samhita: (i) Brahma-yajna: study of the Vedas; (ii) Ptr-yajna: offering obsequial oblations to one’s ancestors; (iii) Deva-yajna: offering clarified butter to the gods through the Vedic fire sacrifice; (iv) Bhuta-yajna: offering food to other beings, and (v) Nr-yajna: honouring guests.

pancha-suna: fivefold sin inadvertantly committed in a household by killing living beings in the course of (i) cooking; (ii) grinding (spices, etc.); (iii) sweeping; (iv) husking grain, and (v) washing.

Pandavas: the five sons of Pandu: Yudhisthir, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakul, and Sahadev.

Parabrahma: the Supreme Brahma; the Supreme Lord.

Paramatma, Paramatma: The Supersoul, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the aspect of the Supreme Lord present within the hearts of all living beings.

Parasuram: the incarnation of the Lord who admonished the ksatriya race with his axe.

Patanjala (-yoga): the yoga system taught by Patanjali.

prana: air of the body, ten kinds: prana—outgoing; apana—descending; vyana—contracting and expanding (respirational); samana—digestive; udana—rising; naga—belching; kurma—opening of the eyes, awakening; krkara—sneezing; devadatta—yawning; and dhananjaya—always pervading the body, wether alive or dead (Sri Sridhar Swamipad).

prayojan: aim, objective.

prema, krsna-prema: divine love for Krishna.

prema-bhakti: devotional service in divine love.

Prtha: Kunti.

Radharani (Srimati): The female aspect of the Godhead.

raga-marg: the path of divine love.

raja-guna: the material mode of passion.

rasa: divine ecstasy; divine relationship with the Lord, the five primary relationships of tranquillity, servitude, friendship, parenthood, and consorthood.

Rasa-lila: the divine dance of love, conducted by Lord Krishna and the gopis in Vrndavan.

rsi: seer, sage.

Rupa Goswami (Srila): the eternal associate of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, recognised in the Gaudiya sampradaya as the foremost authotity of the teachings of Sri Chaitanya.

Sachi Devi (Srimati): the mother of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

sadhana: religious or spiritual practice.

sadhu-sanga: association of saints or devotees of the Lord.

sakhya (rasa): divine relationship of friendship with the Lord.

sambandha: relationship.

Sanjaya: the charioteer of Dhrtarastra.

sankhya: knowledge of the soul; the Vedanta scriptures.

sankirtan: congregational chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord.

sannyas: renunciation; the renounced order.

sannyasi: a person of the renounced order.

santa (rasa): divine relationship of tranquillity.

sattva-guna: the mode of goodness, the chief of the three modes of material nature.

Satyaloka: the abode of Lord Brahma.

SB: Srimad Bhagavatam.

Siva (Lord): the demigod of the mode of ignorance and of universal annihilation.

smaranam: devotional remembrance of the Lord.

smrti: that which is remembered; that which is authored; book of civil or religious law such as the Manu-smrti or Manu-samhita.

sraddha: faith in devotion.

sravanam: devotional practice of hearing the glories of the Lord.

Srimad Bhagavatam (Mahapurana): one of the eighteen Puranas, a holy scripture exclusively on the subject of Lord Krishna, Srila Vyasadev’s own commentary on Vedanta.

sruti: that which is heard or known by revelation; the Vedas.

sudra: labourer.

Supersoul: see Paramatma.

Surya: the demigod of the sun, the sun-god, Vivasvan; the sun.

Syamasundar: Lord Krishna of beautiful, charming humanlike feature, whose body is of a blackish hue like a soft raincloud.

tama-guna: the material mode of ignorance.

Upanisads: the conclusions of the Vedas, giving knowledge of the Supreme Spirit; Vedanta.

Vaikuntha: plane of the spiritual world (above the heavenly planes, and above Viraja and Brahmaloka). In Vaikuntha, the Lord is worshipped in His Narayan or Visnu expansions. Above Vaikuntha is Goloka.

Vaisnava: a devotee of the Supreme Lord, Visnu.

vaisya: farmer, merchant.

Vaitarani: river of hell, river of death.

vanaprastha: the retired order of life.

varnasram, daiva-varnasram: the God-centered socio-religious system consisting of four social orders or varnas (brahman, ksatriya, vaisya, and sudra) and four religious orders or asrams (brahmacharya, grhastha, vanaprastha, and sannyas). When the system is adulterated by atheistic tendencies it is known as asura-varnasram.

Varuna: the demigod of the ocean and the Western direction.

Vasudev: the father of Lord Krishna when He appears in Mathura.

Vasudev: Krishna, the son of Vasudev.

vatsalya (rasa): divine perenthood of the Lord.

Veda: (i) knowledge; (ii) the holy scriptures Rg-, Yajur-, Sama-, and Atharva Vedas.

Vedanta: the conclusion of the Vedas; an Upanisad.

Vedanta-sutra: Brahma-sutra, the aphorisms of Vedanta philosophy by Srila Vyasadev.

vijnan: science; relalised knowledge; spiritual knowledge.

Viraja (River): the passive plane, above the material plane but below Brahma.

Visnu: the all-pervading Supreme Lord: (i) the four-armed plenary expansions of Lord Krishna who preside over each of the innumerable Vaikuntha planes situated in the spiritual sky above the impersonal Brahma; (ii) Karanarnavasayi Visnu or Mahavisnu; (iii) Garbhodakasayi Visnu, who expands from Mahavisnu and enters into every universe; (iv) Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who expands from Garbhodakasayi Visnu and enters into the hearts of all living beings as the Supersoul, and who maintains the universe by the mode of goodness.

Vraja, Vrndavan (Dham): the Supreme Abode of Lord Sri Krishna. The highest abode in the spiritual realm, Goloka Vrndavan, which is situated above Vaikuntha; in this world it is manifest as (Gokula) Vrndavan in Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh, North India (coll. Vrindaban.)

Vyasadev: Vedavyas; the great eternal sage empowered by the Supreme Lord to compile the Vedas and reveal the Puranas, Mahabharata, Vedanta-sutra, Srimad Bhagavatam, etc.

vibhuti: power; expansion; opulences.

Yasoda: Lord Krishna’s mother in Vrndavan-lila.

yoga: (i) yoking, uniting, connecting; (ii) path, way, course, means, mode.

Yudhisthir: the eldest of the Pandavas and rightful heir to the throne of Hastinapur; he was crowned emperor after the defeat of the Kauravas in the battle of Kuruksetra.

yuga: an age of the world. The four ages are Krta or Satya, Treta, Dvapar, and Kali, the duration of each being 1,728,000, 1,296,000, 864,000, and 432,000 years respectively. They are also known as the Golden, Silver, Copper, and Iron Ages. With each successive age, there is a gradual decline of moral and religious qualities. The four ages together comprise one chatur-yuga.

yukta-vairagya: detachment from the mundane, attained by the devotee who offers everything in the service of the Lord.

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